Imaging the Impact of Cortical Microcirculation on Synaptic Structure and Sensory-Evoked Hemodynamic Responses In Vivo
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{"title"=>"Imaging the impact of cortical microcirculation on synaptic structure and sensory-evoked hemodynamic responses in vivo", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Shengxiang", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"8520356000"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy H.", "last_name"=>"Murphy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401632487"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"34249007157", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119", "pui"=>"46790404", "pmid"=>"17456007", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-34249007157", "issn"=>"15449173", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\n1544-9173 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"494cddf1-d0de-36b6-9f66-ba60829b7949", "abstract"=>"In vivo two-photon microscopy was used to image in real time dendrites and their spines in a mouse photothrombotic stroke model that reduced somatosensory cortex blood flow in discrete regions of cortical functional maps. This approach allowed us to define relationships between blood flow, cortical structure, and function on scales not previously achieved with macroscopic imaging techniques. Acute ischemic damage to dendrites was triggered within 30 min when blood flow over >0.2 mm(2) of cortical surface was blocked. Rapid damage was not attributed to a subset of clotted or even leaking vessels (extravasation) alone. Assessment of stroke borders revealed a remarkably sharp transition between intact and damaged synaptic circuitry that occurred over tens of mum and was defined by a transition between flowing and blocked vessels. Although dendritic spines were normally ~13 microm from small flowing vessels, we show that intact dendritic structure can be maintained (in areas without flowing vessels) by blood flow from vessels that are on average 80 microm away. Functional imaging of intrinsic optical signals associated with activity-evoked hemodynamic responses in somatosensory cortex indicated that sensory-induced changes in signal were blocked in areas with damaged dendrites, but were present ~400 microm away from the border of dendritic damage. These results define the range of influence that blood flow can have on local cortical fine structure and function, as well as to demonstrate that peri-infarct tissues can be functional within the first few hours after stroke and well positioned to aid in poststroke recovery.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/imaging-impact-cortical-microcirculation-synaptic-structure-sensoryevoked-hemodynamic-responses-vivo", "reader_count"=>127, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>16, "Unspecified"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61, "Neuroscience"=>15, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>16}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>15}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>61}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "South Korea"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>5, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951090"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Low-magnification image of the vascular and dendritic structure before and 1 h after photoactivation of RB.</p>\n <p>(B) Image showing localized stroke damage to dendrites. Top panel, a magnified view of the white boxed region in (A) showing dendritic structure (a substack Z-projection) 90 min after photoactivation of RB; bottom panel, a magnified view of the yellow-boxed region in top panel showing individual dendrites (arrowheads) that were more damaged and beaded when they projected into an ischemic zone.</p>\n <p>(C) A magnified view of the yellow-boxed region in (A) showing dendritic structure (a sub-stack Z-projection) at 90 min and 330 min after RB photoactivation. Note the sharp border (blue line) indicates a sharp transition from relatively normal dendritic structure to beaded and swollen structure.</p>\n <p>(D) Further magnified view (yellow box in [C]) showing a stable spine (blue arrowhead) and a lost spine (red arrowhead) 5.5 h after stroke near the border region.</p>\n <p>(E) Spine number expressed as a percentage of the number present at the timepoint 90 min after RB photoactivation (it took time to locate the stroke edge, and data prior to 90 min were not obtained for this region).