Improving Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD: Training Multiple Executive Functions within the Context of a Computer Game. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial
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{"title"=>"Improving executive functioning in children with ADHD: Training multiple executive functions within the context of a computer game. A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sebastiaan", "last_name"=>"Dovis", "scopus_author_id"=>"44961144300"}, {"first_name"=>"Saskia", "last_name"=>"Van Der Oord", "scopus_author_id"=>"8345058000"}, {"first_name"=>"Reinout W.", "last_name"=>"Wiers", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701516741"}, {"first_name"=>"Pier J.M.", "last_name"=>"Prins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004199564"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84926631801", "sgr"=>"84926631801", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0121651", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"603600146", "pmid"=>"25844638", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"729cfad2-e1ba-3935-a6c1-3e9b11620e7d", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: Executive functions (EFs) training interventions aimed at ADHD-symptom reduction have yielded mixed results. Generally, these interventions focus on training a single cognitive domain (e.g., working memory [WM], inhibition, or cognitive-flexibility). However, evidence suggests that most children with ADHD show deficits on multiple EFs, and that these EFs are largely related to different brain regions. Therefore, training multiple EFs might be a potentially more effective strategy to reduce EF-related ADHD symptoms.\\n\\nMETHODS: Eighty-nine children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (aged 8-12) were randomized to either a full-active-condition where visuospatial WM, inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained, a partially-active-condition where inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained and the WM-training task was presented in placebo-mode, or to a full placebo-condition. Short-term and long-term (3-months) effects of this gamified, 25-session, home-based computer-training were evaluated on multiple outcome domains.\\n\\nRESULTS: During training compliance was high (only 3% failed to meet compliance criteria). After training, only children in the full-active condition showed improvement on measures of visuospatial short-term-memory (STM) and WM. Inhibitory performance and interference control only improved in the full-active- and the partially-active condition. No Treatment-condition x Time interactions were found for cognitive-flexibility, verbal WM, complex-reasoning, nor for any parent-, teacher-, or child-rated ADHD behaviors, EF-behaviors, motivational behaviors, or general problem behaviors. Nonetheless, almost all measures showed main Time-effects, including the teacher-ratings.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Improvements on inhibition and visuospatial STM and WM were specifically related to the type of treatment received. However, transfer to untrained EFs and behaviors was mostly nonspecific (i.e., only interference control improved exclusively in the two EF training conditions). As such, in this multiple EF-training, mainly nonspecific treatment factors - as opposed to the specific effects of training EFs-seem related to far transfer effects found on EF and behavior.\\n\\nTRIAL REGISTRATION: trialregister.nl NTR2728. Registry name: improving executive functioning in children with ADHD: training executive functions within the context of a computer game; registry number: NTR2728.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/improving-executive-functioning-children-adhd-training-multiple-executive-functions-within-context-c", "reader_count"=>171, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. 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Student"=>42, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>13, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>3, "Psychology"=>86, "Social Sciences"=>17, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>17}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>86}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>13}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Ecuador"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Finland"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>4}, "group_count"=>13}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006366"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>: SSRT = Stop Signal Reaction Time; CBTT = Corsi Block Tapping Task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368461, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_values_and_standard_errors_of_the_executive_functioning_tasks_A_8212_F_and_the_Raven_G_on_the_pre_test_post_test_and_3_month_follow_up_of_children_in_the_three_treatment_groups_/1368461", "title"=>"Mean values and standard errors of the executive functioning tasks (A—F) and the Raven (G) on the pre-test, post-test and (3 month) follow-up of children in the three treatment groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006362"], "description"=>"<p>The inhibition training task with the green colored time-frame (response window) in the upper-middle of the screen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368457, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_inhibition_training_task_with_the_green_colored_time_frame_response_window_in_the_upper_middle_of_the_screen_/1368457", "title"=>"The inhibition