Evolutionary Patterns among Living and Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales: Evidence from the Neogene of Central America
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{"title"=>"Evolutionary patterns among living and fossil kogiid sperm whales: Evidence from the neogene of Central America", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Velez-Juarbe", "scopus_author_id"=>"14044371000"}, {"first_name"=>"Aaron R.", "last_name"=>"Wood", "scopus_author_id"=>"24765501900"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos", "last_name"=>"De Gracia", "scopus_author_id"=>"55316553500"}, {"first_name"=>"Austin J.W.", "last_name"=>"Hendy", "scopus_author_id"=>"12790342400"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0123909", "pui"=>"604050591", "sgr"=>"84929493012", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929493012", "pmid"=>"25923213", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"6f659d05-9767-3a96-bfa1-2261c3ee11bd", "abstract"=>"Kogiids are known by two living species, the pygmy and dwarf sperm whale (Kogia breviceps and K. sima). Both are relatively rare, and as their names suggest, they are closely related to the sperm whale, all being characterized by the presence of a spermaceti organ. However, this organ is much reduced in kogiids and may have become functionally different. Here we describe a fossil kogiid from the late Miocene of Panama and we explore the evolutionary history of the group with special attention to this evolutionary reduction. The fossil consists of cranial material from the late Tortonian (~7.5 Ma) Piña facies of the Cha- gres Formation in Panama. Detailed comparison with other fossil and extant kogiids and the results of a phylogenetic analysis place the Panamanian kogiid, herein named Nanokogia isthmia gen. et sp. nov., as a taxon most closely related to Praekogia cedrosensis from the Messinian (~6 Ma) of Baja California and to Kogia spp. Furthermore our results show that reduction of the spermaceti organ has occurred iteratively in kogiids, once in Thalassocetus antwerpiensis in the early-middle Miocene, and more recently in Kogia spp. Additionally, we estimate the divergence between extant species of Kogia at around the late Pliocene, later than previously predicted by molecular estimates. Finally, comparison of Nanokogia with the coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis from Peru shows that these two species display a greater morphological disparity between them than that observed between the extant members of the group.Wehypothesize that this reflects differences in feeding ecologies of the two species, with Nanokogia being more similar to extant Kogia. Nanokogia shows that kogiids have been part of the Neotropical marine mammal communities at least since the late Miocene, and gives us insight into the evolutionary history and origins of one of the rarest groups of living whales.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evolutionary-patterns-among-living-fossil-kogiid-sperm-whales-evidence-neogene-central-america", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Costa Rica"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045626"], "description"=>"<p>A, map of Central America showing the localities. B, map of central Panama, showing the distribution of the Chagres Formation as well as the localities of fossil cetaceans mentioned in the text. C, chronostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic relationships of the Chagres Formation (modified from Hendy et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909#pone.0123909.ref017\" target=\"_blank\">17</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398916, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locality_map_/1398916", "title"=>"Locality map.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045630"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: adif, anterior dorsal infraorbital foramen; an, antorbital notch; en, external nares; et, ethmoid; fr, frontal; la+j, lacrimal + jugal; lmc, lateral maxillary crest; mrg, mesorostral groove; mx, maxilla; pmx, premaxilla; pdif, posterior dorsal infraorbital foramen; scf, supracranial fossa; sfc, sagittal facial crest; sq, squamosal; vo, vomer. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398920, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_view_of_holotype_skull_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_UF_280000_/1398920", "title"=>"Dorsal view of holotype skull of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 280000).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045633"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: an, antorbital notch; bo/bs, basioccipital/basisphenoid; boc, basioccipital crest; cb.e, cerebral endocast; eam, external auditory meatus; fg, frontal groove; in, internal nares; jn, jugular notch; la+j, lacrimal + jugal; ma, mandible; mx, maxilla; npp, notch for posterior process of tympanic; oc, occipital condyles; pl, palatine; prs, presphenoid; ptdl, dorsal lamina of pterygoid; ptha, pterygoid hamulus; ptml, medial lamina of pterygoid; ptsf, pterygoid sinus fossa; tsr, tympanosquamosal recess; vif, ventral infraorbital foramen; vo, vomer. