Cryptic Variation in the Human Mutation Rate
Publication Date
February 03, 2009
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
Alan Hodgkinson, Emmanuel Ladoukakis & Adam Eyre Walker
Volume
7
Issue
2
Pages
e1000027
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000027
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19192947
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2634788
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19192947
Web of Science
000263599900005
Scopus
61349141884
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/cryptic-variation-human-mutation-rate-11
Events
Loading … Spinner

CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Cryptic variation in the human mutation rate", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alan", "last_name"=>"Hodgkinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55446258900"}, {"first_name"=>"Emmanuel", "last_name"=>"Ladoukakis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507034404"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam", "last_name"=>"Eyre-Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006390926"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"354235065", "sgr"=>"61349141884", "pmid"=>"19192947", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-61349141884", "isbn"=>"1545-7885", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027", "issn"=>"15449173"}, "id"=>"62d1c271-901e-32ed-b9b7-7c54310e6846", "abstract"=>"The mutation rate is known to vary between adjacent sites within the human genome as a consequence of context, the most well-studied example being the influence of CpG dinucelotides. We investigated whether there is additional variation by testing whether there is an excess of sites at which both humans and chimpanzees have a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We found a highly significant excess of such sites, and we demonstrated that this excess is not due to neighbouring nucleotide effects, ancestral polymorphism, or natural selection. We therefore infer that there is cryptic variation in the mutation rate. However, although this variation in the mutation rate is not associated with the adjacent nucleotides, we show that there are highly nonrandom patterns of nucleotides that extend approximately 80 base pairs on either side of sites with coincident SNPs, suggesting that there are extensive and complex context effects. Finally, we estimate the level of variation needed to produce the excess of coincident SNPs and show that there is a similar, or higher, level of variation in the mutation rate associated with this cryptic process than there is associated with adjacent nucleotides, including the CpG effect. We conclude that there is substantial variation in the mutation that has, until now, been hidden from view.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cryptic-variation-human-mutation-rate-11", "reader_count"=>119, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>48, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>48, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>15, "Mathematics"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>86, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>86}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>15}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>9, "Japan"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/61349141884"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/61349141884?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=61349141884&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=61349141884&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/61349141884", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:61349141884", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-61349141884", "dc:title"=>"Cryptic variation in the human mutation rate", "dc:creator"=>"Hodgkinson A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Biology", "prism:issn"=>"15449173", "prism:eIssn"=>"15457885", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"2", "prism:pageRange"=>"0226-0232", "prism:coverDate"=>"2009-02-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"February 2009", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027", "citedby-count"=>"72", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Sussex", "affiliation-city"=>"Sussex", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}], "pubmed-id"=>"19192947", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "source-id"=>"12977", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosbiology%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pbio.1000027", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Counter