training task with the green colored time-frame (response window) in the upper-middle of the screen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006373", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006374", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006375", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006376", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006377"], "description"=>"<div><p>Introduction</p><p>Executive functions (EFs) training interventions aimed at ADHD-symptom reduction have yielded mixed results. Generally, these interventions focus on training a single cognitive domain (e.g., working memory [WM], inhibition, or cognitive-flexibility). However, evidence suggests that most children with ADHD show deficits on multiple EFs, and that these EFs are largely related to different brain regions. Therefore, training multiple EFs might be a potentially more effective strategy to reduce EF-related ADHD symptoms.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Eighty-nine children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (aged 8–12) were randomized to either a <i>full-active-condition</i> where visuospatial WM, inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained, a <i>partially-active-condition</i> where inhibition and cognitive-flexibility were trained and the WM-training task was presented in placebo-mode, or to a full <i>placebo-condition</i>. Short-term and long-term (3-months) effects of this <i>gamified</i>, 25-session, home-based computer-training were evaluated on multiple outcome domains.</p><p>Results</p><p>During training compliance was high (only 3% failed to meet compliance criteria). After training, only children in the full-active condition showed improvement on measures of visuospatial short-term-memory (STM) and WM. Inhibitory performance and interference control only improved in the full-active- and the partially-active condition. No Treatment-condition x Time interactions were found for cognitive-flexibility, verbal WM, complex-reasoning, nor for any parent-, teacher-, or child-rated ADHD behaviors, EF-behaviors, motivational behaviors, or general problem behaviors. Nonetheless, almost all measures showed main Time-effects, including the teacher-ratings.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Improvements on inhibition and visuospatial STM and WM were specifically related to the type of treatment received. However, transfer to untrained EFs and behaviors was mostly nonspecific (i.e., only interference control improved exclusively in the two EF training conditions). As such, in this multiple EF-training, mainly nonspecific treatment factors – as opposed to the specific effects of training EFs—seem related to far transfer effects found on EF and behavior.</p><p>Trial Registration</p><p>trialregister.nl <a href=\"http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2728\" target=\"_blank\">NTR2728</a>. Registry name: improving executive functioning in children with ADHD: training executive functions within the context of a computer game; registry number: NTR2728.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368468, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Improving_Executive_Functioning_in_Children_with_ADHD_Training_Multiple_Executive_Functions_within_the_Context_of_a_Computer_Game_A_Randomized_Double_Blind_Placebo_Controlled_Trial_/1368468", "title"=>"Improving Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD: Training Multiple Executive Functions within the Context of a Computer Game. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006370"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. CBTT = Corsi Block Tapping Task; FU = Follow-up-test (after 3 months); Post = Post-test; Pre = Pre-test; SSRT = Stop Signal Reaction Time;</p><p>* <i>p</i> < .05;</p><p>** <i>p</i> < .01;</p><p>† <i>p</i> < .06.</p><p>Outcome of repeated measures MANOVAs contrasts for task performance in each combination of treatment conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368465, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Outcome_of_repeated_measures_MANOVAs_contrasts_for_task_performance_in_each_combination_of_treatment_conditions_/1368465", "title"=>"Outcome of repeated measures MANOVAs contrasts for task performance in each combination of treatment conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006368"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. CD = conduct disorder; DBDRS = Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale; FSIQ = full scale IQ; M:F = Male:Female; ODD = oppositional defiant disorder; PDISC-IV = Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, parent version;</p><p><sup>a</sup> Continuous data were investigated using ANOVAs. Nominal data were investigated using Pearson's chi-squared tests;</p><p><sup>b</sup> Four children were taking Dextroamphetamine (two in the full-active condition, one in the partially-active condition, and one in the placebo condition).