Neural Correlates of Auditory Perceptual Awareness under Informational Masking
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{"title"=>"Neural correlates of auditory perceptual awareness under informational masking", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Gutschalk", "scopus_author_id"=>"55955522700"}, {"first_name"=>"Christophe", "last_name"=>"Micheyl", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003276084"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew J.", "last_name"=>"Oxenham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003326429"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"18547141", "sgr"=>"45849118726", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-45849118726", "pui"=>"351888302", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)", "issn"=>"15449173"}, "id"=>"44f288d1-6f13-31a5-a1b6-ff391064b7fa", "abstract"=>"Our ability to detect target sounds in complex acoustic backgrounds is often limited not by the ear's resolution, but by the brain's information-processing capacity. The neural mechanisms and loci of this \"informational masking\" are unknown. We combined magnetoencephalography with simultaneous behavioral measures in humans to investigate neural correlates of informational masking and auditory perceptual awareness in the auditory cortex. Cortical responses were sorted according to whether or not target sounds were detected by the listener in a complex, randomly varying multi-tone background known to produce informational masking. Detected target sounds elicited a prominent, long-latency response (50-250 ms), whereas undetected targets did not. In contrast, both detected and undetected targets produced equally robust auditory middle-latency, steady-state responses, presumably from the primary auditory cortex. These findings indicate that neural correlates of auditory awareness in informational masking emerge between early and late stages of processing within the auditory cortex.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neural-correlates-auditory-perceptual-awareness-under-informational-masking", "reader_count"=>211, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>55, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>69, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>55, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>69, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>13, "Unspecified"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Neuroscience"=>26, "Arts and Humanities"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>57, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>6, "Linguistics"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>13}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>26}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>57}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>18}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Sweden"=>2, "United States"=>12, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>5, "Australia"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>10}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929102"], "description"=>"<p>(A) ARN source waveforms of experiment 1 (A and B), averaged relative to the behavioral response of the listeners (key press) instead of their position in the stimulus sequence. A strong negativity is evoked by the two tones prior to the key press. The negativity is delayed and more broad-based two tones before the key press. Accordingly, the negativity is smaller in the time interval from (B) 75–175 ms (used for most analyses throughout the paper) than in the time interval (C) 175–275 ms. The data in panels B and C represent the mean amplitude and standard errors across listeners (<i>n</i> = 12).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>599552, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Alexander Gutschalk", "Christophe Micheyl", "Andrew J Oxenham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ARN_in_Relation_to_Behavioral_Response_Time_/599552", "title"=>"ARN in Relation to Behavioral Response Time", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-10 02:39:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929525"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Mean source amplitudes (± 1 s.e.m.) calculated from peak to peak for the SSR.</p>\n <p>(B) Grand average source waveforms of the SSR elicited by the amplitude-modulated targets in the presence of the masker. Confidence intervals represent bootstrap based <i>t</i>-intervals. The SSR was evoked irrespective of target-tone awareness and side of attention.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>599979, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Alexander Gutschalk", "Christophe Micheyl", "Andrew J Oxenham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_2_SSR_/599979", "title"=>"Experiment 2: SSR", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-10 02:46:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/475314", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/475347", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/475386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/475420"], "description"=>"<div><p>Our ability to detect target sounds in complex acoustic backgrounds is often limited not by the ear's resolution, but by the brain's information-processing capacity. The neural mechanisms and loci of this “informational masking” are unknown. We combined magnetoencephalography with simultaneous behavioral measures in humans to investigate neural correlates of informational masking and auditory perceptual awareness in the auditory cortex. Cortical responses were sorted according to whether or not target sounds were detected by the listener in a complex, randomly varying multi-tone background known to produce informational masking. Detected target sounds elicited a prominent, long-latency response (50–250 ms), whereas undetected targets did not. In contrast, both detected and undetected targets produced equally robust auditory middle-latency, steady-state responses, presumably from the primary auditory cortex. These findings indicate that neural correlates of auditory awareness in informational masking emerge between early and late stages of processing within the auditory cortex.