  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"900", "xml_views"=>"20", "html_views"=>"2296"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"258", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"886"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"95", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"312"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"140"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"140"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"156"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"114"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"194"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"193"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449578", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449614", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449654", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449694", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449731", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449765", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449807", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449841"], "description"=>"<div><p>The mutation rate is known to vary between adjacent sites within the human genome as a consequence of context, the most well-studied example being the influence of CpG dinucelotides. We investigated whether there is additional variation by testing whether there is an excess of sites at which both humans and chimpanzees have a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We found a highly significant excess of such sites, and we demonstrated that this excess is not due to neighbouring nucleotide effects, ancestral polymorphism, or natural selection. We therefore infer that there is cryptic variation in the mutation rate. However, although this variation in the mutation rate is not associated with the adjacent nucleotides, we show that there are highly nonrandom patterns of nucleotides that extend ∼80 base pairs on either side of sites with coincident SNPs, suggesting that there are extensive and complex context effects. Finally, we estimate the level of variation needed to produce the excess of coincident SNPs and show that there is a similar, or higher, level of variation in the mutation rate associated with this cryptic process than there is associated with adjacent nucleotides, including the CpG effect. We conclude that there is substantial variation in the mutation that has, until now, been hidden from view.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cryptic", "mutation"], "article_id"=>148616, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alan Hodgkinson", "Emmanuel Ladoukakis", "Adam Eyre-Walker"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.sg001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.sg002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.sg003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.st001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.st002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.st003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.st004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.sd001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cryptic_Variation_in_the_Human_Mutation_Rate/148616", "title"=>"Cryptic Variation in the Human Mutation Rate", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-02-03 02:23:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909072"], "description"=>"<p>The Number of Human SNPs at Each Site of the Human–Chimpanzee Alignments Used in the Analysis</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["snps", "alignments"], "article_id"=>579529, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alan Hodgkinson", "Emmanuel Ladoukakis", "Adam Eyre-Walker"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Number_of_Human_SNPs_at_Each_Site_of_the_Human_8211_Chimpanzee_Alignments_Used_in_the_Analysis_/579529", "title"=>"The Number of Human SNPs at Each Site of the Human–Chimpanzee Alignments Used in the Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-03 02:38:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909128"], "description"=>"<p>This figure gives the log value from a chi-square test of heterogeneity of triplet frequencies at each site of the human–chimpanzee alignment versus the average triplet frequencies across the whole alignment for (A) alignments containing a coincident SNP, and (B) alignments without a coincident SNP, but with a chimpanzee SNP at the central position. The line marks the point above which 5% of the chi-square values are expected to fall by chance alone. The chi-square values are not given for the central three sites because the presence of the chimpanzee SNP in the centre of the alignment means that triplets cannot be counted at positions 0, +1, and −1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["triplet"], "article_id"=>579593, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Alan Hodgkinson", "Emmanuel Ladoukakis", "Adam Eyre-Walker"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000027.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heterogeneity_in_Triplet_Frequencies_/579593", "title"=>"Heterogeneity in Triplet Frequencies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-03 02:39:53"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"10", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"9", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"7", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"6", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"3", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"0", "unique-ip"=>"4", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"4", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"2", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"5", "full-text"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"17", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"32", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"41", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"8", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"15", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"15", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"11", "unique-ip"=>"13", "pdf"=>"8", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"9", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"14", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"14", "pdf"=>"11", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"9", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"10", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"0", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2009-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2009-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[349, 614, 744, 851, 955, 1059, 1167, 1262, 1352, 1431, 1516, 1593, 1668, 1746, 1817, 1883, 1950, 2017, 2075, 2141, 2198, 2254, 2313, 2368, 2424, 2474, 2534, 2591, 2651, 2710, 2776, 2837, 2892, 2953, 3014, 3072, 3130, 3186, 3251, 3307, 3366, 3427, 3500, 3561, 3627, 3688, 3759, 3821, 3888, 3950, 4010, 4070, 4131, 4189, 4242, 4307, 4370, 4431, 4491, 4549, 4608]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[335, 600, 731, 835, 935, 1034, 1138, 1230, 1320, 1399, 1485, 1570, 1643, 1714, 1791, 1859, 1928, 1987, 2040, 2104, 2157, 2210, 2261, 2320, 2373, 2432, 2486, 2543, 2603, 2655, 2720, 2787, 2844, 2901, 2952, 3005, 3065, 3119, 3176, 3236, 3305, 3373, 3432, 3492, 3558, 3614, 3676, 3736, 3801, 3869, 3930, 3973, 4031, 4096, 4176, 4234, 4283, 4338, 4405, 4464, 4512]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[336, 588, 721, 826, 931, 1029, 1138, 1224, 1311, 1395, 1477, 1555, 1632, 1704, 1774, 1847, 1919, 1987, 2039, 2089, 2149, 2204, 2264, 2319, 2370, 2424, 2481, 2535, 2593, 2645, 2702, 2765, 2816, 2865, 2932, 2992, 3045, 3105, 3159, 3208, 3259, 3316, 3374, 3430, 3490, 3542, 3602, 3654, 3720, 3783, 3851, 3919, 3981, 4038, 4096, 4151, 4197, 4235, 4297, 4372, 4437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[366, 637, 775, 896, 999, 1118, 1230, 1322, 1416, 1516, 1602, 1685, 1767, 1849, 1914, 1982, 2049, 2120, 2185, 2246, 2303, 2363, 2409, 2473, 2535, 2599, 2655, 2717, 2777, 2842, 2906, 2977, 3021, 3088, 3144, 3199, 3253, 3317, 3379, 3456, 3508, 3567, 3634, 3716, 3781, 3853, 3911, 3974, 4040, 4118, 4170, 4218, 4285, 4341, 4404, 4467, 4527, 4584, 4631, 4689, 4725]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[334, 613, 751, 863, 964, 1078, 1181, 1270, 1358, 1443, 1536, 1616, 1690, 1768, 1826, 1902, 1969, 2031, 2095, 2149, 2202, 2258, 2305, 2349, 2417, 2482, 2541, 2598, 2662, 2720, 2768, 2832, 2897, 2947, 2998, 3058, 3121, 3175, 3235, 3292, 3368, 3442, 3507, 3563, 3621, 3676, 3736, 3802, 3852, 3922, 3977, 4025, 4071, 4141, 4199, 4258, 4316, 4376, 4422, 4467, 4518]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[337, 605, 735, 844, 939, 1037, 1139, 1214, 1300, 1375, 1461, 1543, 1619, 1693, 1768, 1827, 1881, 1948, 2013, 2066, 2118, 2172, 2227, 2270, 2325, 2386, 2443, 2504, 2565, 2609, 2659, 2731, 2792, 2857, 2920, 2984, 3051, 3101, 3165, 3213, 3276, 3344, 3397, 3462, 3512, 3561, 3629, 3710, 3779, 3847, 3897, 3949, 4013, 4086, 4140, 4180, 4239, 4288, 4344, 4409, 4470]}]}

F1000Prime | Further Information

Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts