Selective Inflammatory Pain Insensitivity in the African Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)
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{"title"=>"Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thomas J.", "last_name"=>"Park", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401801822"}, {"first_name"=>"Ying", "last_name"=>"Lu", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198798792"}, {"first_name"=>"René", "last_name"=>"Jüttner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603462187"}, {"first_name"=>"Ewan St J.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"55479646200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jing", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"57012262100"}, {"first_name"=>"Antje", "last_name"=>"Brand", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201954972"}, {"first_name"=>"Christiane", "last_name"=>"Wetzel", "scopus_author_id"=>"55793189891"}, {"first_name"=>"Nevena", "last_name"=>"Milenkovic", "scopus_author_id"=>"23019449500"}, {"first_name"=>"Bettina", "last_name"=>"Erdmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"56256837200"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul A.", "last_name"=>"Heppenstall", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603142141"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles E.", "last_name"=>"Laurito", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603688445"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven P.", "last_name"=>"Wilson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35460398200"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary R.", "last_name"=>"Lewin", "scopus_author_id"=>"24356252100"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15449173", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-38949117994", "sgr"=>"38949117994", "pui"=>"351226054", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"18232734", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013"}, "id"=>"4a3b07cb-01e7-3b72-88df-dad23e29833f", "abstract"=>"In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes \"normal\" mammalian nociception.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/selective-inflammatory-pain-insensitivity-african-naked-molerat-heterocephalus-glaber", "reader_count"=>109, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>16, "Philosophy"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>16}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>4, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938343"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) An example of a polymodal C-fiber (C<sub>MH</sub>) response to local application of a 1 mM capsaicin solution to its receptive field.</p>\n <p>(B) The average firing rate of 11 capsaicin-sensitive C-fibers during the 2 min application.</p>\n <p>(C) The proportion of C<sub>M</sub> and C<sub>MH</sub> fibers showing an excitatory response to capsaicin.</p>\n <p>(D) The rate of firing of C<sub>MH</sub> fibers during application of pH 5.0 saline solution to the receptive field; no increase in firing rate was found in any of the tested fibers during acid application (<i>n</i> = 20).</p>\n <p>(E) Calcium imaging experiments were performed to measure the intracellular calcium changes in response to capsaicin applied to sensory neurons in culture. A typical experiment is shown, where a group of cells from naked mole-rat were monitored, the phase contrast image is shown on the left. An image of the Fura-2 fluorescence signal measured when excited at 340 nm is shown for the same cells under resting conditions and in the presence (right) and absence (middle) of 10 nM capsaicin.</p>\n <p>(F) Two of the five cells shown displayed a large increase in intracellular calcium upon application of capsaicin (10 nM) as shown in the F340/F380 ratio.</p>\n <p>(G) Quantification of the proportion of imaged sensory neurons showing an increase in intracellular calcium after application of 10 nM or 2 μM capsaicin to naked mole-rat or mouse sensory neurons (<i>n</i> = 69 and <i>n</i> = 16). No significant differences were observed in the proportion of capsaicin-sensitive neurons between mouse and naked mole-rat.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peripheral", "fibers", "saphenous", "sensory", "neurons"], "article_id"=>608769, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Capsaicin_Sensitivity_of_Single_Peripheral_Nerve_Fibers_in_the_Saphenous_Skin_Nerve_Preparation_and_for_Sensory_Neurons_in_Culture_/608769", "title"=>"Capsaicin Sensitivity of Single Peripheral Nerve Fibers in the Saphenous Skin Nerve Preparation and for Sensory Neurons in Culture", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:26:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/937990"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Photograph showing the similar overall size of the animals as well as the similar size of the hind feet, which are innervated by the saphenous nerve.</p>\n <p>(B) Representative electron micrographs showing unmyelinated axons within Remak bundles (yellow arrows) and myelinated axons (red arrows) in saphenous nerves from the mouse and naked mole-rat (NMR). Scale bar = 2.0 μm.</p>\n <p>(C) At higher magnification, single unmyelinated fibers can be distinguished within the Remak bundles. Scale bar = 2.0 μm.</p>\n <p>(D) Quantification of myelinated and unmyelinated axon numbers in mouse (<i>n</i> = 6) and naked mole-rat (<i>n</i> = 4) saphenous nerves. Note that here and in subsequent figures, red bars denote data from mouse and gray bars indicate data from naked mole-rats.</p>\n <p>(E and F) Proportion of cultured sensory cells that label with IB4 in mice (E) and naked mole-rats (F). Distributions are based on soma area, and C-cells have soma areas less than 600 μm<sup>2</sup>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["myelinated", "unmyelinated", "axons", "saphenous", "mice", "1-y-old"], "article_id"=>608421, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_Myelinated_and_Unmyelinated_Axons_in_the_Saphenous_Nerve_of_Adult_Laboratory_Mice_and_1_y_Old_Naked_Mole_Rats_/608421", "title"=>"Comparison of Myelinated and Unmyelinated Axons in the Saphenous Nerve of Adult Laboratory Mice and 1-y-Old Naked Mole-Rats", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938119"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Example of a recording made from a single C-fiber afferent and its response to mechanical stimulation, indentation of 192 μm.</p>\n <p>(B) Stimulus-response relations of mechanosensitive Aδ and C-fiber afferents for a standard series of ascending displacement stimuli applied to the receptive fields.</p>\n <p>(C) Example of a polymodal C-fiber (C<sub>MH</sub>) response to application of heated bath solution onto its receptive field.</p>\n <p>(D) Averaged spike rates for 17 C<sub>MH</sub> fibers before and during the heating stimulus. An additional 13 C<sub>M</sub> fibers did not respond to heating.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mole-rat", "afferent", "fibers", "saphenous"], "article_id"=>608554, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>99, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recordings_from_Naked_Mole_Rat_Single_Afferent_Fibers_in_the_Saphenous_Skin_Nerve_Preparation_/608554", "title"=>"Recordings from Naked Mole-Rat Single Afferent Fibers in the Saphenous Skin Nerve Preparation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:22:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938481"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A and B) Locations of cells in mouse (A) and naked mole-rat (B) spinal slices. White dots indicate cells that responded to capsaicin; black dots indicate cells that did not respond to capsaicin. Scale bar = 100 μm.</p>\n <p>(C) Mean number of mEPSCs recorded from all superficial mouse cells that responded to capsaicin. The histogram shows 100 s before and 100 s after bath application of capsaicin. The inset trace shows a typical recording from one mouse cell. Scale bars, 10 s, 10 pA.</p>\n <p>(D) Mean number of mEPSCs from four naked mole-rat cells that were located in superficial dorsal horn and responded to capsaicin.</p>\n <p>(E) Mean number of mEPSCs from six naked mole-rat cells that were located in deep dorsal horn and responded to capsaicin. Miniature EPSCs were recorded in the presence of strychnine (1 μM), picrotoxin (100 μM), and APV (100 μM) to block glycinergic and GABAergic input as well as NMDA receptor-mediated currents. TTX (1 μM) was used to block action-potential dependent neurotransmitter release. Bin size for (C–E), 5 s.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clamp", "recordings", "spinal", "cells", "superficial", "lamina", "dorsal", "capsaicin"], "article_id"=>608909, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patch_Clamp_Recordings_of_Spinal_Cells_in_Superficial_and_Deep_Lamina_of_the_Dorsal_Horn_with_Bath_Application_of_Capsaicin_10_956_M_/608909", "title"=>"Patch Clamp Recordings of Spinal Cells in Superficial and Deep Lamina of the Dorsal Horn with Bath Application of Capsaicin (10 μM)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:28:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462398", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462443", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462483", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462517", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/462570"], "description"=>"<div><p>In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes “normal” mammalian nociception.