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dendrites", "borders", "dendritic"], "article_id"=>621411, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Localized_Stroke_Damage_to_Dendrites_and_Maintenance_of_Stable_and_Sharp_Borders_for_Dendritic_Damage_/621411", "title"=>"Localized Stroke Damage to Dendrites and Maintenance of Stable and Sharp Borders for Dendritic Damage", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:23:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467310", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467326", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467356", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467381", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467405", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467437", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467453"], "description"=>"<div><p>In vivo two-photon microscopy was used to image in real time dendrites and their spines in a mouse photothrombotic stroke model that reduced somatosensory cortex blood flow in discrete regions of cortical functional maps. This approach allowed us to define relationships between blood flow, cortical structure, and function on scales not previously achieved with macroscopic imaging techniques. Acute ischemic damage to dendrites was triggered within 30 min when blood flow over >0.2 mm<sup>2</sup> of cortical surface was blocked. Rapid damage was not attributed to a subset of clotted or even leaking vessels (extravasation) alone. Assessment of stroke borders revealed a remarkably sharp transition between intact and damaged synaptic circuitry that occurred over tens of μm and was defined by a transition between flowing and blocked vessels. Although dendritic spines were normally ~13 μm from small flowing vessels, we show that intact dendritic structure can be maintained (in areas without flowing vessels) by blood flow from vessels that are on average 80 μm away. Functional imaging of intrinsic optical signals associated with activity-evoked hemodynamic responses in somatosensory cortex indicated that sensory-induced changes in signal were blocked in areas with damaged dendrites, but were present ~400 μm away from the border of dendritic damage. These results define the range of influence that blood flow can have on local cortical fine structure and function, as well as to demonstrate that peri-infarct tissues can be functional within the first few hours after stroke and well positioned to aid in poststroke recovery.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["imaging", "cortical", "microcirculation", "synaptic", "sensory-evoked", "hemodynamic", "responses", "vivo"], "article_id"=>152135, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.sg001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.sg002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.sg003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.sg004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.sg005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.sg006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.sg007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>44, "page_views"=>68, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Imaging_the_Impact_of_Cortical_Microcirculation_on_Synaptic_Structure_and_Sensory_Evoked_Hemodynamic_Responses_In_Vivo/152135", "title"=>"Imaging the Impact of Cortical Microcirculation on Synaptic Structure and Sensory-Evoked Hemodynamic Responses In Vivo", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:35:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951883"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Shown are laser-speckle surface blood flow images, darker tones indicate lower speckle contrast and higher velocities of blood flow. Left: control speckle contrast image of the right somatosensory cortex (oriented rostral up and medial left). A middle cerebral artery branch and sites where laser induced photothrombosis was performed are indicated by two red lines. Middle: 20 min after targeted photothrombosis blood flow has stopped in photoactivated segment. Blue arrowheads indicate changes in venous blood flow at distant sites. A small black box indicates the location of two-photon imaging shown in (B). Right: 4.5 h after stroke blood flow is still lost within the targeted MCA segment.</p>\n <p>(B) Image of RB photoactivation location on the MCA branch is indicated by the red line (left-most line). Upstream, to the right of the photoactivation spot a clot can be seen developing. Middle panel: dendritic damage border image taken 90 min after photothrombosis (approximate border indicated by a dashed green line, dendritic damage was reduced below the dashed line). Right: 4 h after photothrombosis dendritic damage worsened, although the approximate border for dendritic damage was in a similar location as that observed at the 90-min timepoint (note the structural transition and some intact dendrites in the lower part of the image).</p>\n <p>(C) Left: IOS map of contralateral forelimb (FL) and hindlimb (HL) responsive areas (average of 40 trials). Middle: 1 h after stroke the forelimb map has retreated while the hindlimb map is largely preserved (average of 40 trials collected 30–60 min poststroke). Right: raw image of change in reflectance for the 1 h poststroke contralateral forelimb map (images scaled from −0.05% to 0.05% change). The white diagonal and horizontal lines indicate the size and location used for determining response profiles in (D). The locations of MCA branches activated by forelimb stimulation are indicated; the arteries are clearly visible as lighter structures.