E2F1 Mediated Apoptosis Induced by the DNA Damage Response Is Blocked by EBV Nuclear Antigen 3C in Lymphoblastoid Cells
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{"title"=>"E2F1 mediated apoptosis induced by the DNA damage response is blocked by EBV nuclear antigen 3C in lymphoblastoid cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Abhik", "last_name"=>"Saha", "scopus_author_id"=>"26436255600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jie", "last_name"=>"Lu", "scopus_author_id"=>"35215683100"}, {"first_name"=>"Lise", "last_name"=>"Morizur", "scopus_author_id"=>"55221867400"}, {"first_name"=>"Santosh K.", "last_name"=>"Upadhyay", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193203807"}, {"first_name"=>"Mahadesh Prasad", "last_name"=>"AJ", "scopus_author_id"=>"55221867100"}, {"first_name"=>"Erle S.", "last_name"=>"Robertson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35552175300"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84861206434", "pui"=>"364837130", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573", "issn"=>"15537366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861206434", "pmid"=>"22438805"}, "id"=>"9a96334b-0e3a-3499-9903-0161e619252a", "abstract"=>"EBV latent antigen EBNA3C is indispensible for in vitro B-cell immortalization resulting in continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). EBNA3C was previously shown to target pRb for ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation, which facilitates G1 to S transition controlled by the major transcriptional activator E2F1. E2F1 also plays a pivotal role in regulating DNA damage induced apoptosis through both p53-dependent and -independent pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that in response to DNA damage LCLs knocked down for EBNA3C undergo a drastic induction of apoptosis, as a possible consequence of both p53- and E2F1-mediated activities. Importantly, EBNA3C was previously shown to suppress p53-induced apoptosis. Now, we also show that EBNA3C efficiently blocks E2F1-mediated apoptosis, as well as its anti-proliferative effects in a p53-independent manner, in response to DNA damage. The N- and C-terminal domains of EBNA3C form a stable pRb independent complex with the N-terminal DNA-binding region of E2F1 responsible for inducing apoptosis. Mechanistically, we show that EBNA3C represses E2F1 transcriptional activity via blocking its DNA-binding activity at the responsive promoters of p73 and Apaf-1 apoptosis induced genes, and also facilitates E2F1 degradation in an ubiquitin-proteasome dependent fashion. Moreover, in response to DNA damage, E2F1 knockdown LCLs exhibited a significant reduction in apoptosis with higher cell-viability. In the presence of normal mitogenic stimuli the growth rate of LCLs knockdown for E2F1 was markedly impaired; indicating that E2F1 plays a dual role in EBV positive cells and that active engagement of the EBNA3C-E2F1 complex is crucial for inhibition of DNA damage induced E2F1-mediated apoptosis. This study offers novel insights into our current understanding of EBV biology and enhances the potential for development of effective therapies against EBV associated B-cell lymphomas.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/e2f1-mediated-apoptosis-induced-dna-damage-response-blocked-ebv-nuclear-antigen-3c-lymphoblastoid-ce", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667210"], "description"=>"<p>A) The schematic represents three wild-type (WT) and three mutant (Mut) copies of the E2F1 responsive promoter element fused with the luciferase gene in pGL2Basic. B) HEK 293 (pRb<sup>+/+</sup>) cells were co-transfected with either 10 µg of WT (blue) or Mut (red) E2F1 reporter plasmids in combinations of expression plasmids for myc-EBNA3C and flag-E2F1 as indicated. C–E) Saos-2 (pRb<sup>−/−</sup>) cells were transfected with WT E2F1 reporter plasmid in the presence of different expression constructs as indicated. Cells were additionally transfected with 5 µg of pCMV-βgal and pEGFP-C1 expression vectors to normalize transfection efficiency. At 36 h post-transfection, cells were harvested and lysed in reporter lysis buffer. Total amount of proteins were normalized by Bradford assay and both luciferase and β-galactosidase activities were measured as described in ‘<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>’ section. Mean values and standard deviations of three independent experiments are presented. Bottoms panels indicate a representative blot of 5% of the total cell lysates resolved by appropriate % SDS-PAGE demonstrating the expression levels of ectopically expressed proteins. GAPDH blot was done as an