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398923, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>61, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ventral_view_of_holotype_skull_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_UF_280000_/1398923", "title"=>"Ventral view of holotype skull of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 280000).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045634"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: amc, anterior meatal crest; as, alisphenoid; bo, basioccipital; boc, basioccipital crest; dif, dorsal infraorbital foramen; eam, external auditory meatus; en, external nares; fg, frontal groove; fo, foramen ovale; fp, falciform process of squamosal; fr, frontal; jf, jugular foramen; jn, jugular notch; la+j, lacrimal + jugal; lmc, lateral maxillary crest; mx, maxilla; oc, occipital condyles; pmx, premaxilla; pop, postorbital process; prp, preorbital process; prs, presphenoid; ptdl, dorsal lamina of pterygoid; ptml, medial lamina of pterygoid; ptsf, pterygoid sinus fossa; scb, supracranial basin; so, supraoccipital; sq, squamosal; tsr, tympanosquamosal recess; vif, ventral infraorbital foramen; vo, vomer. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398924, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_4A_B_and_ventral_4C_D_views_of_referred_specimen_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_UF_273554_/1398924", "title"=>"Dorsal, 4A-B, and ventral, 4C-D, views of referred specimen of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 273554).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045635"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: amc, anterior meatal crest; as, alisphenoid; bo/bs, basioccipital/basisphenoid; boc, basioccipital crest; eo, exoccipital; fg, frontal groove; fm, foramen magnum; fo, foramen ovale; fp, falciform process of squamosal; fr, frontal; jf, jugular foramen; la+j, lacrimal + jugal; mx, maxilla; oc, occipital condyle; of, optic foramen; pgp, postglenoid process; pop, postorbital process; prs, presphenoid; ptdl, dorsal lamina of pterygoid; ptml, medial lamina of pterygoid; ptsf, pterygoid sinus fossa; sop, supraorbital process; sp, spiny process; sq, squamosal; tsr, tympanosquamosal recess; vif, ventral infraorbital foramen; vo, vomer; zp, zygomatic process. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398925, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_ventrolateral_view_of_referred_specimen_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_UF_273554_/1398925", "title"=>"Left ventrolateral view of referred specimen of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 273554).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045636"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: eo, exoccipital; fg, frontal groove; fr, frontal; la+j, lacrimal + jugal; ma, mandible; mx, maxilla; lmc, lateral maxillary crest; npp, notch for posterior process of tympanic; of, optic foramen; pa, parietal; pgp, postglenoid process; pmx, premaxilla; ptdl, dorsal lamina of pterygoid; ptha, pterygoid hamulus; ptml, medial lamina of pterygoid; ptn, pterygoid notch; ptsf, pterygoid sinus fossa; scb, supracranial basin; sfc, sagittal facial crest; sq, squamosal; tc, temporal crest; zp, zygomatic process. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398926, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Right_lateral_view_of_holotype_skull_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_UF_280000_/1398926", "title"=>"Right lateral view of holotype skull of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 280000).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045637"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: boc, basioccipital crest; eam, external auditory meatus; eo, exoccipital; fr, frontal; lmc, lateral maxillary crest; mx, maxilla; npp, notch for posterior process of tympanic; oc, occipital condyle; of, optic foramen; pa, parietal; pmx, premaxilla; pop, postorbital process; prp, preorbital process; prs, presphenoid; ptdl, dorsal lamina of pterygoid; ptml, medial lamina of pterygoid; scb, supracranial basin; smc, supramastoid crest; sq, squamosal; tc, temporal crest; vo, vomer; zp, zygomatic process. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398927, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_6A_B_and_right_6C_D_lateral_views_of_referred_specimen_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_UF_273554_/1398927", "title"=>"Left, 6A-B, and right, 6C-D, lateral views of referred specimen of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 273554).