Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects
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{"title"=>"Flight speeds among bird species: Allometric and phylogenetic effects", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Alerstam", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004903330"}, {"first_name"=>"Mikael", "last_name"=>"Rosén", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401478120"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan", "last_name"=>"Bäckman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007107017"}, {"first_name"=>"Per G.P.", "last_name"=>"Ericson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004190906"}, {"first_name"=>"Olof", "last_name"=>"Hellgren", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602417871"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15449173", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-34548254879", "sgr"=>"34548254879", "pui"=>"47328270", "isbn"=>"1544-9173", "pmid"=>"17645390", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197"}, "id"=>"9f13df6e-34b8-3a47-b7b1-77f500c00bd3", "abstract"=>"Flight speed is expected to increase with mass and wing loading among flying animals and aircraft for fundamental aerodynamic reasons. Assuming geometrical and dynamical similarity, cruising flight speed is predicted to vary as (body mass)(1/6) and (wing loading)(1/2) among bird species. To test these scaling rules and the general importance of mass and wing loading for bird flight speeds, we used tracking radar to measure flapping flight speeds of individuals or flocks of migrating birds visually identified to species as well as their altitude and winds at the altitudes where the birds were flying. Equivalent airspeeds (airspeeds corrected to sea level air density, Ue) of 138 species, ranging 0.01-10 kg in mass, were analysed in relation to biometry and phylogeny. Scaling exponents in relation to mass and wing loading were significantly smaller than predicted (about 0.12 and 0.32, respectively, with similar results for analyses based on species and independent phylogenetic contrasts). These low scaling exponents may be the result of evolutionary restrictions on bird flight-speed range, counteracting too slow flight speeds among species with low wing loading and too fast speeds among species with high wing loading. This compression of speed range is partly attained through geometric differences, with aspect ratio showing a positive relationship with body mass and wing loading, but additional factors are required to fully explain the small scaling exponent of Ue in relation to wing loading. Furthermore, mass and wing loading accounted for only a limited proportion of the variation in Ue. Phylogeny was a powerful factor, in combination with wing loading, to account for the variation in Ue. These results demonstrate that functional flight adaptations and constraints associated with different evolutionary lineages have an important influence on cruising flapping flight speed that goes beyond the general aerodynamic scaling effects of mass and wing loading.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/flight-speeds-among-bird-species-allometric-phylogenetic-effects", "reader_count"=>299, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>76, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>70, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>29, "Other"=>21, "Student > Bachelor"=>30, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>7, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>76, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/948338"], "description"=>"<p>The explanatory power (adjusted <i>R</i><sup>2</sup>) of different General Linear Models with significant independent variables (***, <i>p</i> < 0.001) is illustrated. Phylogenetic group and wing loading emerge as key factors to account for the variation in flight speed among bird species. General Linear Models for all different combinations of body mass, wing loading, aspect ratio, and phylogenetic group were calculated, except combinations including both body mass and wing loading (because of the interdependence between these variables). Complex models (including combinations of variables) are presented only if the AIC improved from models based on single independent variables [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197#pbio-0050197-b017\" target=\"_blank\">17</a>]. This applied only to the model incorporating both phylogenetic group and wing loading. ΔAIC indicates the difference in AIC score from the most effective model (with ΔAIC = 0). Test statistics were as follows (in parentheses) for model including mass (<i>F</i><sub>1,136</sub> = 20.0, <i>p</i> < 0.001), aspect ratio (<i>F</i><sub>1,127</sub> = 28.6, <i>p</i> < 0.001), wing loading (<i>F</i><sub>1,127</sub> = 122.6, <i>p</i> < 0.001), phylogenetic group (<i>F</i><sub>5,132</sub> = 34.5), and phylogenetic group plus wing loading (<i>F</i><sub>6,122</sub> = 39.6, <i>p</i> < 0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["speeds", "combinations", "variables"], "article_id"=>618657, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas Alerstam", "Mikael Rosén", "Johan Bäckman", "Per G. P Ericson", "Olof