Identification of a Bacterial-Like HslVU Protease in the Mitochondria of Trypanosoma brucei and Its Role in Mitochondrial DNA Replication
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{"title"=>"Identification of a bacterial-like HslVU protease in the mitochondria of Trypanosoma brucei and its role in mitochondrial DNA replication", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ziyin", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"13613453800"}, {"first_name"=>"Megan E.", "last_name"=>"Lindsay", "scopus_author_id"=>"9839902000"}, {"first_name"=>"Shawn A.", "last_name"=>"Motyka", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603453003"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul T.", "last_name"=>"Englund", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007072287"}, {"first_name"=>"Ching C.", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501641653"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-43049091926", "pui"=>"351631072", "sgr"=>"43049091926", "pmid"=>"18421378", "issn"=>"15537366", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"f29dac50-7df4-3520-be4b-edf57d97f2da", "abstract"=>"ATP-dependent protease complexes are present in all living organisms, including the 26S proteasome in eukaryotes, Archaea, and Actinomycetales, and the HslVU protease in eubacteria. The structure of HslVU protease resembles that of the 26S proteasome, and the simultaneous presence of both proteases in one organism was deemed unlikely. However, HslVU homologs have been identified recently in some primordial eukaryotes, though their potential function remains elusive. We characterized the HslVU homolog from Trypanosoma brucei, a eukaryotic protozoan parasite and the causative agent of human sleeping sickness. TbHslVU has ATP-dependent peptidase activity and, like its bacterial counterpart, has essential lysine and N-terminal threonines in the catalytic subunit. By epitope tagging, TbHslVU localizes to mitochondria and is associated with the mitochondrial genome, kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). RNAi of TbHslVU dramatically affects the kDNA by causing over-replication of the minicircle DNA. This leads to defects in kDNA segregation and, subsequently, to continuous network growth to an enormous size. Multiple discrete foci of nicked/gapped minicircles are formed on the periphery of kDNA disc, suggesting a failure in repairing the gaps in the minicircles for kDNA segregation. TbHslVU is a eubacterial protease identified in the mitochondria of a eukaryote. It has a novel function in regulating mitochondrial DNA replication that has never been observed in other organisms.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/identification-bacteriallike-hslvu-protease-mitochondria-trypanosoma-brucei-role-mitochondrial-dna-r", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>3, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932952"], "description"=>"<p>(A). Cells were grown in the presence (+) of tetracycline to induce RNAi for 7 days, and cell growth was monitored daily. Northern blots were performed to assess levels of TbHslV, TbHslU1 and TbHslU2 mRNA before (−) and after (+) 2 days of RNAi (insets). (B–E). Un-induced control cells (B) and cells after RNAi induction for 7 days (C) were labeled with YL1/2 antibody for basal bodies (BB, arrowheads) and counterstained with DAPI for nucleus (N) and kinetoplast (arrows). (D). Two TbHslVU RNAi cells at the final stage of cell division were still connected by a thin thread of kinetoplast DNA (arrows) between two basal bodies (arrowheads) in two well-separated cells. Bars: 2 µm. (E). Tabulation of RNAi cells with kinetoplasts in varying sizes and morphologies. Approximately 200 cells were counted at each time point and the data represent averages from three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["knockdown", "tbhslvu", "kinetoplast"], "article_id"=>603399, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RNAi_knockdown_of_TbHslVU_affects_cell_growth_and_kinetoplast_morphology_/603399", "title"=>"RNAi knockdown of TbHslVU affects cell growth and kinetoplast morphology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 00:56:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933087"], "description"=>"<p>(A). Flow cytometry analysis of DHE stained cells. A total of 25,000 cells were counted in each experiment (Left panel). DHE stains exclusively the kinetoplasts in control and RNAi cells (Right panel). (B). Southern analysis of changes in minicircle and maxicircle DNA content during TbHslU RNAi. The kinetics of minicircle (open circle) and maxicircle (filled square) accumulation are presented to the right of the Southern blots. (C). DAPI staining of the isolated kDNA networks. (D). Surface areas of the isolated kDNA networks stained with DAPI, and measured with the NIH Image software.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnai", "led", "heterogeneously", "sized"], "article_id"=>603532, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TbHslVU_RNAi_led_to_heterogeneously_sized_kinetoplasts_/603532", "title"=>"TbHslVU RNAi led to heterogeneously sized kinetoplasts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 00:58:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933631"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were fixed, probed for minicircles (red) or maxicircles (green), and counterstained with DAPI. kDNA is indicated with a K and nucleus with an N. Bar: 2 µm. FISH does not detect covalently-closed DNA minicircles because they are non-denaturable <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048#ppat.1000048-Ferguson1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>. This is likely also true for maxicircles. Thus the FISH signal may not be proportional to the total populations of minicircles and maxicircles. Bars: 2 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detection", "minicircles", "maxicircles", "kinetoplast"], "article_id"=>604074, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_situ_detection_of_minicircles_and_maxicircles_in_the_kinetoplast_by_FISH_/604074", "title"=>"<i>In situ</i> detection of minicircles and maxicircles in the kinetoplast by FISH.