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045638"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: boc, basioccipital crest; eo, exoccipital; fm, foramen magnum; jn, jugular notch; oc, occipital condyles; so, supraoccipital; sop, supraorbital process of frontal; tc, temporal crest. Gray shaded areas indicate sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398928, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posterior_views_of_holotype_UF_280000_7A_B_and_referred_specimen_UF_273554_7CD_skulls_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_/1398928", "title"=>"Posterior views of holotype (UF 280000), 7A-B, and referred specimen (UF 273554), 7CD, skulls of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045639"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: al, tooth alveoli; ar, alveolar row; gn, gnathion; mf, mandibular fossa; ms, mandibular symphysis. Diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398929, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mandible_of_holotype_UF_280000_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_in_dorsal_8A_right_lateral_8B_and_left_lateral_8C_views_/1398929", "title"=>"Mandible of holotype (UF 280000) of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. in dorsal, 8A, right lateral, 8B, and left lateral 8C, views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045640"], "description"=>"<p>Strict consensus tree resulting from three most parsimonious trees, 95 steps long, with CI = 0.589 and RI = 0.723. Arcs indicate stem-based taxa, while circles denote node-based clades; numbers below nodes indicate decay indices/bootstrap values; for definition of clades see text. Abbreviations: Aq., Aquitanian; Bar., Bartonian; Burd., Burdigalian; Chatt., Chattian; La., Langhian; M., Messinian; P., Piacenzian; Plio., Pliocene; Pleist., Pleistocene; Priab., Priabonian; Rupel., Rupelian; S., Serravallian; Tort., Tortonian; Z, Zanclean. (Time scale based on Cohen et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909#pone.0123909.ref020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>].)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398930, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>241, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_calibrated_phylogeny_of_Pan_Physeteroidea_/1398930", "title"=>"Time-calibrated phylogeny of Pan-Physeteroidea.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045641"], "description"=>"<p><i>Aprixokogia kelloggi</i> (USNM 187015), 11A, <i>Scaphokogia cochlearis</i> (MNHN PPI 229), 11B, <i>Praekogia cedrosensis</i> (UCMP 315229), 11C, <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (based on UF 280000 and 273554), 11D, <i>Kogia sima</i> (LACM 47142), 11E, and, <i>K</i>. <i>breviceps</i> (LACM 95745), 11F. Each bone is color-coded for ease of comparison. Red dashed lines denote the extent of the supracranial/premaxillary fossa. Areas in white are not preserved and have been reconstructed with plaster on the specimens. Illustration of <i>S</i>. <i>cochlearis</i> modified from Muizon [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909#pone.0123909.ref008\" target=\"_blank\">8</a>]; all other illustrations based on the specimens listed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398931, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dorsal_views_of_kogiid_skulls_/1398931", "title"=>"Dorsal views of kogiid skulls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045642"], "description"=>"<p><i>Aprixokogia kelloggi</i> (USNM 187015), 12A, <i>Scaphokogia cochlearis</i> (MNHN PPI 229), 12B, <i>Praekogia cedrosensis</i> (UCMP 315229), 12C, <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 273554), 12D, and (UF 280000), 12E, <i>Kogia sima</i> (LACM 47142), 12F, and <i>K</i>. <i>breviceps</i> (LACM 95745), 12G. Each bone is color-coded for ease of comparison. Areas in white are reconstructed, light gray areas are covered with sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces. Illustrations based on direct observations of the specimens listed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398932, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ventral_views_of_kogiid_skulls_/1398932", "title"=>"Ventral views of kogiid skulls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045643"], "description"=>"<p><i>Aprixokogia kelloggi</i> (left side, reversed, USNM 187015), 13A, <i>Scaphokogia cochlearis</i> (MNHN PPI 229), 13B, <i>Praekogia cedrosensis</i> (UCMP 315229), 13C, <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (based on UF 280000 and 273554), 13D, <i>Kogia sima</i> (LACM 47142), 13E, and <i>K</i>. <i>breviceps</i> (LACM 95745), 13F. Each bone is color-coded for ease of comparison. Areas in white are reconstructed; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces. Illustrations based on direct observations of the specimens listed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398933, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Right_lateral_views_of_kogiid_skulls_/1398933", "title"=>"Right lateral views of kogiid skulls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045644"], "description"=>"<p><i>Aprixokogia kelloggi</i> (USNM 187015), 14A, <i>Scaphokogia cochlearis</i> (MNHN PPI 229), 14B, <i>Praekogia cedrosensis</i> (UCMP 315229), 14C, <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (UF 280000), 14D, <i>Kogia sima</i> (LACM 47142), 14E, and <i>K</i>. <i>breviceps</i> (LACM 95745), 14F; each bone is color-coded for ease of comparison. Red dashed lines denote the extent of the supracranial/premaxillary fossa. Areas in white are reconstructed, light gray areas are covered with sediment; diagonal lines denote broken surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398934, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anterodorsal_views_of_kogiid_skulls_/1398934", "title"=>"Anterodorsal views of kogiid skulls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045645"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: e = estimate; + = measurement on incomplete element.