Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert
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{"title"=>"Conservation planning for offsetting the impacts of development: A case study of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jason", "last_name"=>"Kreitler", "scopus_author_id"=>"16304422200"}, {"first_name"=>"Carrie A.", "last_name"=>"Schloss", "scopus_author_id"=>"54421074700"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver", "last_name"=>"Soong", "scopus_author_id"=>"34977717100"}, {"first_name"=>"Lee", "last_name"=>"Hannah", "scopus_author_id"=>"55452160300"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank W.", "last_name"=>"Davis", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643187300"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84951105711", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26529595", "pui"=>"607307685", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0140226", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84951105711"}, "id"=>"21959150-f70f-3ee6-b14a-1382aeaa6bf1", "abstract"=>"<p>Balancing society’s competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species’ habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide continuing support for a potentially innovative mitigation solution to environmental impacts.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/conservation-planning-offsetting-impacts-development-case-study-biodiversity-renewable-energy-mojave", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Korea (South)"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400174"], "description"=>"<p>Direct offset sites (red) for hypothetical solar energy projects (gray) using a 2:1 offset ratio, over modeled species richness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592288, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Direct_offset_sites_/1592288", "title"=>"Direct offset sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400176"], "description"=>"<p>Max Cons offset sites (red) for hypothetical solar energy projects (gray) using a 2:1 offset ratio, over modeled species richness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592289, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Max_Cons_offset_sites_/1592289", "title"=>"Max Cons offset sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400177"], "description"=>"<p>The agreement of both scenarios (red), areas chosen by one scenario (orange), over modeled species richness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592290, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scenario_agreement_/1592290", "title"=>"Scenario agreement.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400179"], "description"=>"<p>Impact site characteristics from the hypothetical proposed projects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592291, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_site_characteristics_from_the_hypothetical_proposed_projects_/1592291", "title"=>"Impact site characteristics from the hypothetical proposed projects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400180"], "description"=>"<p>Species list, summary of modeled solar development impact, and offsets achieved for each species based on Direct vs. Max Cons objectives.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592292, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_list_summary_of_modeled_solar_development_impact_and_offsets_achieved_for_each_species_based_on_Direct_vs_Max_Cons_objectives_/1592292", "title"=>"Species list, summary of modeled solar development impact, and offsets achieved for each species based on Direct vs. Max Cons objectives.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400181"], "description"=>"<p>Area (ha) in various land status classes for the Max Cons and Direct offset scenarios.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592293, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Area_ha_in_various_land_status_classes_for_the_Max_Cons_and_Direct_offset_scenarios_/1592293", "title"=>"Area (ha) in various land status classes for the Max Cons and Direct offset scenarios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400170"], "description"=>"<p>The Western Mojave DRECP study area (California Ecological Subsection 322Ag: High Desert Plains and Hills [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226#pone.0140226.ref030\" target=\"_blank\">30</a>].The remainder of the methods section is organized as follows: a brief explanation of the Zonation conservation software package [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226#pone.0140226.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226#pone.0140226.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>] precedes further detail describing options of the Mojavset offsetting tool. This is followed by a description of our case study site and offsetting decisions, the creation of our set of hypothetical USSED sites, the spatial data describing conservation features, and a description of the two offset analyses analyzed in the case study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592285, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_map_/1592285", "title"=>"Location map.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400171"], "description"=>"<p>The colors on both map and chart correspond to regions of protected lands (green), area available for offsets (blue), selected offset sites (darker blue), and areas excluded for offset site consideration (red). Map is for illustrative purposes and does not accurately reflect current availability status.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592286, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_illustrating_the_use_of_a_utility_curve_in_Zonation_/1592286", "title"=>"Map illustrating the use of a utility curve in Zonation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2400172"], "description"=>"<p>Western Mojave ecological subsection with species richness and proposed utility scale solar development locations. Species richness is based on SDMs described in Davis et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226#pone.0140226.ref015\" target=\"_blank\">15</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["USSED", "Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan", "case study", "prioritized sites", "biodiversity conservation", "Renewable energy development", "code modification", "mitigation solution", "biodiversity conservation gains", "conservation planning", "consideration", "DRECP area", "land use change", "energy development", "impact populations", "Renewable Energy", "scenario prioritizes", "problem", "Western Mojave subsection", "siting support tool", "Spatial conservation prioritization tools", "species", "background climate"], "article_id"=>1592287, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Kreitler", "Carrie A. Schloss", "Oliver Soong", "Lee Hannah", "Frank W. Davis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140226.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_solar_development_sites_/1592287", "title"=>"Proposed solar development sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 03:31:29"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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