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 01:07:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/460024", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/460046", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/460087", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/460127"], "description"=>"<div><p>ATP-dependent protease complexes are present in all living organisms, including the 26S proteasome in eukaryotes, <em>Archaea</em>, and <em>Actinomycetales</em>, and the HslVU protease in eubacteria. The structure of HslVU protease resembles that of the 26S proteasome, and the simultaneous presence of both proteases in one organism was deemed unlikely. However, <em>HslVU</em> homologs have been identified recently in some primordial eukaryotes, though their potential function remains elusive. We characterized the HslVU homolog from <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em>, a eukaryotic protozoan parasite and the causative agent of human sleeping sickness. TbHslVU has ATP-dependent peptidase activity and, like its bacterial counterpart, has essential lysine and N-terminal threonines in the catalytic subunit. By epitope tagging, TbHslVU localizes to mitochondria and is associated with the mitochondrial genome, kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). RNAi of TbHslVU dramatically affects the kDNA by causing over-replication of the minicircle DNA. This leads to defects in kDNA segregation and, subsequently, to continuous network growth to an enormous size. Multiple discrete foci of nicked/gapped minicircles are formed on the periphery of kDNA disc, suggesting a failure in repairing the gaps in the minicircles for kDNA segregation. TbHslVU is a eubacterial protease identified in the mitochondria of a eukaryote. It has a novel function in regulating mitochondrial DNA replication that has never been observed in other organisms.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bacterial-like", "hslvu", "protease", "mitochondria", "mitochondrial", "dna", "replication"], "article_id"=>150636, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Identification_of_a_Bacterial_Like_HslVU_Protease_in_the_Mitochondria_of_Trypanosoma_brucei_and_Its_Role_in_Mitochondrial_DNA_Replication/150636", "title"=>"Identification of a Bacterial-Like HslVU Protease in the Mitochondria of <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em> and Its Role in Mitochondrial DNA Replication", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 00:10:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/932804"], "description"=>"<p>(A). TbHslV contains the conserved threonine and lysine residues (arrows) found essential for the activities of HslV in <i>E. coli </i><a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048#ppat.1000048-Yoo1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a> and the β-subunits of 20S CP in <i>T. brucei </i><a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048#ppat.1000048-Wang4\" target=\"_blank\">[54]</a>. (B). The ATP-dependent peptidase activity of TbHslV. Wild type and three TbHslV mutants T20A, T21A and K53A were expressed as HA-tagged proteins in <i>T. brucei</i>, immunoprecipitated and assayed for hydrolysis of Cbz-Gly-Gly-Leu-AMC. (C). Cells stably expressing TbHslVU-HA were labeled for mitochondria with Mitotracker green dye (green), immunostained with anti-HA mAb for HA-tagged proteins (red) and counterstained with DAPI for DNA (blue). Arrows indicate the focal points of HA-staining corresponding to the positions of kinetoplasts (arrowheads). (D). Cells expressing TbHslVU-HA with the putative mitochondrial targeting sequences deleted were stained with anti-HA antibody (red) and counterstained with DAPI. Bars: 2 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intracellular", "localization"], "article_id"=>603246, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Enzymatic_activity_and_intracellular_localization_of_TbHslVU_/603246", "title"=>"Enzymatic activity and intracellular localization of TbHslVU.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 00:54:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933445"], "description"=>"<p>(A). The control cells (a–f). (B, C). The TbHslV RNAi cells (g–p). Percentages of TdT-labeled cells in control and TbHslV RNAi cells are presented (k). Bars: 2 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tdt-catalyzed", "fluorescein-dutp", "labeling", "cells", "days", "tbhslv"], "article_id"=>603887, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_situ_TdT_catalyzed_Fluorescein_dUTP_labeling_in_cells_after_7_days_of_TbHslV_RNAi_/603887", "title"=>"<i>In situ</i> TdT-catalyzed Fluorescein-dUTP labeling in cells after 7 days of TbHslV RNAi.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 01:04:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933320"], "description"=>"<p>(A). Total DNA was fractionated on an agarose/ethidium gel and a Southern blot was probed for minicircles. N/G, nicked/gapped minicircles; L, linearized minicircles; CC, covalently-closed minicircles, *, nonspecific hybridization to nuclear DNA. The nicked/gapped minicircles form a doublet with the lower component possibly linearized minicircles. Since it is present prior to RNAi induction (day 0), it is likely unrelated to RNAi. (B). Quantitation (by Phosphorimager) of bands from A. The nicked/gapped species includes both components of the doublet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnai", "minicircle", "replication"], "article_id"=>603766, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_TbHslU1_2_double_RNAi_on_free_minicircle_replication_intermediates_/603766", "title"=>"Effect of TbHslU1+2 double RNAi on free minicircle replication intermediates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 01:02:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/933217"], "description"=>"<p>Methods were described by <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048#ppat.1000048-Zhao1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>. (A, B, E, F) kDNA networks from cells after 7 days of TbHslV RNAi. (H) A kDNA network from an un-induced control cell. (C, D) Enlargements of the network in A, corresponding to the areas outlined in white framed boxes. (G) Enlargement of the network in F framed in a white box. The arrow in G indicates a maxicircle. Scale bars for A, B, E, F, and H, 2 µm and for C, D, and G, 0.5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microscopic", "kdna", "networks", "tbhslv", "rnai"], "article_id"=>603660, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Molecular Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ziyin Li", "Megan E. Lindsay", "Shawn A. Motyka", "Paul T. Englund", "Ching C. Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000048.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electron_microscopic_examination_of_kDNA_networks_from_the_control_and_TbHslV_RNAi_cells_/603660", "title"=>"Electron microscopic examination of kDNA networks from the control and TbHslV RNAi cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-04-18 01:01:00"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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