internal loading control. E2F1 protein bands were quantified using Odyssey imager software as indicated as arbitrary numerical values (relative intensity, RI) at the bottom of gel (B–E) based on both GFP and GAPDH loading controls. F) HEK293 cells transfected with the WT E2F1 reporter plasmid in the presence of either flag-E2F1 alone or flag-E2F1 plus myc-EBNA3C expressing plasmids were subjected to ChIP assay as described in ‘<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>’ section. The eluted DNA samples were subjected to qPCR analysis using primers directed for either E2F1-responsive promoter fused with luciferase gene (top) or SV-40 promoter region (bottom). Panels show representative pictures from two independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ebna3c", "blocks", "e2f1", "mediated", "transcriptional"], "article_id"=>337694, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Co_expression_of_EBNA3C_blocks_E2F1_mediated_transcriptional_activity_/337694", "title"=>"Co-expression of EBNA3C blocks E2F1 mediated transcriptional activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:08:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667343"], "description"=>"<p>A–D) Saos-2 (pRb<sup>−/−</sup>) cells were electroporated with expression plasmids for either empty vector, flag-E2F1, myc-EBNA3C or myc-EBNA3C residues 366–620 as indicated. A–C) Cells were additionally transfected with a GFP expression vector. At 24 h post-transfection cells were exposed to serum starvation and 5 µM etoposide treatment for 12 h, followed by selection with G418 for 2 weeks. A) After a 2-week selection, cells were fixed on the plates with 4% formaldehyde and scanned for GFP expressed colonies using Typhoon 9410 imaging system. The area of stained cells in each dish was calculated by Image J software. B) Approximately 0.1×10<sup>6</sup> of flag-E2F1 and flag-E2F1 plus either full-length myc-EBNA3C or myc-EBNA3C residues 366–620 expressing selected cells from each set of samples were plated into each well of the 6-well plates and cultured for 6 days after 12 h treatment with serum starvation and 5 µM etoposide. Viable cells from each well were counted by trypan blue exclusion method daily using an automated cell counter. C) Selected cells with similar treatment as A) were subjected to flow cytometry analyses as described in ‘<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>’ section. Bar diagrams represent average sub G1 values of two independent experiments. D) Saos-2 cells transfected with different combinations of expression plasmids as described in panel A) and selected similarly as stated above with G418. After genotoxic stress with serum starvation and 5 µM etoposide treatment for 12 h cells were fixed and subjected for TUNEL assay as per manufactures protocol. A–D) All panels are representative of two independent experiments and bar diagrams represent the average data of two independent experiments with standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inhibits", "e2f1", "mediated", "anti-proliferative", "activities", "saos-2"], "article_id"=>337819, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EBNA3C_inhibits_E2F1_mediated_anti_proliferative_activities_in_Saos_2_p53_8722_8722_pRb_8722_8722_cells_/337819", "title"=>"EBNA3C inhibits E2F1 mediated anti-proliferative activities in Saos-2 (p53<sup>−/−</sup> pRb<sup>−/−</sup>) cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667895"], "description"=>"<p>A) HEK 293 cells were co-transfected with flag-E2F1 and either vector control (lanes 1 and 3) or myc-EBNA3C (lanes 2 and 4) with GFP expressing vector. At 36 h posttransfection, samples were treated with either 20 µM MG132 (+lanes) or DMSO (−lanes) for 6 h and resolved by 10% SDS-PAGE and probed with the indicated antibodies. B) HEK 293 cells were similarly transfected with expression plasmids for flag-E2F1, myc-tagged EBNA3C and GFP plasmids as indicated. At 36 h post-transfection, cells were treated with 40 µg/ml cyclohexamide (CHX) for indicated lengths of time. 5% of the lysate from each sample were resolved by 9% SDS-PAGE and western blotted with indicated antibodies. C) 15 million HEK 293 cells transfected with different combinations of expression plasmids as indicated. Cells were harvested at 36 h, and total protein was immunoprecipitated (IP) with flag antibody and samples were resolved by 9% SDS-PAGE. D) Approximately 10 million of stably generated LCLs with either Sh-control (Sh-Con) or Sh-EBNA3C (Sh-E3C) were incubated with 100 µg/ml CHX for indicated lengths of time in RPMI medium containing either 10% FBS (+serum/DMSO) or 0.1% FBS plus 5 µM etoposide (−serum/+Etop) at 