The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)
Publication Date
September 23, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
André Strauss, Rodrigo Elias Oliveira, Danilo V. Bernardo, Domingo C. Salazar García, et al
Volume
10
Issue
9
Pages
e0137456
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0137456
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26397983
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580647
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26397983
Web of Science
000361797500038
Scopus
84946944845
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/oldest-case-decapitation-new-world-lapa-santo-eastcentral-brazil
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The oldest case of decapitation in the new world (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"André", "last_name"=>"Strauss", "scopus_author_id"=>"35265086800"}, {"first_name"=>"Rodrigo Elias", "last_name"=>"Oliveira", "scopus_author_id"=>"56957641400"}, {"first_name"=>"Danilo V.", "last_name"=>"Bernardo", "scopus_author_id"=>"36709282600"}, {"first_name"=>"Domingo C.", "last_name"=>"Salazar- García", "scopus_author_id"=>"55363503800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sahra", "last_name"=>"Talamo", "scopus_author_id"=>"8950440700"}, {"first_name"=>"Klervia", "last_name"=>"Jaouen", "scopus_author_id"=>"49663654600"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Hubbe", "scopus_author_id"=>"10338946900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sue", "last_name"=>"Black", "scopus_author_id"=>"56957652400"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline", "last_name"=>"Wilkinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202691406"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael Phillip", "last_name"=>"Richards", "scopus_author_id"=>"55953686600"}, {"first_name"=>"Astolfo G M", "last_name"=>"Araujo", "scopus_author_id"=>"36730594400"}, {"first_name"=>"Renato", "last_name"=>"Kipnis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603516072"}, {"first_name"=>"Walter Alves", "last_name"=>"Neves", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004541389"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"606828467", "sgr"=>"84946944845", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84946944845", "pmid"=>"26397983", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0137456", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"bc145c38-28c9-37ec-b755-0194a4bebd6f", "abstract"=>"We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/oldest-case-decapitation-new-world-lapa-santo-eastcentral-brazil", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>9, "Social Sciences"=>11, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Philippines"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286357"], "description"=>"<p><sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio enamel values from the individuals of Lapa do Santo, plotted on <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr mean ratio value (red dashed line), mean ratio ± 1σ values (area between blue lines), and mean ratio ± 2σ values (area between green lines) of the entire sample. A black circle marks the decapitated individual.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554528, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strontium_isotopic_analysis_/1554528", "title"=>"Strontium isotopic analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286355"], "description"=>"<p>a) Carbonatic concretion was still present making the incisions in the column of the right articular processes, indicated by white arrow, very subtle; b) detail of the right column of articular processes after removal of concretion; c); d) and e) SEM of the incisions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554526, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burial_26_8217_s_sixth_cervical_vertebra_/1554526", "title"=>"Burial 26’s sixth cervical vertebra.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286353"], "description"=>"<p>a) The arrows point the location of the incisions; b) Incisions on the lateral surface of the left ramus; c) Incisions on the posterior margin of right ramus; e) Incisions in the lower margin of the right ramus; e); f) and g) SEM of the incisions on the inferior margin of the right ramus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554523, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mandible_of_Burial_26_/1554523", "title"=>"Mandible of Burial 26.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286352"], "description"=>"<p>a) Pit shape; b) Arrangement of the hands over the skull.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554522, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burial_26_/1554522", "title"=>"Burial 26.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286347"], "description"=>"<p>a) The grid corresponds to 1 square meter units. Purple and orange areas indicate excavated surfaces. Pink area indicates the main excavation area (MEA). The bedrock is depicted in gray, and secondary deposits such as breccia and stalagmites in beige. The topographic lines are 10 cm equidistant and the associated values correspond to the z-value of the site coordinate system. b) Detail of the MEA area. Black disk and the black arrow indicate the position of Burial 26. Numbers in the lower and right margin indicate the x and y values, respectively, from the coordinate system of site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554517, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plan_of_Lapa_do_Santo_/1554517", "title"=>"Plan of Lapa do Santo.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286360"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological affinities of Burial 26 compared to the variation of the reference series, based on size corrected variables (shape alone).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554531, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_affinities_of_Burial_26_compared_to_the_variation_of_the_reference_series_based_on_size_corrected_variables_shape_alone_/1554531", "title"=>"Morphological affinities of Burial 26 compared to the variation of the reference series, based on size corrected variables (shape alone).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286343"], "description"=>"<p>The location of Lagoa Santa is indicated by the dot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554513, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_South_America_/1554513", "title"=>"Map of South America.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286359"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological affinities of Burial 26 compared to the variation of the reference series, based on original variables (size and shape).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554530, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_affinities_of_Burial_26_compared_to_the_variation_of_the_reference_series_based_on_original_variables_size_and_shape_/1554530", "title"=>"Morphological affinities of Burial 26 compared to the variation of the reference series, based on original variables (size and shape).