Genome Structure and Reproductive Behaviour Influence the Evolutionary Potential of a Fungal Phytopathogen
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{"title"=>"Genome Structure and Reproductive Behaviour Influence the Evolutionary Potential of a Fungal Phytopathogen", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Guillaume", "last_name"=>"Daverdin", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193576468"}, {"first_name"=>"Thierry", "last_name"=>"Rouxel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005948512"}, {"first_name"=>"Lilian", "last_name"=>"Gout", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506461254"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Noël", "last_name"=>"Aubertot", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602514849"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabelle", "last_name"=>"Fudal", "scopus_author_id"=>"8771604500"}, {"first_name"=>"Michel", "last_name"=>"Meyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55728881200"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis", "last_name"=>"Parlange", "scopus_author_id"=>"23493362600"}, {"first_name"=>"Julien", "last_name"=>"Carpezat", "scopus_author_id"=>"55516140800"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie Hélène", "last_name"=>"Balesdent", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701772394"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84870847734", "pui"=>"366234373", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020", "issn"=>"15537366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870847734", "pmid"=>"23144620"}, "id"=>"df9c09e6-d8f2-3ace-a8c1-aaeaa5b52931", "abstract"=>"Author SummaryPlant disease resistance often relies on simple “gene-for-gene” systems and, in the pathogen, a mutation in a single “avirulence” gene matching the plant resistance gene is sufficient to render the resistance ineffective. In agricultural systems, breeding for resistance is challenged by both the high evolutionary potential of the pathogen and the large scale of crop production; together, these factors encourage “breakdown” of novel sources of resistance soon after their deployment. Here, we established a four-year field experiment to evaluate the mechanisms and speed with which a fungal pathogen of oilseed rape, Leptosphaeria maculans renders ineffective the novel resistance gene Rlm7. The pathogen showed a very high evolutionary potential; the proportion of isolates in the population that were virulent against Rlm7 increased from 0 to 36% in four years. The experiment demonstrated that an extremely diverse range of molecular events leading to virulence, from more or less extensive nucleotide mutations or deletions to complete gene deletion, can occur in a single field. These results suggest that the genomic environment of the avirulence gene and the reproductive regime of the pathogen promote mutability at a single locus to produce virulence. Cropping practices that promote large pathogen populations and encourage sexual reproduction therefore favour rapid adaptation of the pathogen to the novel resistance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genome-structure-reproductive-behaviour-influence-evolutionary-potential-fungal-phytopathogen", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/291988"], "description"=>"<div><p>Modern agriculture favours the selection and spread of novel plant diseases. Furthermore, crop genetic resistance against pathogens is often rendered ineffective within a few years of its commercial deployment. <em>Leptosphaeria maculans</em>, the cause of phoma stem canker of oilseed rape, develops gene-for-gene interactions with its host plant, and has a high evolutionary potential to render ineffective novel sources of resistance in crops. Here, we established a four-year field experiment to monitor the evolution of populations confronted with the newly released <em>Rlm7</em> resistance and to investigate the nature of the mutations responsible for virulence against <em>Rlm7</em>. A total of 2551 fungal isolates were collected from experimental crops of a <em>Rlm7</em> cultivar or a cultivar without <em>Rlm7</em>. All isolates were phenotyped for virulence and a subset was genotyped with neutral genetic markers. Virulent isolates were investigated for molecular events at the AvrLm4-7 locus. Whilst virulent isolates were not found in neighbouring crops, their frequency had reached 36% in the experimental field after four years. An extreme diversity of independent molecular events leading to virulence was identified in populations, with large-scale Repeat Induced Point mutations or complete deletion of <em>AvrLm4-7</em> being the most frequent. Our data suggest that increased mutability of fungal genes involved in the interactions with plants is directly related to their genomic environment and reproductive system. Thus, rapid allelic diversification of avirulence genes can be generated in <em>L. maculans</em> populations in a single field provided that large population sizes and sexual reproduction are favoured by agricultural practices.