</p>\n <p>(D) Quantification of forelimb and hindlimb IOS response from smoothed line profiles indicated in (C) (right). The profiles show a large change in the border of the forelimb territory (left). For the 1-h maps the edge of blebbed dendritic structure was 511 μm from the edge of the forelimb response. The hindlimb functional border was largely unaffected (middle panel). The approximate border locations for IOS responses were maintained for both 1- and 4.5–6-h timepoints. Right: average group data from nine different animals showing distance between the IOS map border and the center of the map for control conditions (column 1) and after stroke (column 2). The distance between the border of morphological dendritic damage and the center of the IOS map is in the third column. The last bar is the difference between bars 2 and 3 for each animal; a measure of the distance between the morphological edge of stroke damage and edge of the IOS response after stroke. Paired t-tests compared column 1 to 2 or 3 (asterisks indicate <i>p</i> < 0.02, alpha reduced since two comparisons were performed).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dendritic", "hemodynamic", "responses", "animals", "photothrombotic", "targeted"], "article_id"=>622194, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Relationship_between_Loss_of_Dendritic_Structure_and_Activity_Dependent_Hemodynamic_Responses_in_Animals_with_Photothrombotic_Stroke_Targeted_to_Individual_Arteries_/622194", "title"=>"The Relationship between Loss of Dendritic Structure and Activity Dependent Hemodynamic Responses in Animals with Photothrombotic Stroke Targeted to Individual Arteries", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:36:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952146"], "description"=>"<p>The stroke core in colored blue to indicate poor oxygenation; note the distances shown are not to scale. We find no vascular flow within the core (for small vessels of capillary size), a loss of dendritic structure and spines, and no functional signals (IOS imaging). The first dashed line indicates a region (outside the core) where intact dendrite structure begins to be seen (denoted “1,” termed the structural border). Intact dendritic structure can be found on average ~80 μm from the beginning of blood flow (on the ischemic side of the vascular flow border, vascular flow border denoted “2”). This region, containing intact structure but no vascular flow is termed the Nouveau Penumbra, and represents a newly described region that is ischemic, but has potentially salvageable structure. We have colored the Nouveau Penumbra light blue since it may exhibit partial oxygenation derived from diffusion from areas with vascular flow. Outside of the Nouveau Penumbra is a zone between the beginning of vascular flow and somatosensory function (the functional border is denoted “3”). This region is the Classical Penumbra, which has been previously described, but not resolved at this level. The Classical Penumbra region has partial blood flow and oxygenation, but is nonfunctional. Normal fully perfused tissue lies outside the Classical Penumbra.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "ischemic", "synaptic"], "article_id"=>622483, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_Diagram_Showing_the_Relationship_between_the_Ischemic_Core_and_Synaptic_Structure_Function_/622483", "title"=>"Summary Diagram Showing the Relationship between the Ischemic Core and Synaptic Structure/Function", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:41:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951618"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Low-magnification image of the vasculature (maximal intensity projection, 50 μm) before and after photoactivation of RB. A total of 24% percent of vessels were clotted over an ischemic area of 0.05 mm<sup>2</sup>.</p>\n <p>(B) Shown are two channel images (a subregion Z-projection) from the boxed region in (A) showing the vasculature (red) and YFP-labeled dendrites (green) before and 1, 4, and 5 h after photoactivation of RB. Vessels were labeled with TR-dextran. The red fluorescence in the tissue indicates extravasation or leakage of plasma containing TR-dextran.</p>\n <p>(C) A higher-magnification view of a dendritic segment (box in [B]) showing no significant damage or loss of spines despite time-dependent acceleration in extravasation.</p>\n <p>(D) Quantification of extravasation and spine number over time for this animal. Extravasation was quantified by determining the percentage of vessel TR-dextran fluorescence intensity present in the tissue. Spine number expressed as percentage of the number present before RB photoactivation (<i>n</i> = 174 spines). These data indicated that small strokes are not associated with any significant change in spine number over a 5 h period despite a significant increase in extravasation.</p>\n <p>(E) Group data from nine different animals show relative changes in extravascation and spine number (data aligned by the timepoint when the maximal rate of extravasaton was observed; set as the 0 timepoint) after RB stroke. A one-way analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of time on both spine loss and extravasation. Individual timepoints were compared to the 0 timepoint using Dunnett's post hoc test. We did not observe a significant change in spine number when the rate of extravasation was maximal.