A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops
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{"title"=>"A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wilhelm", "last_name"=>"Kl??mper", "scopus_author_id"=>"55830630500"}, {"first_name"=>"Matin", "last_name"=>"Qaim", "scopus_author_id"=>"9038441000"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600373121", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25365303", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84909581234", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111629", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84909581234"}, "id"=>"72526e62-e16b-3391-81a0-957ed623934d", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. OBJECTIVE: We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. DATA SOURCES: Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. SYNTHESIS METHODS: Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. RESULTS: On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. LIMITATIONS: Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/metaanalysis-impacts-genetically-modified-crops", "reader_count"=>481, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>21, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>107, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>77, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>67, "Other"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>111, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>18}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>21, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>107, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>77, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>67, "Other"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>111, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>18}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>275, "Arts and Humanities"=>7, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>6, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>33, "Engineering"=>12, "Environmental Science"=>47, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>25, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>13, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>31, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>13}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>31}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>47}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>7}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>12}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>33}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>275}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>25}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>19, "Malaysia"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Russia"=>1, "Sweden"=>3, "Vietnam"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Slovakia"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1, "France"=>4, "Colombia"=>2, "Japan"=>2, "Philippines"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Kenya"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Norway"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "Mexico"=>6, "Italy"=>3, "South Africa"=>1, "Australia"=>4, "Saint Kitts and Nevis"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>16}

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