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286378", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286379", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286380", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286381", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286382", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286383", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286384", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286385", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286388", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286389"], "description"=>"<div><p>We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7–12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1–9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26’s isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo’s inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554545, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.s013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>76, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Oldest_Case_of_Decapitation_in_the_New_World_Lapa_do_Santo_East_Central_Brazil_/1554545", "title"=>"The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286354"], "description"=>"<p>Although in anatomical position due the presence of carbonate cement, the posterior arch of the atlas was broken. a) Picture taken immediately after exhumation; the arrow indicates the point where the neural arch is attached to atlas by means of carbonatic concretion; b) Atlas was rotated 42 degrees in relation to the axis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554525, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atlas_and_axis_of_Burial_26_/1554525", "title"=>"Atlas and axis of Burial 26.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286351"], "description"=>"<p>a) infero-lateral view; b) infero-anterior view; c) the left part of face and neurocranium were removed to allow the view of the relative position of atlas and foramen magnum; d) detail of the relationship of atlas, axis, and the other cervical vertebrae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554521, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burial_26_Arrangement_of_the_cervical_vertebrae_/1554521", "title"=>"Burial 26. Arrangement of the cervical vertebrae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286349"], "description"=>"<p>Drawing by Gil Tokyo.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554519, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_Burial_26_from_Lapa_do_Santo_/1554519", "title"=>"Schematic representation of Burial 26 from Lapa do Santo.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286350"], "description"=>"<p>a) Field picture. The black arrow points to the block that marks the upper limit of the pit of Burial 26; b) schematic representation of Unit L11’s level 10, the black contours indicate the approximate limit of each burial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554520, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lapa_do_Santo_unit_L11_at_level_10_/1554520", "title"=>"Lapa do Santo unit L11 at level 10.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286362"], "description"=>"<p>S-EVA number, archaeological code, <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio, <sup>84</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio, Sr concentration (ppm) and voltage (<sup>88</sup>Sr) from enamel of the human teeth prepared in solution and analyzed in the MC-ICP-MS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554533, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S_EVA_number_archaeological_code_87_Sr_86_Sr_ratio_84_Sr_86_Sr_ratio_Sr_concentration_ppm_and_voltage_88_Sr_from_enamel_of_the_human_teeth_prepared_in_solution_and_analyzed_in_the_MC_ICP_MS_/1554533", "title"=>"S-EVA number, archaeological code, <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio, <sup>84</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio, Sr concentration (ppm) and voltage (<sup>88</sup>Sr) from enamel of the human teeth prepared in solution and analyzed in the MC-ICP-MS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286348"], "description"=>"<p>a) Aerial view of the massif in which the rock shelter is located; b) ground view of the massif, the site is located just behind the vegetation. The individual in panel 4b has given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish this image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554518, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lapa_do_Santo_massif_/1554518", "title"=>"Lapa do Santo massif.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286346"], "description"=>"<p>The dots indicate all early Holocene sites where human skeletal remains were found.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554515, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>89, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Lagoa_Santa_region_/1554515", "title"=>"Map of the Lagoa Santa region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286361"], "description"=>"<p>δ<sup>13</sup>C values are reported relative to the vPDB standard and δ<sup>15</sup>N values are reported relative to the AIR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554532, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Isotopic_values_C_N_ratios_amount_of_collagen_extracted_Coll_refer_to_the_gt_30_kDa_fraction_/1554532", "title"=>"Isotopic values, C:N ratios, amount of collagen extracted (%Coll) refer to the >30 kDa fraction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286358"], "description"=>"<p>Boxplot of the geometric mean of Burial 26 compared to Lagoa Santa skulls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554529, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplot_of_the_geometric_mean_of_Burial_26_compared_to_Lagoa_Santa_skulls_/1554529", "title"=>"Boxplot of the geometric mean of Burial 26 compared to Lagoa Santa skulls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2286356"], "description"=>"<p>The red arrow points to the hack mark.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandible", "New World", "right", "lapa", "ams", "cal", "burial", "kyBP", "evidence", "decapitation", "Lagoa Santa karst", "phalange", "santo", "interval"], "article_id"=>1554527, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["André Strauss", "Rodrigo Elias Oliveira", "Danilo V. Bernardo", "Domingo C. Salazar-García", "Sahra Talamo", "Klervia Jaouen", "Mark Hubbe", "Sue Black", "Caroline Wilkinson", "Michael Phillip Richards", "Astolfo G. M. Araujo", "Renato Kipnis", "Walter Alves Neves"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137456.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distal_extremity_of_the_right_radius_/1554527", "title"=>"Distal extremity of the right radius.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 04:20:58"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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