Hellgren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Explanation_of_the_Variation_in_Mean_Flight_Speeds_U_e_m_s_among_Bird_Species_by_Different_Combinations_of_Variables_and_Factors_/618657", "title"=>"Explanation of the Variation in Mean Flight Speeds (<i>U</i><sub>e</sub>; m/s) among Bird Species by Different Combinations of Variables and Factors", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-17 02:24:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/948212"], "description"=>"<p>The lines show the scaling relationships <i>U</i><sub>e</sub> = 15.9 × (mass)<sup>0.13</sup> and <i>U</i><sub>e</sub> = 4.3 × (wing loading)<sup>0.31</sup> as calculated by reduced major axis regression for all species (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197#pbio-0050197-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). All axes are in logarithmic scale. Inserts show means (± standard deviations) for the six main phylogenetic groups in relation to these scaling lines. Species of the same group tend to fly at similar speeds, and phylogenetic group is an important factor to account for the variation in <i>U</i><sub>e</sub>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["speeds", "plotted", "loading", "138", "monophyletic"], "article_id"=>618547, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas Alerstam", "Mikael Rosén", "Johan Bäckman", "Per G. P Ericson", "Olof Hellgren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bird_Flight_Speeds_U_e_m_s_Plotted_in_Relation_to_Body_Mass_kg_and_Wing_Loading_N_m_2_for_138_Species_of_Six_Main_Monophyletic_Groups_/618547", "title"=>"Bird Flight Speeds (<i>U</i><sub>e</sub>; m/s) Plotted in Relation to Body Mass (kg) and Wing Loading (N/m<sup>2</sup>) for 138 Species of Six Main Monophyletic Groups", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-07-17 02:22:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467039", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467127"], "description"=>"<div><p>Flight speed is expected to increase with mass and wing loading among flying animals and aircraft for fundamental aerodynamic reasons. Assuming geometrical and dynamical similarity, cruising flight speed is predicted to vary as (body mass)<sup>1/6</sup> and (wing loading)<sup>1/2</sup> among bird species. To test these scaling rules and the general importance of mass and wing loading for bird flight speeds, we used tracking radar to measure flapping flight speeds of individuals or flocks of migrating birds visually identified to species as well as their altitude and winds at the altitudes where the birds were flying. Equivalent airspeeds (airspeeds corrected to sea level air density, <em>U</em><sub>e</sub>) of 138 species, ranging 0.01–10 kg in mass, were analysed in relation to biometry and phylogeny. Scaling exponents in relation to mass and wing loading were significantly smaller than predicted (about 0.12 and 0.32, respectively, with similar results for analyses based on species and independent phylogenetic contrasts). These low scaling exponents may be the result of evolutionary restrictions on bird flight-speed range, counteracting too slow flight speeds among species with low wing loading and too fast speeds among species with high wing loading. This compression of speed range is partly attained through geometric differences, with aspect ratio showing a positive relationship with body mass and wing loading, but additional factors are required to fully explain the small scaling exponent of <em>U</em><sub>e</sub> in relation to wing loading. Furthermore, mass and wing loading accounted for only a limited proportion of the variation in <em>U</em><sub>e</sub>. Phylogeny was a powerful factor, in combination with wing loading, to account for the variation in <em>U</em><sub>e</sub>. These results demonstrate that functional flight adaptations and constraints associated with different evolutionary lineages have an important influence on cruising flapping flight speed that goes beyond the general aerodynamic scaling effects of mass and wing loading.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["speeds", "allometric", "phylogenetic", "effects"], "article_id"=>152077, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas Alerstam", "Mikael Rosén", "Johan Bäckman", "Per G. P Ericson", "Olof Hellgren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197.sd001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197.sd002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Flight_Speeds_among_Bird_Species_Allometric_and_Phylogenetic_Effects/152077", "title"=>"Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-07-17 00:34:37"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"123", "full-text"=>"131", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"166", "full-text"=>"195", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"89", "full-text"=>"103", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"96", "full-text"=>"106", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"94", "full-text"=>"103", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"130", "full-text"=>"149", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"132", "full-text"=>"142", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"83", "full-text"=>"92", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

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