</p>\n <p>(F) There was no significant correlation between the rate of spine loss, change in spine number between consecutive 1-h timepoints, and extravasation at different times (<i>r</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.02; <i>p</i> = 0.75; nonparametric Spearman correlation coefficient; same data as [E] analyzed differently).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["accelerated", "extravasation", "spines", "rb"], "article_id"=>621940, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_No_Relationship_between_Accelerated_Extravasation_and_Loss_of_Spines_after_RB_Photothrombosis_/621940", "title"=>"No Relationship between Accelerated Extravasation and Loss of Spines after RB Photothrombosis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:32:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950818"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Images from a YFP mouse showing the vasculature (red) and dendrites (green) (maximal intensity projection of first 100 μm of the cortex) before and 30 min after photoactivation (1 min) of RB in an animal that resulted in severe ischemia and dendritic damage (>0.40 mm<sup>2</sup> surrounding area with clotted vessels). Vessels labeled with TR-dextran were all clotted in the imaged region.</p>\n <p>(B) A higher magnification view of the white-boxed region in (A) before and 30 min after photothrombosis.</p>\n <p>(C) Dorsal view of the microvasculature (maximal intensity projection) from 100 planar scans acquired every 1 μm before, 30 min, and 1 h after photoactivation of RB in a different animal with a small stroke (0.13 mm<sup>2</sup> of cortical surface with clotted vessels) only affecting a subset of vessels. Flowing vessels can be assessed by the streaked images of vessels reflecting scanning of moving RBCs. The percentage of clotted vessels was 34% and 32% for 30 min and 1 h, respectively. The red arrowhead shows a capillary that was clotted at 30 min and was reperfused at 1 h, and the blue arrowheads mark a capillary that was flowing at 30 min but was clotted at 1 h.</p>\n <p>(D) Z-projection of dendrites from the yellow-boxed region in (C) showing relatively slow degeneration of dendritic structure for this relatively small stroke with partial reduction in blood flow.</p>\n <p>(E) Magnified view (yellow box in [D]) showing spine structural changes.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strokes"], "article_id"=>621142, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Small_Strokes_Escape_Immediate_Damage_to_Dendrites_/621142", "title"=>"Small Strokes Escape Immediate Damage to Dendrites", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:19:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950630"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Mice were stimulated by vibrating their fore- or hindpaws while IOS imaging was performed in the contralateral (opposite) cortex to produce somatosensory maps. Maps superimposed on a magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction of a C57 bl6 mouse brain from <a href=\"http://www.bnl.gov/CTN/mouse\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.bnl.gov/CTN/mouse</a> (at their approximate locations and sizes) [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119#pbio-0050119-b065\" target=\"_blank\">65</a>].</p>\n <p>(B) Enlarged view of maps and possible stroke site expected to cause a deficit in the forelimb (FL) map, but to spare hindlimb (HL) function. The point at which map function returns for these ministrokes is termed the functional edge.</p>\n <p>(C) Boxed region with stylized images of vessels depicting photoactivation of RB by green light. (D) For large strokes up to 1 mm in diameter the ischemic core would contain little or no vascular flow (colored light blue to illustrate ischemia, the dark blue-dashed line is the no-flow boundary). The edges of the core are shown as a mixture of pink and blue to illustrate partial oxygenation due to diffusion from nearby flowing vessels. It is possible that some synaptic structure may be supported within the core by diffusion of blood-derived factors. Outside of the core we will assess where map function is present; note action potential icon.</p>\n <p>(E) Schematic showing how dendritic structure (green) is assessed relative to flowing (red) and nonflowing (blue) vessels.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["setup", "examining", "relationships", "vascular"], "article_id"=>620952, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_Setup_for_Examining_the_Relationships_between_Local_Vascular_Flow_and_Brain_Structure_and_Function_/620952", "title"=>"Experimental Setup for Examining the Relationships between Local Vascular Flow and Brain Structure and Function", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:15:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952042"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Laser-speckle surface blood flow image showing the approximate location of the hindlimb territory (green circle) and two sites where photoactivation of RB was performed using a fluorescence arc lamp (red lines). Right: laser-speckle image 20 min after stroke induction shows a loss of surface blood flow to at least half of the hindlimb territory.