</p><p>Measurements (in mm) of skulls of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (modified from Perrin [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909#pone.0123909.ref018\" target=\"_blank\">18</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398935, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_in_mm_of_skulls_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_modified_from_Perrin_18_/1398935", "title"=>"Measurements (in mm) of skulls of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (modified from Perrin [18]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045646"], "description"=>"<p><b>Abbreviations</b>: <b>+</b> = measurement on incomplete element.</p><p>Measurements (in mm) of mandible (UF 280000) of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (modified from Perrin [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909#pone.0123909.ref018\" target=\"_blank\">18</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398936, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_in_mm_of_mandible_UF_280000_of_Nanokogia_isthmia_gen_et_sp_nov_modified_from_Perrin_18_/1398936", "title"=>"Measurements (in mm) of mandible (UF 280000) of <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov. (modified from Perrin [18]).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045647", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045648", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045649", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2045650"], "description"=>"<div><p>Kogiids are known by two living species, the pygmy and dwarf sperm whale (<i>Kogia breviceps</i> and <i>K</i>. <i>sima</i>). Both are relatively rare, and as their names suggest, they are closely related to the sperm whale, all being characterized by the presence of a spermaceti organ. However, this organ is much reduced in kogiids and may have become functionally different. Here we describe a fossil kogiid from the late Miocene of Panama and we explore the evolutionary history of the group with special attention to this evolutionary reduction. The fossil consists of cranial material from the late Tortonian (~7.5 Ma) Piña facies of the Chagres Formation in Panama. Detailed comparison with other fossil and extant kogiids and the results of a phylogenetic analysis place the Panamanian kogiid, herein named <i>Nanokogia isthmia</i> gen. et sp. nov., as a taxon most closely related to <i>Praekogia cedrosensis</i> from the Messinian (~6 Ma) of Baja California and to <i>Kogia</i> spp. Furthermore our results show that reduction of the spermaceti organ has occurred iteratively in kogiids, once in <i>Thalassocetus antwerpiensis</i> in the early-middle Miocene, and more recently in <i>Kogia</i> spp. Additionally, we estimate the divergence between extant species of <i>Kogia</i> at around the late Pliocene, later than previously predicted by molecular estimates. Finally, comparison of <i>Nanokogia</i> with the coeval <i>Scaphokogia cochlearis</i> from Peru shows that these two species display a greater morphological disparity between them than that observed between the extant members of the group. We hypothesize that this reflects differences in feeding ecologies of the two species, with <i>Nanokogia</i> being more similar to extant <i>Kogia</i>. <i>Nanokogia</i> shows that kogiids have been part of the Neotropical marine mammal communities at least since the late Miocene, and gives us insight into the evolutionary history and origins of one of the rarest groups of living whales.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["miocene", "kogiid", "Neotropical marine mammal communities", "spermaceti organ", "Central America Kogiids", "coeval Scaphokogia cochlearis", "Kogia spp", "dwarf sperm whale", "Nanokogia isthmia gen", "Pi ña facies", "Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales", "phylogenetic analysis place", "species"], "article_id"=>1398937, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jorge Velez-Juarbe", "Aaron R. Wood", "Carlos De Gracia", "Austin J. W. Hendy"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123909.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>48, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evolutionary_Patterns_among_Living_and_Fossil_Kogiid_Sperm_Whales_Evidence_from_the_Neogene_of_Central_America_/1398937", "title"=>"Evolutionary Patterns among Living and Fossil Kogiid Sperm Whales: Evidence from the Neogene of Central America", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-29 04:41:27"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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