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["selective", "inflammatory", "insensitivity", "african", "mole-rat"], "article_id"=>151125, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.sg001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.sg002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.sg003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.sg004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.st001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Selective_Inflammatory_Pain_Insensitivity_in_the_African_Naked_Mole_Rat_Heterocephalus_glaber_/151125", "title"=>"Selective Inflammatory Pain Insensitivity in the African Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 00:18:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938934"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Both mouse and naked mole-rat have populations of capsaicin-insensitive and capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber nociceptors. Symbols (hammer, match, chilli pepper) indicate the type of stimuli (mechanical, thermal, chemical irritant) that can generate spiking activity in each population. In both species, capsaicin-insensitive and capsaicin-sensitive fibers terminate in the superficial lamina of the dorsal horn (above the dashed line in the spinal cord schematic). A major difference between species is that in the naked mole-rat, a substantial number of capsaicin-sensitive fibers also provide synaptic input to deep lamina. Another major difference is that C-fibers in naked mole-rats lack the neuropeptides SP and CGRP (yellow dots represent neuropeptides, blue dots represent glutamate).</p>\n <p>(B) Capsaicin test: Injection of capsaicin into the skin of the paw induces pain behaviors (licking) in mice but not naked mole-rats, except in naked mole-rats that have received an intrathecal infusion of SP.</p>\n <p>(C) Topical capsaicin + heat: Topical application of capsaicin induced thermal hyperalgesia in mice but not naked mole-rats, except in naked mole-rats that have received gene therapy with the <i>PPT</i> gene.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "c-fiber", "innervation", "spinal"], "article_id"=>609368, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_Showing_the_Patterns_of_C_fiber_Innervation_in_the_Spinal_Cord_of_Mouse_and_Naked_Mole_Rat_/609368", "title"=>"Model Showing the Patterns of C-fiber Innervation in the Spinal Cord of Mouse and Naked Mole-Rat", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:36:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938647"], "description"=>"<div><p>Sections were stained with a primary anti-rat TRPV1 antibody that was detected with a secondary antibody conjugated to Cy3 (red), sections were co-stained with IB4 conjugated to Alexa-488 (green).</p>\n <p>(A–C) TRPV1 and IB4 staining is localized to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn in the mouse.</p>\n <p>(D–F) Similar staining is observed in the naked mole-rat, although a thicker lamina II gives rise to increased IB4 staining.</p>\n <p>(G) Very little TRPV1 deep staining is observed in the mouse.</p>\n <p>(H) Deep TRPV1 staining is frequently observed in the naked mole-rat; white arrows highlight TRPV1 positive profiles in deeper laminae.</p>\n <p>(I) Quantification of TRPV1-positive profiles in deep dorsal horn of mouse and naked mole-rat. Scale bars for (A–H) are 100 μm.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trpv1", "staining", "spinal"], "article_id"=>609082, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_TRPV1_Staining_in_the_Spinal_Cord_of_the_Mouse_and_Naked_Mole_Rat_/609082", "title"=>"Comparison of TRPV1 Staining in the Spinal Cord of the Mouse and Naked Mole-Rat", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:31:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938207"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Response latency to tail clip (450 g pressure, <i>n</i> = 25 mice, 25 naked mole-rats [NMR]), and paw withdrawal latency to radiant heat (<i>n</i> = 12 mice, 12 NMR).