Allometry of the Duration of Flight Feather Molt in Birds
Publication Date
June 16, 2009
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
Sievert Rohwer, Robert E. Ricklefs, Vanya G. Rohwer & Michelle M. Copple
Volume
7
Issue
6
Pages
e1000132
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000132
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000132
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19529759
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690433
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19529759
Web of Science
000268398600009
Scopus
67649972435
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/allometry-duration-flight-feather-molt-birds
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/442948"], "description"=>"<div><p>We used allometric scaling to explain why the regular replacement of the primary flight feathers requires disproportionately more time for large birds. Primary growth rate scales to mass (<em>M</em>) as <em>M</em><sup>0.171</sup>, whereas the summed length of the primaries scales almost twice as fast (<em>M</em><sup>0.316</sup>). The ratio of length (mm) to rate (mm/day), which would be the time needed to replace all the primaries one by one, increases as the 0.14 power of mass (<em>M</em><sup>0.316</sup>/<em>M</em><sup>0.171</sup> = <em>M</em><sup>0.145</sup>), illustrating why the time required to replace the primaries is so important to life history evolution in large birds. Smaller birds generally replace all their flight feathers annually, but larger birds that fly while renewing their primaries often extend the primary molt over two or more years. Most flying birds exhibit one of three fundamentally different modes of primary replacement, and the size distributions of birds associated with these replacement modes suggest that birds that replace their primaries in a single wave of molt cannot approach the size of the largest flying birds without first transitioning to a more complex mode of primary replacement. Finally, we propose two models that could account for the 1/6 power allometry between feather growth rate and body mass, both based on a length-to-surface relationship that transforms the linear, cylindrical growing region responsible for producing feather tissue into an essentially two-dimensional structure. These allometric relationships offer a general explanation for flight feather replacement requiring disproportionately more time for large birds.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allometry", "duration", "molt", "birds"], "article_id"=>147297, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sievert Rohwer", "Robert E. Ricklefs", "Vanya G. Rohwer", "Michelle M. Copple"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000132", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Allometry_of_the_Duration_of_Flight_Feather_Molt_in_Birds/147297", "title"=>"Allometry of the Duration of Flight Feather Molt in Birds", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-06-16 02:01:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/894275"], "description"=>"<p>The latter grow their primaries no slower than birds that fly while molting, suggesting that follicular constraints on the rate of feather synthesis, rather than energetic costs, limit the rate at which flight feathers grow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "plotted", "separately", "molting", "quills"], "article_id"=>564730, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sievert Rohwer", "Robert E. Ricklefs", "Vanya G. Rohwer", "Michelle M. Copple"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000132.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deviations_from_the_growth_rate_regression_in_Figure_1_plotted_separately_for_species_that_fly_while_molting_and_for_species_that_replace_their_wing_quills_simultaneously_/564730", "title"=>"Deviations from the growth rate regression in Figure 1, plotted separately for species that fly while molting and for species that replace their wing quills simultaneously.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-16 01:18:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/894194"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Size distribution for all flying birds (wing shows primary and secondary flight feathers). (B) Size distribution for species with simple molts, characterized by a single wave of primary replacement. (C) Size distribution for species with complex molts that feature either (1) multiple waves of primary replacement proceeding distally through the primaries, or (2) division of the primaries into two molt series with feathers replaced in opposite directions. (D) Size distribution for species that replace their primaries (and secondaries) simultaneously (wing shows lost primaries and secondaries depicted by dotted lines). Most species with simple molts (B) fail to approach 15 kg, the approximate upper size limit of birds set by the power available for flight because such large birds would require too much time to replace their flight feathers. But species with complex (C) and, especially, simultaneous primary replacement (D) reach the upper size limit of birds set by the power required for flight because these modes of primary replacement require less time than simple molts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "patterns", "feathers", "points", "molt"], "article_id"=>564649, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sievert Rohwer", "Robert E. Ricklefs", "Vanya G. Rohwer", "Michelle M. Copple"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000132.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_size_distributions_associated_with_different_patterns_of_primary_replacement_dark_feathers_are_points_of_molt_initiation_/564649", "title"=>"Body size distributions associated with different patterns of primary replacement; dark feathers are points of molt initiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-16 01:17:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/894320"], "description"=>"<p>The last two columns are used to compare the mass-adjusted rate of primary growth for species that fly while molting and species that replace their flight feathers simultaneously.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allometric", "equations", "1a", "sources", "lengths"], "article_id"=>564778, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sievert Rohwer", "Robert E. Ricklefs", "Vanya G. Rohwer", "Michelle M. Copple"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000132.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_used_to_generate_the_allometric_equations_of_Figure_1A_and_1B_and_sources_for_the_data_on_primary_growth_rate_primary_lengths_are_from_museum_specimens_/564778", "title"=>"Data used to generate the allometric equations of Figure 1A and 1B, and sources for the data on primary growth rate; primary lengths are from museum specimens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-06-16 01:19:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/894113"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Allometric relationships between log<sub>10</sub> mass (g) and log<sub>10</sub> primary growth rate (mm/d) and log<sub>10</sub> summed primary length (mm). Arrows indicate the estimated time required to replace all primaries if they are grown one feather at a time for birds of 10 g, 10 kg, and for the extinct teratorn that weighed 70 kg. (B) Same as (A), except primary length is the longest primary. Arrows indicate the estimated time required to replace all the flight feathers in a simultaneous replacement of the primaries. (C) Fraction of individuals (<i>n</i> = 20 for most species, see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000132#pbio.1000132.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>) showing complete replacement of their primaries in their last molt, plotted against log<sub>10</sub> mass for 77 species that fly while molting (black dots and loess curve), and the same relationship for 17 species that replace their flight feathers simultaneously (open circles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["completeness"], "article_id"=>564575, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sievert Rohwer", "Robert E. Ricklefs", "Vanya G. Rohwer", "Michelle M. Copple"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000132.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_mass_and_flight_feather_growth_rate_length_of_flight_feathers_and_completeness_of_flight_feather_molts_/564575", "title"=>"Relationships between mass and flight feather growth rate, length of flight feathers, and completeness of flight feather molts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-16 01:16:15"}

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