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome", "reproductive", "behaviour", "evolutionary", "fungal", "phytopathogen"], "article_id"=>117482, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genome_Structure_and_Reproductive_Behaviour_Influence_the_Evolutionary_Potential_of_a_Fungal_Phytopathogen__/117482", "title"=>"Genome Structure and Reproductive Behaviour Influence the Evolutionary Potential of a Fungal Phytopathogen", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 02:04:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/545913"], "description"=>"<p>A total of 1278 isolates were recovered from susceptible cultivars (without the resistance gene <i>Rlm7</i>) sown next to resistant (with <i>Rlm7</i>) cultivars in the experimental plot at Grignon and its immediate surroundings between 2000 and 2008 and phenotyped for their virulence towards <i>Rlm7</i> cultivars. Isolates were obtained either at the phoma leaf spot stage in autumn (diamonds; beginning of the disease cycle) or at the phoma stem canker stage at harvest (squares, end of the disease cycle, after one sexual reproduction cycle). Isolates were collected before the start of the experiment (white symbols), within the field experiment (black symbols) or in fields sown close (<600 m) to the field experiment (grey symbols).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["virulent", "isolates", "susceptible"], "article_id"=>216398, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_frequency_of_virulent_avrLm7_isolates_of_Leptosphaeria_maculans_obtained_from_susceptible_cultivars_/216398", "title"=>"Changes in the frequency of virulent <i>avrLm7</i> isolates of <i>Leptosphaeria maculans</i> obtained from susceptible cultivars.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:46:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546026"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Percentages of the main mutational events in the collection of 769 virulent <i>avrLm7</i> isolates analysed (excluding nine isolates for which the mutation events could not be characterized). All isolates were obtained from the experimental plot at Grignon between 2006 and 2008. <b>B.</b> GeneDoc-edited alignment of representative variants of the AvrLm4-7 protein. The AvrLm4-7 protein sequences deduced for three avirulent isolates with the <i>AvrLm7</i> specificity, and 19 virulent <i>avrLm7</i> isolates with different mutation events leading to virulence are shown and compared to those of the two reference isolates v23.1.3 and v23.1.2. The intensity of shading reflects the intensity of sequence conservation. Stop codons are indicated as stars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutational", "events", "alleles", "consequences"], "article_id"=>216514, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Main_mutational_events_identified_in_the_avrLm7_alleles_and_consequences_for_the_protein_produced_/216514", "title"=>"Main mutational events identified in the <i>avrLm7</i> alleles and consequences for the protein produced.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:48:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546171"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> The <i>AvrLm4-7</i> sequence analysed (encompassing ca. 550 bp of the promoter region and ca. 60 bp of the 3′UTR) and the location of primers used for PCR and sequencing (primers Ext-F, Ext-R, Ext-F2 and Ext-F3, Int-F and Int-R), qRT-PCR (AVR47-QA-F and AVR47-QA-R), TAIL-PCR (Tail-GD1-Tail-GD3) and HRM analyses (Hrm-F and Hrm-R) are shown. White boxes, coding sequence; black boxes, introns; grey boxes, 5′ and 3′ UTR; hashed boxes, transposable elements. <b>B.</b> The alleles were identified in virulent <i>avrLm7</i> isolates obtained in 2006 to 2008 from the experimental field at Grignon. The sequence with the greatest total G+C content (v23.1.2) was chosen as the least RIP-mutated model for comparison of all aligned sequences. Physical distribution of RIP along the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene is illustrated by the overall RIP mutation frequency over a 50 bp scanning window. A substantial over-representation of the CpA/TpG↔TpA mutation (red) over CpN↔TpN or NpG↔NpA mutations (blue and green curves) was observed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ripcal", "127", "ripped"], "article_id"=>216662, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_the_AvrLm4_7_gene_and_RIPCAL_analysis_of_127_RIPped_AvrLm4_7_alleles_/216662", "title"=>"Schematic representation of the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene and RIPCAL analysis of 127 RIPped <i>AvrLm4-7</i> alleles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546281"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> schematic representation of the 4.5-kb region containing the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene. The restriction sites above the line are present in the control v23.1.3 isolate and are indicated as follows: <i>Xba</i>I, X; <i>Hpa</i>I, H; and <i>Spe</i>I, S. The <i>Xba</i>I and <i>Spe</i>I sites indicated below the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene are absent in v23.1.3 and are generated by RIP mutations in some RIPped alleles (see also Table S3 in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020#ppat.1003020.