37°C. 10% of the lysate from each sample were resolved by 9% SDS-PAGE and western blotted with indicated antibodies. E) Approximately 50 million LCLs with either control Sh-RNA (Sh-Con) or EBNA3C directed Sh-RNA (Sh-E3C) were harvested after 10 h incubation with proteasome inhibitor MG132 (40 µM). Cells were lysed and E2F1 was immunoprecipitated (IP). Samples were resolved by 9% SDS-PAGE and western blotting (WB) was done by stripping and reprobing the same membrane. F) Saos-2 cells transfected with the WT E2F1 reporter plasmid in the presence of either flag-E2F1 alone or flag-E2F1 plus myc-EBNA3C expressing plasmids followed by incubated with either DMSO or MG132 (20 µM) were subjected for reporter assay as essentially described in ‘<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>’. Mean values and standard deviations of three independent experiments are presented. Bottoms panels indicate a representative blot of 5% of the total cell lysates resolved by appropriate % SDS-PAGE demonstrating the expression levels of ectopically expressed proteins. E2F1 protein bands were quantified using Odyssey imager software as indicated as either bar diagrams (A, B and D) or arbitrary numerical values (relative intensity, RI) at the bottom of gel (B–E) based on GFP or GAPDH loading controls, where applicable. G–H) Approximately 10 million of indicated cells incubated with either DMSO or MG132 (40 µM) for 10 h, harvested and 10% of total lysates were subjected for western blots with indicated antibodies. For all western blots, where appropriate, GAPDH serves as an internal loading control and GFP as a transfection efficiency control. Western blotting was done by stripping and reprobing the same membrane. Protein bands were quantified using Odyssey imager software as indicated either as arbitrary numerical values at the bottom of gel or as bar diagrams based on either GAPDH or GFP loading control. I) In response to DNA damage signals E2F1 gets stabilized and transcriptionally activates pro-apoptotic genes p73 and Apaf-1, which eventually induces apoptosis. In EBV transformed cells, by forming a stable complex with E2F1, EBNA3C inhibits its DNA binding activity and inhibits the transcriptional activation of p73 and Apaf-1. Moreover, EBNA3C specifically targets E2F1 for an ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation, which altogether blocks apoptotic induction. Moreover, sh-RNA designed against E2F1 showed reverse consequences and augments the apoptotic resistance of the cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leads", "e2f1", "destabilization", "ubiquitin-proteasome"], "article_id"=>338380, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EBNA3C_expression_leads_to_E2F1_destabilization_via_an_ubiquitin_proteasome_dependent_pathway_/338380", "title"=>"EBNA3C expression leads to E2F1 destabilization via an ubiquitin-proteasome dependent pathway.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:19:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667622"], "description"=>"<p>A–B) Approximately10 million human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infected by either A) wild-type (WT) BAC GFP-EBV or EBNA3C knockout BAC GFP-EBV (ΔE3C) for 4 h. At indicates times post-infection cells were harvested, total RNA was isolated and subjected to cDNA preparation as per manufacturer's instruction followed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis for detecting <i>E2F1</i> and <i>EBNA3C</i> transcript levels. Each sample was tested in triplicate and data obtained from two independent experiments with two different donors and expressed as the difference of the quantity of specific transcripts to the quantity of GAPDH transcript as control. The fold change in expression of each mRNA relative to GAPDH transcript was calculated based on the threshold cycle (Ct) as 2<sup>− Δ(ΔCt)</sup>, where ΔCt = Ct<sub>target</sub>−Ct<sub>GAPDH</sub> and Δ(ΔCt) = ΔCt<sub>test sample</sub>−ΔCt<sub>control sample</sub>. C) Approximately 10 million of EBNA3C and control knockdown LCLs were harvested and total cell proteins were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis using indicated antibodies. D) Approximately 20 million of EBNA3C knockdown LCLs were transfected with 50 ìg of plasmids expressing either vector control or myc-tagged EBNA3C via electroporation. Transfected LCLs were cultured in RPMI medium with 10% FBS for 48 h and subjected for western blot analysis using indicated antibodies. E) Total RNA was isolated from indicated LCLs, subjected to cDNA preparation as per manufacturer's instruction followed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis for detecting <i>E2F1, p73 and Apaf-1</i> transcript levels as similar to A–B). F) Approximately 10 million of EBNA3C and control knockdown LCLs were harvested and total cell proteins (50 µg) were subjected to western blot analysis using indicated antibodies. G) A ChIP assay was performed using either control or EBNA3C knockdown LCLs. Material immunoprecipitated with anti-E2F1 or control antibody (rabbit IgG) was amplified by using primers specific for p73 (top) or Apaf1 (bottom) promoters. The end products of qPCR bands ran into a 2.5% agarose gel. Bar diagrams represent the change in Ct value (ΔCt) over IgG. H–I) Saos-2 (p53<sup>−/−</sup> pRb<sup>−/−</sup>) cells were transfected with either 5 µg of the wild-type H) p73-luciferase or I) Apaf-1-luciferase reporter plasmids with flag-E2F1 and myc-EBNA3C expression vectors as indicated. Luciferase activity was assessed at 36 h of post-transfection. J) Schematic representation of streptavidin pulldown assay as described in ‘<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>’ section. K) 100 µg of cell extracts from Saos-2 cells transfected with flag-E2F1 with or without myc-EBNA3C expression vector were incubated with 200 ng of the indicated biotinylated oligonucleotides (WT or Mut) immobilized with streptavidin accordingly to the manufacturer protocol, in the absence or presence of a 200 molar excess of the corresponding non biotinylated oligonucleotide (competition: comp). Oligonucleotide-bound E2F1 protein was detected by western blotting using anti-flag antibody (M2). The binding capacity of each oligonucleotide is given as percentage at bottom. All panels are representative of two independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blocks", "p73", "apaf-1", "expressions", "inhibiting", "dna-binding", "e2f1", "targeted", "promoters"], "article_id"=>338100, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EBNA3C_blocks_p73_and_Apaf_1_expressions_by_inhibiting_the_DNA_binding_ability_of_E2F1_to_its_targeted_promoters_in_LCLs_/338100", "title"=>"EBNA3C blocks p73 and Apaf-1 expressions by inhibiting the DNA-binding ability of E2F1 to its targeted promoters in LCLs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:15:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667489"], "description"=>"<p>A–C) Two EBV negative Burkitt's lymphoma lines - Ramos and DG75 and two EBV transformed cell lines - LCL1 and LCL2; D–F) Short hairpin (Sh) RNA mediated knockdown EBV transformed LCLs (Sh-Con or Sh-E3C) were subjected for genotoxic stress with serum starvation and 5 µM etoposide treatment for 12 h. A and D) Propidium iodide stained cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for a quantitative measurement of apoptosis (subG1 value). A and D) Bar diagrams below histograms represent the mean value of two independent experiments with standard deviation. B and E) Panels indicate representative western blots (WB) of 10% of the total cell lysates with indicated antibodies. C and F) Approximately 0.1 million of indicated cells were grown in 6 well plate for 6 days in RPMI medium containing 0.1% FBS plus 5 µM etoposide (−serum/+Etop) at 37°C. Viable cells from each well were counted by trypan blue exclusion method every 2nd day using an automated cell counter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["knockdown", "lcls", "leads", "apoptotic"], "article_id"=>337972, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EBNA3C_knockdown_in_LCLs_leads_to_an_increase_in_apoptotic_cell_death_/337972", "title"=>"EBNA3C knockdown in LCLs leads to an increase in apoptotic cell death.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:12:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667755"], "description"=>"<p>A) Approximately 10 million of Sh-RNA directed control or E2F1 knock-down LCLs (Sh-Con and Sh-E2F1 #1, respectively) were harvested and total proteins were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis using indicated antibodies. B–C) Approximately 0.1 million of indicated cells were grown in 6 well plate for 6 days in RPMI medium containing either B) 10% FBS (+serum/DMSO) or C) 0.1% FBS plus 5 µM etoposide (−serum/+Etop) at 37°C. Viable cells from each well were counted by trypan blue exclusion method every 2nd day using an automated cell counter. D) Cells were treated with serum starvation and an increasing dose of etoposide (0, 5, 10 and 20 µM) for 12 h, harvested, stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by flow cytometry. E) The bar diagram represents the change in G0 phase due to serum starvation and etoposide treatment in D). F) In a parallel experiment similar as D) approximately 2 million of indicated cells were subjected for western blot to detect the endogenous expression levels of EBNA3C, E2F1, PARP and GAPDH.