Robust Resilience and Substantial Interest: A Survey of Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement among University Students in the UK and Ireland
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{"title"=>"Robust resilience and substantial interest: A survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among university students in the UK and Ireland", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ilina", "last_name"=>"Singh", "scopus_author_id"=>"16246029200"}, {"first_name"=>"Imre", "last_name"=>"Bard", "scopus_author_id"=>"54934477800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan", "last_name"=>"Jackson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404117113"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25356917", "sgr"=>"84910092855", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84910092855", "pui"=>"600319870", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0105969", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"0df84b8a-f0ef-3695-b0ae-10591bfc83bf", "abstract"=>"Use of 'smart drugs' among UK students is described in frequent media reports as a rapidly increasing phenomenon. This article reports findings from the first large-scale survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) among students in the UK and Ireland. Conducted from February to September 2012, a survey of a convenience sample of 877 students measured PCE prevalence, attitudes, sources, purposes and ethics. Descriptive and logistic regression statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Lifetime prevalence of PCE using modafinil, methylphenidate or Adderall was under 10%, while past regular and current PCE users of these substances made up between 0.3%-4% of the survey population. A substantial majority of students was unaware of and/or uninterested in PCE; however about one third of students were interested in PCE. PCE users were more likely to be male, British and older students; predictors of PCE use included awareness of other students using PCEs, ADHD symptomatology, ethical concerns, and alcohol and cannabis use. The survey addresses the need for better evidence about PCE prevalence and practices among university students in the UK. We recommend PCE-related strategies for universities based on the survey findings.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/robust-resilience-substantial-interest-survey-pharmacological-cognitive-enhancement-among-university", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>29, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>29, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Psychology"=>16, "Social Sciences"=>11, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>29}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>16}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771964"], "description"=>"<p>What is a smart drug? (<i>n</i> = 877).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223021, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_What_is_a_smart_drug_n_877_/1223021", "title"=>"What is a smart drug? (<i>n</i> = 877).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771963"], "description"=>"<p>Participant characteristics (<i>n</i> = 877).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223020, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participant_characteristics_n_877_/1223020", "title"=>"Participant characteristics (<i>n</i> = 877).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771977"], "description"=>"<p>+ Outcome variable has four mutually exclusive categories: unaware, uninterested, have considered, and have used (including currently use) each drug.</p>∧∧<p> Parameter estimates are odd-ratios, i.e. exponentiated coefficients. Standard errors in parentheses.</p><p>*** <i>p</i><.001,</p><p>** <i>p</i><.01,</p><p>* <i>p</i><.05.</p><p>Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and usage of caffeine. +</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223034, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ordinal_logistic_regression_predicting_knowledge_and_usage_of_caffeine_/1223034", "title"=>"Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and usage of caffeine. +", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771972"], "description"=>"<p>PCE in academia is ethically problematic (<i>n</i> = 877).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223029, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PCE_in_academia_is_ethically_problematic_n_877_/1223029", "title"=>"PCE in academia is ethically problematic (<i>n</i> = 877).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771971"], "description"=>"<p>Source of PCEs reported by users of these substances.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223028, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Source_of_PCEs_reported_by_users_of_these_substances_/1223028", "title"=>"Source of PCEs reported by users of these substances.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771968"], "description"=>"<p><i>n</i> = 877. User group categories on the basis of familiarity with methylphenidate, modafinil and Adderall.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223025, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_n_877_User_group_categories_on_the_basis_of_familiarity_with_methylphenidate_modafinil_and_Adderall_/1223025", "title"=>"<i>n</i> = 877. User group categories on the basis of familiarity with methylphenidate, modafinil and Adderall.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771966"], "description"=>"<p>*<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969#pone-0105969-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> contains synthesized information from two questions. Prevalence – based on the six options listed – and purposes, focusing on PCE. Respondents could choose from 17 other purposes besides PCE; a subset of the data on other purposes is reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969#pone-0105969-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>. ‘PCE use’ was defined as a respondent who indicated PCE alone or in any combination; ‘other use’ was defined as a respondent who did not indicate PCE, but did indicate any other purpose.</p><p><b>S</b>mart Drug Prevalence (n = 877).<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969#nt101\" target=\"_blank\">*</a></sup></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223023, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S_mart_Drug_Prevalence_n_877_/1223023", "title"=>"<b>S</b>mart Drug Prevalence (n = 877).<sup>*</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771967"], "description"=>"<p>Note that respondents could select more than one purpose for each drug.</p><p>Drug use purposes for modafinil, methylphenidate, Adderall and caffeine pills, as reported by users of these substances.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223024, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Drug_use_purposes_for_modafinil_methylphenidate_Adderall_and_caffeine_pills_as_reported_by_users_of_these_substances_/1223024", "title"=>"Drug use purposes for modafinil, methylphenidate, Adderall and caffeine pills, as reported by users of these substances.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771976"], "description"=>"<p>+ Outcome variable has four mutually exclusive categories: unaware, uninterested, have considered, and have used (including currently use) each drug.</p>∧∧<p> Parameter estimates are odd-ratios, i.e. exponentiated coefficients. Standard errors in parentheses.</p><p>***<i> p</i><.001,</p><p>**<i> p</i><.01,</p><p>*<i> p</i><.05.</p><p>Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and use of Adderall. +</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223033, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ordinal_logistic_regression_predicting_knowledge_and_use_of_Adderall_/1223033", "title"=>"Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and use of Adderall. +", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771975"], "description"=>"<p>+ Outcome variable has four mutually exclusive categories: unaware, uninterested, have considered, and have used (including currently use) each drug.</p>∧∧<p> Parameter estimates are odd-ratios, i.e. exponentiated coefficients. Standard errors in parentheses.</p><p>***<i> p</i><.001,</p><p>** <i> p</i><.01,</p><p>* <i> p</i><.05.</p><p>Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and use of methylphenidate. +</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223032, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ordinal_logistic_regression_predicting_knowledge_and_use_of_methylphenidate_/1223032", "title"=>"Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and use of methylphenidate. +", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771973"], "description"=>"<p>+ Outcome variable has four mutually exclusive categories: unaware, uninterested, have considered, and have used (including currently use) each drug.</p>∧∧<p> Parameter estimates are odd-ratios, i.e. exponentiated coefficients. Standard errors in parentheses.</p><p>***<i> p</i><.001,</p><p>**<i> p</i><.01,</p><p>*<i> p</i><.05.</p><p>Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and use of modafinil. +</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223030, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ordinal_logistic_regression_predicting_knowledge_and_use_of_modafinil_/1223030", "title"=>"Ordinal logistic regression predicting knowledge and use of modafinil. +", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771970"], "description"=>"<p>Note that only the three most common reasons are shown.</p><p>Reasons for not using by those who have considered a PCE.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223027, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reasons_for_not_using_by_those_who_have_considered_a_PCE_/1223027", "title"=>"Reasons for not using by those who have considered a PCE.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1771969"], "description"=>"<p>ADHD ASRS Score by user group, <i>n</i> = 877.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["article reports findings", "adhd", "PCE prevalence", "Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement", "survey", "uk", "PCE users", "student"], "article_id"=>1223026, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ilina Singh", "Imre Bard", "Jonathan Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105969.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ADHD_ASRS_Score_by_user_group_n_877_/1223026", "title"=>"ADHD ASRS Score by user group, <i>n</i> = 877.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-30 02:44:26"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"30", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Mental health and psychiatry", "average_usage"=>[299, 481]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Neurology", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[262]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Science policy", "average_usage"=>[985, 1571]}]}
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