</p><p>Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics by Treatment Group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368463, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_Demographics_and_Clinical_Characteristics_by_Treatment_Group_/1368463", "title"=>"Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics by Treatment Group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006369"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. BRIEF = Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; C- = Child-rated; CBTT = Corsi Block Tapping Task; CD = conduct disorder; DBDRS = Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale; FU = Follow-up-test (after 3 months); HSQ = Home Situations Questionnaire; Imp/Fun Seeking = Impulisivity/Fun Seeking; ODD = oppositional defiant disorder; Organiz. Materials = Organization of Materials; P- = Parent-rated; PEDsQL = Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; Post = Post-test; Pre = Pre-test; Psy.soc. Hlth. = Psychosocial Health Summary Score; Punish. Sens. = Punishment Sensitivity; Reward Respons. = Reward Responsiveness; SPSRQ = Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children; SSRT = Stop Signal Reaction Time; T- = Teacher-rated; TMT = Trail Making Task;</p><p>* <i>p</i> < .05;</p><p>** <i>p</i> < .01;</p><p>*** <i>p</i> < .001;</p><p>† <i>p</i> < .075.</p><p>Outcomes at Baseline, Post-test and Follow-up.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368464, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Outcomes_at_Baseline_Post_test_and_Follow_up_/1368464", "title"=>"Outcomes at Baseline, Post-test and Follow-up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006367"], "description"=>"<p>Mean values and standard errors of the mean scores on the Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity (Hyp/Imp) scales of the parent and the teacher versions of the Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS; H-K) on the pre-test, post-test and (3 months) follow-up of children in the three treatment groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368462, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>86, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_values_and_standard_errors_of_the_mean_scores_on_the_Inattention_and_Hyperactivity_Impulsivity_Hyp_Imp_scales_of_the_parent_and_the_teacher_versions_of_the_Disruptive_Behavior_Disorder_Rating_Scale_DBDRS_H_K_on_the_pre_test_post_test_and_3_months_fo/1368462", "title"=>"Mean values and standard errors of the mean scores on the Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity (Hyp/Imp) scales of the parent and the teacher versions of the Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS; H-K) on the pre-test, post-test and (3 months) follow-up of children in the three treatment groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006364"], "description"=>"<p>CONSORT flow diagram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368459, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CONSORT_flow_diagram_/1368459", "title"=>"CONSORT flow diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006372"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. BRIEF = Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; CBTT = Corsi Block Tapping Task; CD = conduct disorder; DBDRS = Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale; FU = Follow-up-test (after 3 months); HSQ = Home Situations Questionnaire; Imp/Fun Seeking = Impulisivity/Fun Seeking; ODD = oppositional defiant disorder; Organiz. Materials = Organization of Materials; P- = Parent-rated; PEDsQL = Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; Post = Post-test; Pre = Pre-test; Psy.soc. Hlth. = Psychosocial Health Summary Score; Punish. Sens. = Punishment Sensitivity; Reward Respons. = Reward Responsiveness; SPSRQ = Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children; SSRT = Stop Signal Reaction Time; T- = Teacher-rated; <b>Bold + italic formatted number</b> = more than 30% responders; <b>Bold formatted number</b> = more than 50% responders; Children were classified as responders based on reliable change indices [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651#pone.0121651.ref098\" target=\"_blank\">98</a>], [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651#pone.0121651.ref099\" target=\"_blank\">99</a>].</p><p>Proportion of treatment groups showing improvement on performance measures and rating-scales (i.e., responders).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368467, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_treatment_groups_showing_improvement_on_performance_measures_and_rating_scales_i_e_responders_/1368467", "title"=>"Proportion of treatment groups showing improvement on performance measures and rating-scales (i.e., responders).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2006371"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. CBTT = Corsi Block Tapping Task; FU = Follow-up-test (after 3 months); Post = Post-test; Pre = Pre-test; SSRT = Stop Signal Reaction Time;</p><p>* <i>p</i> < .05;</p><p>** <i>p</i> < .01;</p><p>*** <i>p</i> < .001.</p><p>Within-group comparisons of pair-wise time differences in task performance (using paired t-tests).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wm", "inhibition", "Training Multiple Executive Functions", "EF training conditions", "training executive functions", "ADHD show deficits", "outcome domains.ResultsDuring training compliance", "visuospatial", "stm", "interference control", "behavior.Trial Registrationtrialregister.nl NTR 2728. Registry name"], "article_id"=>1368466, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastiaan Dovis", "Saskia Van der Oord", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Pier J. M. Prins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121651.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Within_group_comparisons_of_pair_wise_time_differences_in_task_performance_using_paired_t_tests_/1368466", "title"=>"Within-group comparisons of pair-wise time differences in task performance (using paired t-tests).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-06 02:54:13"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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