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["e2f1", "knockdown", "responsive"], "article_id"=>338238, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LCLs_with_E2F1_knockdown_are_less_responsive_to_apoptosis_/338238", "title"=>"LCLs with E2F1 knockdown are less responsive to apoptosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:17:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667081"], "description"=>"<p>A) 10 million HEK293 (pRb<sup>+/+</sup>) cells were co-transfected with myc-EBNA3C expressing construct with plasmids expressing either vector control or different truncated versions of E2F1 as indicated. After 36 h of transfection, cells were harvested, lysed and immunoprecipitated (IP) with anti-flag antibody (M2). Samples were resolved by a 9% SDS-PAGE and detected by western blot (WB) for the indicated proteins by stripping and reprobing the same membrane. B–C) GST-fused wild-type or different truncated recombinant proteins of E2F1 were incubated with either S<sup>35</sup>-labeled (top) or ectopically expressed myc-EBNA3C in HEK293 lysate (bottom). After preclearing of all S<sup>35</sup>-radiolabeled translated proteins with GST-beads for 1 h at 4°C, samples were subjected to GST-pull-down by incubating with either recombinant GST alone or wild-type GST-E2F1 protein as indicated. Samples were electrophoretically separated on 8% SDS-PAGE and were subjected to either autoradiography or western blot using anti-myc antibody. A parallel coomassie stained 12% SDS-PAGE resolving purified GST-proteins is shown at the bottom panel of B. C) The schematic illustrates different structural and interaction domains of E2F1 and summarizes the binding studies among EBNA3C and E2F1. +, binding; −, no binding. NLS, nuclear localization signal; DBD, DNA binding domain; LZ, leucine zipper motif; MB, Marked box. The asterisk indicates the immunoglobulin bands.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binding", "located", "n-terminal", "dna"], "article_id"=>337564, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EBNA3C_binding_region_is_located_at_the_N_terminal_DNA_binding_domain_of_E2F1_/337564", "title"=>"EBNA3C binding region is located at the N-terminal DNA binding domain of E2F1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:06:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341678"], "description"=>"<div><p>EBV latent antigen EBNA3C is indispensible for <em>in vitro</em> B-cell immortalization resulting in continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). EBNA3C was previously shown to target pRb for ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation, which facilitates G1 to S transition controlled by the major transcriptional activator E2F1. E2F1 also plays a pivotal role in regulating DNA damage induced apoptosis through both p53-dependent and -independent pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that in response to DNA damage LCLs knocked down for EBNA3C undergo a drastic induction of apoptosis, as a possible consequence of both p53- and E2F1-mediated activities. Importantly, EBNA3C was previously shown to suppress p53-induced apoptosis. Now, we also show that EBNA3C efficiently blocks E2F1-mediated apoptosis, as well as its anti-proliferative effects in a p53-independent manner, in response to DNA damage. The N- and C-terminal domains of EBNA3C form a stable pRb independent complex with the N-terminal DNA-binding region of E2F1 responsible for inducing apoptosis. Mechanistically, we show that EBNA3C represses E2F1 transcriptional activity via blocking its DNA-binding activity at the responsive promoters of p73 and Apaf-1 apoptosis induced genes, and also facilitates E2F1 degradation in an ubiquitin-proteasome dependent fashion. Moreover, in response to DNA damage, E2F1 knockdown LCLs exhibited a significant reduction in apoptosis with higher cell-viability. In the presence of normal mitogenic stimuli the growth rate of LCLs knockdown for E2F1 was markedly impaired; indicating that E2F1 plays a dual role in EBV positive cells and that active engagement of the EBNA3C-E2F1 complex is crucial for inhibition of DNA damage induced E2F1-mediated apoptosis. This study offers novel insights into our current understanding of EBV biology and enhances the potential for development of effective therapies against EBV associated B-cell lymphomas.