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neural", "correlates", "auditory", "perceptual", "informational", "masking"], "article_id"=>153643, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Alexander Gutschalk", "Christophe Micheyl", "Andrew J Oxenham"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.sa001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.sa002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.sa003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.sg001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>71, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Neural_Correlates_of_Auditory_Perceptual_Awareness_under_Informational_Masking/153643", "title"=>"Neural Correlates of Auditory Perceptual Awareness under Informational Masking", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-06-10 01:00:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929372"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Grand average activity evoked by targets presented to the left ear (masker-only condition subtracted). The middle panel shows the data from the second phase of the experiment, where subjects listened to the stimuli presented to their left ear, and indicated whether they did (black wave) or did not (blue wave) hear the target stream. The ARN is observed when listeners indicated conscious perception of the target stream. The top panel shows an average over the same selection of physically identical trials (based on the responses in phase 2), when listeners performed the right ear target detection task in phase 1. This condition was recorded first, and listeners were generally not aware of the target stream. The bottom panel shows the activity evoked by an unmasked target stream on the left ear, while subjects were attending to the right. The N<sub>1</sub>m and sustained field (SF) are now evoked without active attention.</p>\n <p>(B) Mean source amplitudes (± 1 s.e.m.) in the time window 75–175 ms post target tone onset; dipoles were fitted to the ARN.</p>\n <p>(C) Behavioral data during the left ear task in phase 2.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>599827, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Alexander Gutschalk", "Christophe Micheyl", "Andrew J Oxenham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_2_ARN_/599827", "title"=>"Experiment 2: ARN", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-10 02:43:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/929246"], "description"=>"<div><p>In this experiment, listeners attended passively to the stimulation. Targets started either after the informational masker (uncued targets) or two tones before the informational masker (cued targets). Except for the cue, the masker and targets used in the two conditions were identical. This setting was chosen to test the influence of perception on the ARN without the necessity for an active task by the listener. Listeners were naive as to the experiment's objective.</p>\n <p>(A) Average source waveforms across listeners (<i>n</i> = 12) and hemispheres. Confidence intervals represent bootstrap-based <i>t</i>-intervals (two-tailed, <i>p</i> < 0.05).</p>\n <p>(B) Mean amplitudes and standard errors of the mean in the time window from 75–175 ms post target tone onset. The ARN evoked by cued targets is significantly stronger than the ARN elicited by uncued targets.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cued"], "article_id"=>599698, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Alexander Gutschalk", "Christophe Micheyl", "Andrew J Oxenham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1C_Cued_Targets_/599698", "title"=>"Experiment 1C: Cued Targets", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-10 02:41:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/928903"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Schematic spectrogram of the stimulus paradigm, arranged in 18 log-spaced frequency bands (239–5,000 Hz). The target (black) was a regularly repeating tone (489–2,924 Hz). Two frequency bands above and below the target were kept as protected region; masker tones were present in the remaining frequency bands. The stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA, interval between the onsets of two subsequent tones) within a masker band was randomized with an average SOA of 200 ms (left panel) or 800 ms (right panel).</p>\n <p>(B) Average detection probability across listeners (± 1 s.e.m.) for the 200-ms (filled circles) and the 800-ms SOA masker condition (open circles) over time. False positive responses were derived from masker-only conditions. Because the listeners' task was to indicate when they detected repeating target tones, which required that they detected at least two consecutive target tones, the two target tones preceding a detection response (key press) were counted as detected tones in our analysis of behavioral responses.</p>\n <p>(C) Location of ARN dipoles in the AC for a sample listener.</p>\n <p>(D) Source waveforms averaged over hemispheres, SOA-conditions, and listeners. Confidence intervals indicate <i>t</i>-intervals (<i>p</i> < 0.05, two-tailed). As for the behavioral data, the two target tones that preceded a key press were considered detected.</p>\n <p>(E) Average amplitudes in the time range 75–175 ms after target-tone onset (± 1 s.e.m.), for left (blue) and right (red) AC. The data on the left represent the data from the 200-ms, the middle set the data from the 800-ms masker SOA, and the right-most set the control data with unmasked targets.</p>\n <p>(F) MEG-source amplitudes for each separate target repetition (mean ± 1 s.e.m., time-range 75–175 ms; average across hemispheres and SOA conditions; <i>n</i> = 12).</p>\n <p>(G) MEG-source amplitudes for each separate target-frequency band (mean ± 1 s.e.m., <i>n</i> = 12, except detected targets at 2.0 kHz: <i>n</i> = 11).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["1a"], "article_id"=>599359, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Alexander Gutschalk", "Christophe Micheyl", "Andrew J Oxenham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060138.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1A_and_1B_/599359", "title"=>"Experiment 1A and 1B", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-06-10 02:35:59"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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