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>). The thick black arrow indicates the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene and its direction of transcription. The location of the hybridization probe is indicated by the thick black bar. Red, green and blue lines indicate the location and size (in bp) of the restriction fragments generated by <i>Hpa</i>I, <i>Xba</i>I and <i>Spe</i>I, respectively, in the avirulent isolate v23.1.3 (upper double arrow(s)) and in representative RIPped isolates (lower double arrow(s)). <b>B.</b> Southern blot of the reference isolates v23.1.3 (<i>AvrLm7</i>) and Nz-T4 (<i>avrLm7</i>), along with <i>avrLm7</i> field isolates with different mutational events leading to virulence; G07-E1026, G07-E238, and G08-E1080, RIPped alleles; G08-E1474, G07-C484, and G08-C1052, RIPped alleles with duplicated copies of the gene, G08-E1167, lack of PCR amplification (for <i>Spe</i>I data, see Table S3 in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020#ppat.1003020.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>). Size of the GeneRuler 1 kb Plus DNA ladder (in kb) is indicated on the right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ripped", "duplicated", "alleles", "virulent"], "article_id"=>216768, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Southern_blot_analysis_of_RIPped_and_duplicated_alleles_of_AvrLm4_7_in_virulent_isolates_/216768", "title"=>"Southern-blot analysis of RIPped and duplicated alleles of <i>AvrLm4-7</i> in virulent isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:52:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546413"], "description"=>"<p>Dark blue diamonds, complete deletions; purple squares, RIP mutations; red triangles, partial deletions; pink squares, AA dinucleotide deletions and point deletions; black dots, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; green squares, unaltered gene sequence. In 2007 and 2008, isolates collected the same year at the phoma leaf spot stage and at the stem canker stage from the previous growing season residues have been pooled because they correspond to the same generation after the start of the experiment. In 2006, isolates were collected from phoma leaf spots only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frequencies", "isolates", "mutations", "phenotype", "years"], "article_id"=>216897, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_frequencies_of_isolates_with_different_mutations_leading_to_the_avrLm7_phenotype_over_three_years_in_the_experimental_plot_at_Grignon_/216897", "title"=>"Changes in frequencies of isolates with different mutations leading to the <i>avrLm7</i> phenotype over three years in the experimental plot at Grignon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:54:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546467"], "description"=>"<p>The number of RIP mutations along the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene were counted for each RIPped allele and over the three <i>L. maculans</i> sexual cycles monitored in the experimental trial. The red line represents the median value; the boxes include values between the first and the third quartile of the distribution; circles, 1st and 9th deciles, respectively. In 2007 and 2008, isolates collected the same year at the phoma leaf spot stage and at the stem canker stage from the previous growing season residues have been pooled because they correspond to the same generation after the start of the experiment. In 2006, isolates were collected from phoma leaf spots only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutations", "sampling"], "article_id"=>216957, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_the_number_of_RIP_mutations_in_the_AvrLm4_7_gene_over_sampling_years_/216957", "title"=>"Distribution of the number of RIP mutations in the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene over sampling years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:55:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546597"], "description"=>"a<p>In parentheses, number of isolates when excluding isolates obtained from the same stubble, which may represent sister isolates from the same cross.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutations", "linked", "virulent", "phenotype", "grignon", "populations"], "article_id"=>217080, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Point_mutations_in_the_AvrLm4_7_gene_linked_to_the_virulent_avrLm7_phenotype_found_in_the_Grignon_populations_during_the_experiment_/217080", "title"=>"Point mutations in the <i>AvrLm4-7</i> gene linked to the virulent <i>avrLm7</i> phenotype found in the Grignon populations during the experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:58:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546645"], "description"=>"a<p><i>avrLm4-AvrLm7</i>, isolates avirulent on <i>Rlm7</i> only; <i>AvrLm4-AvrLm7</i>, isolates avirulent on both <i>Rlm4</i> and <i>Rlm7</i>.