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["e2f1", "mediated", "apoptosis", "induced", "dna", "blocked", "ebv", "antigen", "3c", "lymphoblastoid", "cells"], "article_id"=>127545, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/E2F1_Mediated_Apoptosis_Induced_by_the_DNA_Damage_Response_Is_Blocked_by_EBV_Nuclear_Antigen_3C_in_Lymphoblastoid_Cells/127545", "title"=>"E2F1 Mediated Apoptosis Induced by the DNA Damage Response Is Blocked by EBV Nuclear Antigen 3C in Lymphoblastoid Cells", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:05:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/666828"], "description"=>"<p>50 million A) DG75 and two LCL clones (LCL1 and 2) and B) BJAB and two BJAB stable clones expressing EBNA3C (E3C7 and E3C10) were subjected to immunoprecipitation (IP) with EBNA3C specific rabbit antibody. Samples were resolved by SDS-PAGE and detected by western blot (WB) for the indicated proteins by stripping and reprobing the same membrane. 10 million C) HEK293 (pRb<sup>+/+</sup>) or D) Saos-2 (pRb<sup>−/−</sup>) cells were co-transfected with plasmids expressing myc-EBNA3C either in the presence of vector control, wild-type flag-E2F1 (residues 1–437) or pRb binding deficient flag-E2F1 (residues 1–400) as indicated. At 36 h post-transfection, cells were harvested, lysed in RIPA buffer and IP with flag-antibody. Samples were western blotted (WB) with the indicated antibodies. The asterisks indicate the immunoglobulin bands. E) EBV transformed cells LCL2 were plated and air-dried onto slides. F) Saos-2 (pRb<sup>−/−</sup>) cells plated on coverslips were co-transfected with plasmids expressing GFP-EBNA3C with flag-E2F1 using Lipofectamine 2000 as per manufactures instructions. E) Endogenously and F) ectopically expressed E2F1 were detected by either specific rabbit antibody (C-20) or mouse M2-antibody, respectively, followed by specific anti-Alexa Fluor 594 2<sup>0</sup> antibody (red). A) Endogenous EBNA3C in EBV positive LCLs was detected using an EBNA3C-specific antibody (A10 ascites) followed by 2<sup>0</sup> antibody anti-mouse Alexa Fluor 488 (green). Ectopically expressed GFP-EBNA3C in Saos-2 cells was detected by GFP fluorescence. The nuclei were subsequently stained with DAPI and the images were captured using an Olympus confocal microscope. All panels are representative pictures from approximately 100 cells of 10 different fields of three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["forms", "prb"], "article_id"=>337317, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EBNA3C_forms_a_pRb_independent_complex_with_E2F1_/337317", "title"=>"EBNA3C forms a pRb independent complex with E2F1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:01:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/666971"], "description"=>"<p>A and C) 10 million HEK293 (pRb<sup>+/+</sup>) cells were co-transfected with plasmids expressing pRb binding deficient flag-E2F1 (residues 1–400) in presence of different myc-EBNA3C constructs as indicated. Cells were harvested, lysed and immunoprecipitated (IP) with anti-flag antibody (M2). Samples were resolved by a 9% SDS-PAGE and detected by western blot (WB) for the indicated proteins by stripping and reprobing the same membrane. B and D) Wild-type or different truncated mutant expression plasmids of EBNA3C were <i>in vitro</i> translated in presence of S<sup>35</sup>-Met as per manufacturer's instructions. After preclearing of all S<sup>35</sup>-radiolabeled translated proteins with GST-beads for 1 h at 4°C, samples were subjected to GST-pull-down by incubating with either recombinant GST alone or wild-type GST-E2F1 protein as indicated. Reactions were resolved by a 9% SDS-PAGE, exposed to phosphoimager plate for overnight and scanned using Typhoon 9410 imaging system. Coomassie staining of a parallel SDS-PAGE resolving purified GST-proteins is shown at the bottom panel of B. E) The schematic illustrates different structural and interaction domains of EBNA3C and summarizes the binding studies between different domains of EBNA3C with E2F1. +, binding; −, no binding. ND, not determined. NLS, nuclear localization signal. The asterisks indicate the immunoglobulin bands.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["n-", "c-terminal", "domains", "ebna3c"], "article_id"=>337458, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Abhik Saha", "Jie Lu", "Lise Morizur", "Santosh K. Upadhyay", "Mahadesh Prasad AJ", "Erle S. Robertson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002573.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Both_N_and_C_terminal_domains_of_EBNA3C_bind_to_E2F1_/337458", "title"=>"Both N- and C-terminal domains of EBNA3C bind to E2F1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:04:18"}

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Relative Metric

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