</p>\n <p>(B) Raw change in IOS after contralateral forelimb stimulation 40–70 min after stroke indicates a significant forelimb response (darkening in area under FL, images scaled from −0.1% to 0.1% change). In this image branches of the MCA (indicated) that supply both the forelimb and hindlimb area are seen in bright white. This image shows that part of the hindlimb territory is still undergoing changes in blood flow in response to activity.</p>\n <p>(C) IOS maps for hindlimb and forelimb regions in the animal before stroke induction. The mixed forelimb and hindlimb response presumably reflects some degree of noise (yellow pixels).</p>\n <p>(D) The hindlimb response was completely lost (no significant response was observed so a color map could not be created) 40–70 min after photothrombotic stroke, while a response in the forelimb area was still present. The white box and enlarged image to the right indicates the area where two-photon imaging established the border of dendritic damage.</p>\n <p>(E) Quantification of the forelimb and hindlimb IOS responses from smoothed line profiles over the region indicated in (B) by the dotted black lines. Upper panel: contralateral forelimb stimulation results in approximately 0.15% reduction in light reflectance. After stroke reflectance decreases to approximately 0.07%. Lower graph: the contralateral hindlimb stimulus response profile was completely lost following stroke as the red line was not different from 0. The contralateral hindlimb response was visible under control conditions and is observed (in the response profile graph) about −750 μm from the center of the forelimb area.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["borders", "hindlimb"], "article_id"=>622361, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dendritic_Structural_Borders_after_Complete_Removal_of_the_Hindlimb_Functional_Map_/622361", "title"=>"Dendritic Structural Borders after Complete Removal of the Hindlimb Functional Map", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:39:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951374"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Image of the vasculature (maximal intensity projection of first 100 μm of the cortex) 90 min after laser-induced photoactivation of RB. Small flowing vessels are marked in red. The dashed line indicates a large flowing vessel. Green lines denote dendritic damage border as shown in (B).</p>\n <p>(B) A sub-stack Z-projection (20 μm) showing dendritic structure and dendritic damage border (green lines) 90 min after laser-induced photoactivation of RB. The blue box indicates areas in which dendritic damage borders were examined. Because it was possible that flowing vessels could be located near the edge of an image, a 50-μm buffer zone indicated by the blue line was used to avoid measurements near the border. Distances between the damage border and the nearest small (<15 μm) or large flowing vessel (>15 μm) were made at 10 μm intervals along the green borderline.</p>\n <p>(C) Representative flowing vessels labeled in (A). Flowing vessels were assessed by determining whether streaking or banding was present (see below).</p>\n <p>(D) Representative stalled vessels labeled in (A).</p>\n <p>(E) An example showing vessel streaking or banding that are indicative of objects moving parallel or perpendicular to the direction of scanning (horizontal). The images shown are the average of three consecutive frames, which compresses the width of the bands due to overlap. This single vessel was oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the scan axis and shows that streaks are converted to bands when the angle between the scan direction and the vessel changes (this was also demonstrated by turning the scan angle 90 degrees, not shown). A single linescan through the horizontal part of this flowing vessel is shown on the right showing the velocity and supply rate of RBCs for this vessel.</p>\n <p>(F) Group data from ten different animals show the cumulative probability distribution of distances between the dendritic damage border and the nearest flowing small or large vessel; to small vessel (<i>n</i> = 673 measurements, red line); to large vessel (<i>n</i> = 704 measurements, black line) after RB photothrombosis. The cumulative probability distribution of distances between individual spines and the nearest flowing capillary in normal animals (green line) are also shown for comparison; from <i>n</i> = 3 animals (250 measurements) from [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119#pbio-0050119-b015\" target=\"_blank\">15</a>]. The cumulative probability distributions were significantly different between groups (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, <i>p</i> < 0.0001).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dendritic", "borders", "flowing"], "article_id"=>621695, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Shengxiang Zhang", "Timothy H Murphy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050119.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Relationship_between_Dendritic_Damage_Borders_and_Flowing_Vessels_/621695", "title"=>"The Relationship between Dendritic Damage Borders and Flowing Vessels", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-04-24 00:28:15"}

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