</p>b<p>Comparisons are based on the sequence of the reference AvrLm4-7 protein of isolate v23.1.3 inducing avirulence towards <i>Rlm4</i> and <i>Rlm7</i> genotypes. Leu45Ser is due to a T to C mutation at base 134; Val74Ile is due to G to A mutation at base 220; Ile80Thr is due to a T to C mutation at base 239; Asp86Asn is due to a G to A mutation at base 256; Gly120Arg is due to a G to C mutation at base 358. The underlined amino acids are those showing polymorphism as compared to the reference sequence.</p>c<p>Number (frequency) of <i>AvrLm7</i> isolates showing a given combination of amino acid substitution at positions 45, 74, 80, 86 and/or 120.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polymorphisms", "avrlm4-7", "proteins", "produced", "alleles", "avirulent", "occurrence", "populations", "sampled"], "article_id"=>217123, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amino_acid_polymorphisms_found_in_AvrLm4_7_proteins_produced_by_different_alleles_of_the_avirulent_AvrLm7_form_of_the_gene_and_their_occurrence_in_populations_sampled_from_the_field_experiment_at_Grignon_/217123", "title"=>"Amino acid polymorphisms found in AvrLm4-7 proteins produced by different alleles of the avirulent <i>AvrLm7</i> form of the gene and their occurrence in populations sampled from the field experiment at Grignon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:58:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546685"], "description"=>"a<p>The field experiment was established in autumn 2004 and the first samples from it were in autumn 2006.</p>b<p><i>rlm7</i> (without the <i>Rlm7</i> gene) plants were sown and used as trap cultivars to estimate the proportion of virulent isolates present in the air and landing on the crop at each site in each year.</p>c<p>Values in square brackets represent the exact confidence interval of the percentages at a 95% confidence level based on the total number of isolates and the percentage of virulent isolates in the sampling; values in brackets indicate the total number of isolates analysed for each sampling.</p>d<p>na, not applicable (the resistance gene was not yet released); nd, not determined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["virulent", "isolates", "populations", "grignon", "plots"], "article_id"=>217173, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_frequency_of_virulent_avrLm7_isolates_in_Leptosphaeria_maculans_populations_before_and_during_exposure_to_the_Rlm7_selection_in_a_field_experiment_at_Grignon_and_control_plots_at_Grignon_and_Versailles_/217173", "title"=>"Changes in frequency of virulent <i>avrLm7</i> isolates in <i>Leptosphaeria maculans</i> populations before and during exposure to the <i>Rlm7</i> selection in a field experiment at Grignon and control plots at Grignon and Versailles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 01:59:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/546740"], "description"=>"a<p>N, number of isolates; Na and Na Freq. ≥5%, mean number of different alleles and mean number of different alleles with frequency >0.05, respectively (± standard error); H, unbiased gene diversity averaged across loci (± standard error); MLG, number of multilocus genotypes; N<sub>MLG</sub>, mean number of isolates per genotype (± standard error); <i>r</i><sub>d</sub>, standardized version of the index of association as calculated in Multilocus v3.1; Mat1-1/Mat1-2 is the ratio of the number of isolates carrying mating type 1 (Mat1-1) to isolates carrying mating type 2 (Mat1-2). (*) Significant deviation from a 1∶1 ratio was tested using a χ<sup>2</sup> with 1 degree of freedom; ns, P>0.05;</p>*<p>, P<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polymorphism", "revealed", "minisatellites", "mating", "ratios", "populations", "grignon", "autumn", "2006"], "article_id"=>217216, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Guillaume Daverdin", "Thierry Rouxel", "Lilian Gout", "Jean-Noël Aubertot", "Isabelle Fudal", "Michel Meyer", "Francis Parlange", "Julien Carpezat", "Marie-Hélène Balesdent"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003020.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_genetic_polymorphism_revealed_by_seven_minisatellites_and_mating_type_ratios_in_AvrLm7_or_avrLm7_populations_of_Leptosphaeria_maculans_collected_from_the_Grignon_field_experiment_between_autumn_2006_and_2008_/217216", "title"=>"Estimates of genetic polymorphism revealed by seven minisatellites and mating type ratios in <i>AvrLm7</i> or <i>avrLm7</i> populations of <i>Leptosphaeria maculans</i> collected from the Grignon field experiment between autumn 2006 and 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-08 02:00:16"}

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Relative Metric

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