</p>\n <p>(B) Behavioral responses to foot pad injection of capsaicin (<i>n</i> = 10 mice, 10 NMR) and acidic saline solution (pH 3.25, <i>n</i> = 5 mice, 5 NMR), measured as time spent licking the affected paw. Note virtually no behavioral response in terms of paw licking was found for either stimulus in naked mole-rats.</p>\n <p>(C) Paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical stimulation with von Frey hairs before and during inflammation from an injection of CFA; both mice and naked mole-rats show significant sensitization during inflammation (<i>n</i> = 10 mice, 10 NMR).</p>\n <p>(D) Paw withdrawal to radiant heat before and 72 h after injection of CFA; mice show a significant sensitization but naked mole-rats show no sensitization (<i>n</i> = 6 mice, 6 NMR).</p>\n <p>(E) Paw withdrawal to radiant heat before and after topical application of 1 mM capsaicin (Cap) ( = 6 mice, 12 NMR); mice show a significant sensitization (shortened latency) after capsaicin, naked mole-rats show no sensitization.</p>\n <p>(F) Paw withdrawal to radiant heat before and after a systemic injection of nerve growth factor (NGF 1μg/g); mice show a significant sensitization (shortened latency) at 1 h, and this is maintained at 36 h post injection; naked mole-rats show no sensitization at either time point. For panels A-F *<i>p</i> < 0.05; **<i>p</i> < 0.01 Student's <i>t</i>-test.</p>\n <p>(G) Frequency of pain behaviors to injection of 1% formalin; pain behaviors are significantly attenuated in naked mole-rats compared to mice in both phase I (0–5 min, <i>p</i> < 0.0001) and phase II (>5 min, <i>p</i> < .01) of the formalin test (<i>n</i> = 6 mice, 6 NMR).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "acute", "noxious", "stimuli", "inflammatory", "mice"], "article_id"=>608637, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioral_Responses_to_Acute_Noxious_Stimuli_and_Inflammatory_Pain_Stimuli_in_Mice_and_Naked_Mole_Rats_/608637", "title"=>"Behavioral Responses to Acute Noxious Stimuli and Inflammatory Pain Stimuli in Mice and Naked Mole-Rats", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:23:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/938809"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Paw withdrawal to radiant heat measured before and after administration of SP peptide to the lumbar spinal cord via an intrathecal cannula in lightly anesthetized animals (IT SP). Note that very low doses of SP lead to thermal hyperalgesia in mice (1 μM). Naked mole-rats also display hyperalgesia following intrathecal SP injection albeit only at higher doses (100 μM, <i>n</i> = 6 animals per dose).</p>\n <p>(B) Paw withdrawal to radiant heat was measured before and 1 wk after infection of one paw with transgenic herpes virus carrying the preprotachykinin gene (<i>n</i> = 4 naked mole-rats [NMR]). The virus treatment alone did not alter thermal thresholds (first three data points), but in contrast to naive animals, topical capsaicin leads to thermal hyperalgesia (shortened latencies) in the virus-treated paw.</p>\n <p>(C) Pain behavior following injection of capsaicin but not acid is observed following intrathecal administration of SP. Mice and naked mole-rats were lightly anesthetized via inhalation and given an intrathecal injection of 100 μM SP. After recovery from the anesthetic (∼5–10 min) the animals received a paw injection of capsaicin (<i>n</i> = 6 mice, 5 NMR) or acidic (pH 3.5) saline solution (<i>n</i> = 6 NMR) into one foot pad, and paw licking time was measured. Note that SP slightly increased licking behaviors in mice compared to capsaicin injection alone (Pre). Naked mole-rats showed significant licking behavior after intrathecal SP which was virtually absent in untreated animals. No change in the behavioral response to a pH 3.5 solution was observed.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "neuroscience", "physiology"], "article_id"=>609247, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Thomas J Park", "Ying Lu", "René Jüttner", "Ewan St. J Smith", "Jing Hu", "Antje Brand", "Christiane Wetzel", "Nevena Milenkovic", "Bettina Erdmann", "Paul A Heppenstall", "Charles E Laurito", "Steven P Wilson", "Gary R Lewin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060013.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hyperalgesia_and_Pain_following_Central_Administration_of_SP_/609247", "title"=>"Hyperalgesia and Pain following Central Administration of SP", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-01-29 02:34:07"}

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Relative Metric

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