Benefits of a Working Memory Training Program for Inattention in Daily Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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{"title"=>"Benefits of a working memory training program for inattention in daily life: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Megan", "last_name"=>"Spencer-Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"26023695900"}, {"first_name"=>"Torkel", "last_name"=>"Klingberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"55897252400"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25793607", "pui"=>"603270805", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84925643435", "sgr"=>"84925643435", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0119522"}, "id"=>"10846e4e-e8a0-3099-ba58-69f998945708", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Many common disorders across the lifespan feature impaired working memory (WM). Reported benefits of a WM training program include improving inattention in daily life, but this has not been evaluated in a meta-analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether one WM training method has benefits for inattention in daily life by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Medline and PsycINFO, relevant journals and contacted authors for studies with an intervention and control group reporting post-training estimates of inattention in daily life. To reduce the influence of different WM training methods on the findings, the review was restricted to trials evaluating the Cogmed method. A meta-analysis calculated the pooled standardised difference in means (SMD) between intervention and control groups. RESULTS: A total of 622 studies were identified and 12 studies with 13 group comparisons met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed a significant training effect on inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.47, 95% CI -0.65, -0.29, p<.00001. Subgroup analyses showed this significant effect was observed in groups of children and adults as well as users with and without ADHD, and in studies using control groups that were active and non-adaptive, wait-list and passive as well as studies using specific or general measures. Seven of the studies reported follow-up assessment and a meta-analysis showed persisting training benefits for inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.33, 95% CI -0.57 -0.09, p=.006. Additional meta-analyses confirmed improvements after training on visuospatial WM, SMD=0.66, 95% CI 0.43, 0.89, p<.00001, and verbal WM tasks, SMD=0.40, 95% CI 0.18, 0.62, p=.0004. CONCLUSIONS: Benefits of a WM training program generalise to improvements in everyday functioning. Initial evidence shows that the Cogmed method has significant benefits for inattention in daily life with a clinically relevant effect size.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/benefits-working-memory-training-program-inattention-daily-life-systematic-review-metaanalysis", "reader_count"=>107, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Neuroscience"=>12, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>64, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>64}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Sweden"=>3, "Belgium"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966566"], "description"=>"<p>Flow diagram for the systematic search and selection of studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["WM training program", "benefit", "WM training method", "WM training program generalise", "Cogmed method", "Working Memory Training Program", "adhd", "smd", "WM training methods", "life", "inattention", "ci", "13 group comparisons"], "article_id"=>1347200, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Megan Spencer-Smith", "Torkel Klingberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119522.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Flow_diagram_for_the_systematic_search_and_selection_of_studies_/1347200", "title"=>"Flow diagram for the systematic search and selection of studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 06:57:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966573"], "description"=>"<p>Note. Results are presented for analyses including subgroups with at least 4 effect sizes, although significance of results did not change when analyses were performed including the passive control subgroup and healthy status subgroup (each with 2 effect sizes); CI, confidence intervals; SMD, stardardised mean difference; WM, working memory</p><p>Subgroup analyses for the effects of methodological and participant characteristics on inattention in daily life after training.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["WM training program", "benefit", "WM training method", "WM training program generalise", "Cogmed method", "Working Memory Training Program", "adhd", "smd", "WM training methods", "life", "inattention", "ci", "13 group comparisons"], "article_id"=>1347207, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Megan Spencer-Smith", "Torkel Klingberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119522.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Subgroup_analyses_for_the_effects_of_methodological_and_participant_characteristics_on_inattention_in_daily_life_after_training_/1347207", "title"=>"Subgroup analyses for the effects of methodological and participant characteristics on inattention in daily life after training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 06:57:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966574", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966575"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Many common disorders across the lifespan feature impaired working memory (WM). Reported benefits of a WM training program include improving inattention in daily life, but this has not been evaluated in a meta-analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether one WM training method has benefits for inattention in daily life by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We searched Medline and PsycINFO, relevant journals and contacted authors for studies with an intervention and control group reporting post-training estimates of inattention in daily life. To reduce the influence of different WM training methods on the findings, the review was restricted to trials evaluating the Cogmed method. A meta-analysis calculated the pooled standardised difference in means (SMD) between intervention and control groups.</p><p>Results</p><p>A total of 622 studies were identified and 12 studies with 13 group comparisons met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed a significant training effect on inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.47, 95% CI -0.65, -0.29, p&lt;.00001. Subgroup analyses showed this significant effect was observed in groups of children and adults as well as users with and without ADHD, and in studies using control groups that were active and non-adaptive, wait-list and passive as well as studies using specific or general measures. Seven of the studies reported follow-up assessment and a meta-analysis showed persisting training benefits for inattention in daily life, SMD=-0.33, 95% CI -0.57 -0.09, p=.006. Additional meta-analyses confirmed improvements after training on visuospatial WM, SMD=0.66, 95% CI 0.43, 0.89, p&lt;.00001, and verbal WM tasks, SMD=0.40, 95% CI 0.18, 0.62, p=.0004.