Norovirus Immunity and the Great Escape
Publication Date
October 18, 2012
Journal
PLOS Pathogens
Authors
Kari Debbink, Lisa C. Lindesmith, Eric F. Donaldson & Ralph S. Baric
Volume
8
Issue
10
Pages
e1002921
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002921
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1002921
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23093932
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475665
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23093932
Web of Science
000310530300005
Scopus
84868119845
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/norovirus-immunity-great-escape
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556134"], "description"=>"<p><b>1A: </b><b>NoV genome schematic.</b> The NoV genome encodes three open reading frames. ORF 1 encodes the nonstructural proteins (blue); ORF 2 encodes VP1, the major capsid protein (purple); and ORF 3 encodes VP2, the minor capsid protein (green). VP1 is further divided into the shell, which forms the base of the virion (teal); the P1 subdomain, which forms a stalk-like projection from the surface (orange); and the P2 subdomain, which is the most variable and surface-exposed area of the virion, contains ligand binding sites, and interacts with potentially neutralizing antibodies (red). <b>1B: NoV phylogenetic tree.</b> NoVs are divided into five genogroups. Genogroups 1 (pink) and 2 (orange) cause the majority of human disease. Genogroups are further divided into genotypes. Genotype GII.4 NoVs (red bracket) account for ∼80% of outbreaks. Genotype GI.1 NoVs are the prototypic Norwalk viruses. <b>1C: NoV capsid protein (VP1) cryo EM image.</b> Colors correspond approximately to the shell (teal), the P1 subdomain (yellow/orange) and the P2 subdomain (red). <b>1D. Secretor/non-secretor phenotype pathways.</b> Enzymes (Secretor or Lewis) add specific modifications to a precursor molecule. Individuals without a functional FUT2 gene cannot express HBGAs from the left branch of the pathway (left of the dotted line) on mucosal surfaces. For those without a functional FUT2 gene (non-secretors), the precursor molecule can still be modified by the Lewis enzyme to make Lewis a antigen (branch on the right side of the dotted line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binding"], "article_id"=>226634, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kari Debbink", "Lisa C. Lindesmith", "Eric F. Donaldson", "Ralph S. Baric"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002921.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NoV_Genetic_Diversity_Structure_and_Binding_Ligand_/226634", "title"=>"NoV Genetic Diversity, Structure, and Binding Ligand.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:29:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556308"], "description"=>"<p><b>2A: GII.4 blockade epitopes.</b> Three blockade epitopes have been identified in GII.4 NoVs. Epitope A (residues 294, 296–298, 368, and 372; green), Epitope D (residues 393–395; orange), and Epitope E (residues 407, 412–413; yellow) all map to the P2 subdomain on the surface of the virion. The HBGA interaction sites are shown in black. <b>2B: GII.4 P2 subdomain variation over time.</b> Colored residues indicate change over time since 1974; changes present in 1987 = yellow, 1997 = red, 2002 = teal, 2004 = green, 2005 = orange, 2006 = purple, 2009 = blue, HBGA interaction sites = black, carbohydrates = white sticks. <b>2C: GII.4 NoV variation over time in blockade-epitope regions.</b> GII.4 NoV blockade epitopes undergo change over time, likely in response to human herd immunity. Colors indicate in which outbreak strain a particular residue change originated. <b>2D: Mapping of GII.4 variation over time in blockade-epitope regions.</b> Each VLP shows areas within blockade epitopes that change over time. Yellow indicates differences from 1974 present in 1987, 1997 = red, 2002 = teal, 2004 = green, 2005 = orange, 2006 = purple, and 2009 = blue. These blockade epitopes have continued to evolve in new outbreak strains since 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nov"], "article_id"=>226813, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kari Debbink", "Lisa C. Lindesmith", "Eric F. Donaldson", "Ralph S. Baric"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002921.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GII_4_NoV_Variation_over_Time_/226813", "title"=>"GII.4 NoV Variation over Time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:30:52"}

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Relative Metric

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