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Benefits of a WM training program generalise to improvements in everyday functioning. Initial evidence shows that the Cogmed method has significant benefits for inattention in daily life with a clinically relevant effect size.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["WM training program", "benefit", "WM training method", "WM training program generalise", "Cogmed method", "Working Memory Training Program", "adhd", "smd", "WM training methods", "life", "inattention", "ci", "13 group comparisons"], "article_id"=>1347208, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Megan Spencer-Smith", "Torkel Klingberg"], "doi"=>[nil, nil], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Benefits_of_a_Working_Memory_Training_Program_for_Inattention_in_Daily_Life_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis/1347208", "title"=>"Benefits of a Working Memory Training Program for Inattention in Daily Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 06:57:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966572"], "description"=>"<p>Note. ADHD, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; CFQ, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire; DBD, Disruptive Behaviors Disorders Rating Scale, ELBW, extremely low birth weight; LD, learning disorder; NR, not reported; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SEB, social and emotional behavioural difficulties; VLBW, very low birth weight; WM, working memory</p><p>+ not included in analyses because authors did not report inattention ratings due to missing data</p><p>* not included in the analysis of delayed effects of training because scores required for the analysis were not reported in the paper and at the time of submission authors had not provided information</p><p><sup>a</sup> described by authors as a standard neuropsychological test</p><p><sup>b</sup> some users prescribed stimulant medication</p><p><sup>c</sup> participants assessed for LD and 1 met criteria</p><p><sup>d</sup> families informed pre-training there were two versions of the program reflecting different levels of difficulty</p><p><sup>e</sup> trial is a RCT at post-training testing, and at long-term follow-up is a stepped wedge design</p><p>Participant and methodological characteristics of identified studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["WM training program", "benefit", "WM training method", "WM training program generalise", "Cogmed method", "Working Memory Training Program", "adhd", "smd", "WM training methods", "life", "inattention", "ci", "13 group comparisons"], "article_id"=>1347206, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Megan Spencer-Smith", "Torkel Klingberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119522.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Participant_and_methodological_characteristics_of_identified_studies_/1347206", "title"=>"Participant and methodological characteristics of identified studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 06:57:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966569"], "description"=>"<p>The overall pooled effect size (standardised mean difference, displayed as a diamond) as well as individual study effect sizes (displayed as rectangles) and their 95% confidence intervals (represented by horizontal lines) are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["WM training program", "benefit", "WM training method", "WM training program generalise", "Cogmed method", "Working Memory Training Program", "adhd", "smd", "WM training methods", "life", "inattention", "ci", "13 group comparisons"], "article_id"=>1347203, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Megan Spencer-Smith", "Torkel Klingberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119522.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Forest_plot_for_inattention_in_daily_life_following_a_delay_after_the_training_/1347203", "title"=>"Forest plot for inattention in daily life following a delay after the training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 06:57:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966568"], "description"=>"<p>The overall pooled effect size (standardised mean difference, displayed as a diamond) as well as individual study effect sizes (displayed as rectangles) and their 95% confidence intervals (represented by horizontal lines) are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["WM training program", "benefit", "WM training method", "WM training program generalise", "Cogmed method", "Working Memory Training Program", "adhd", "smd", "WM training methods", "life", "inattention", "ci", "13 group comparisons"], "article_id"=>1347202, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Megan Spencer-Smith", "Torkel Klingberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119522.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Forest_plot_for_inattention_in_daily_life_after_the_training_/1347202", "title"=>"Forest plot for inattention in daily life after the training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 06:57:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1966571"], "description"=>"<p>The overall pooled effect size (standardised mean difference, displayed as a diamond) as well as individual study effect sizes (displayed as rectangles) and their 95% confidence intervals (represented by horizontal lines) are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["WM training program", "benefit", "WM training method", "WM training program generalise", "Cogmed method", "Working Memory Training Program", "adhd", "smd", "WM training methods", "life", "inattention", "ci", "13 group comparisons"], "article_id"=>1347205, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Megan Spencer-Smith", "Torkel Klingberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119522.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Forest_plot_for_a_visuospatial_working_memory_performance_and_b_verbal_working_memory_performance_after_the_training_/1347205", "title"=>"Forest plot for (a) visuospatial working memory performance and (b) verbal working memory performance after the training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-20 06:57:00"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"69", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"77", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"78", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"71", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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