A Global Perspective on Trends in Nature-Based Tourism
Publication Date
June 30, 2009
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
Andrew Balmford, James Beresford, Jonathan Green, Robin Naidoo, et al
Volume
7
Issue
6
Pages
e1000144
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000144
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000144
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19564896
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694281
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19564896
Web of Science
000268398600020
Scopus
67649969479
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/global-perspective-trends-naturebased-tourism
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Mendeley | Further Information

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This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been cited as evidence of \"a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation\"-but how widespread is this phenomenon? We address this question by looking at temporal trends in visitor numbers at 280 protected areas (PAs) from 20 countries. This more geographically representative dataset shows that while PA visitation (whether measured as total or per capita visit numbers) is indeed declining in the United States and Japan, it is generally increasing elsewhere. Total visit numbers are growing in 15 of the 20 countries for which we could get data, with the median national rate of change unrelated to the national rate of population growth but negatively associated with wealth. Reasons for this reversal of growth in the richest countries are difficult to pin down with existing data, but the pattern is mirrored by trends in international tourist arrivals as a whole and so may not necessarily be caused by disaffection with nature. Irrespective of the explanation, it is clear that despite important downturns in some countries, nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere, and may still have considerable potential both to generate funds for conservation and to shape people's attitudes to the environment.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/global-perspective-trends-naturebased-tourism", "reader_count"=>473, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>30, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>96, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>32, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"167"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"73", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"191"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"235"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"282"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"102", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"160"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"111", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"172", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"201", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892965"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Changes in total visit number; (B) changes in per capita visit number.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "numbers", "visits", "pas", "standardised", "arrivals", "symbols"], "article_id"=>563410, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Balmford", "James Beresford", "Jonathan Green", "Robin Naidoo", "Matt Walpole", "Andrea Manica"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000144.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_national_rates_of_change_in_numbers_of_visits_to_PAs_in_relation_to_standardised_annual_change_in_foreign_arrivals_1995_2005_symbols_as_in_Figure_2_/563410", "title"=>"Median national rates of change in numbers of visits to PAs in relation to standardised annual change in foreign arrivals (1995–2005); symbols as in Figure 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-30 00:56:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/442205", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/442231", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/442263"], "description"=>"<div><p>Reports of rapid growth in nature-based tourism and recreation add significant weight to the economic case for biodiversity conservation but seem to contradict widely voiced concerns that people are becoming increasingly isolated from nature. This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been cited as evidence of “a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation”—but how widespread is this phenomenon? We address this question by looking at temporal trends in visitor numbers at 280 protected areas (PAs) from 20 countries. This more geographically representative dataset shows that while PA visitation (whether measured as total or per capita visit numbers) is indeed declining in the United States and Japan, it is generally increasing elsewhere. Total visit numbers are growing in 15 of the 20 countries for which we could get data, with the median national rate of change unrelated to the national rate of population growth but negatively associated with wealth. Reasons for this reversal of growth in the richest countries are difficult to pin down with existing data, but the pattern is mirrored by trends in international tourist arrivals as a whole and so may not necessarily be caused by disaffection with nature. Irrespective of the explanation, it is clear that despite important downturns in some countries, nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere, and may still have considerable potential both to generate funds for conservation and to shape people's attitudes to the environment.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "nature-based"], "article_id"=>147155, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Balmford", "James Beresford", "Jonathan Green", "Robin Naidoo", "Matt Walpole", "Andrea Manica"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000144.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000144.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000144.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Global_Perspective_on_Trends_in_Nature_Based_Tourism/147155", "title"=>"A Global Perspective on Trends in Nature-Based Tourism", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-06-30 01:59:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892885"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Changes in total visit number; (B) changes in per capita visit number.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "numbers", "visits", "pas", "capita", "gdp", "adjusted", "sampled", "reflected", "represents", "dashed", "lines"], "article_id"=>563327, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Balmford", "James Beresford", "Jonathan Green", "Robin Naidoo", "Matt Walpole", "Andrea Manica"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000144.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_national_rates_of_change_in_numbers_of_visits_to_PAs_in_relation_to_per_capita_GDP_in_2005_adjusted_for_PPP_the_number_of_PAs_sampled_per_country_is_reflected_in_point_size_and_used_to_weight_the_regression_solid_line_represents_the_best_model_dar/563327", "title"=>"Median national rates of change in numbers of visits to PAs in relation to per capita GDP (in 2005), adjusted for PPP; the number of PAs sampled per country is reflected in point size, and used to weight the regression; solid line represents the best model, dark dashed lines represent ±1 standard error (SE).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-30 00:55:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892815"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Changes in total visit number; (B) changes in per capita visit number.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["continents", "rates", "numbers", "visits", "protected", "circles", "interquartile", "minima", "maxima", "outliers", "deviate", "median"], "article_id"=>563255, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Andrew Balmford", "James Beresford", "Jonathan Green", "Robin Naidoo", "Matt Walpole", "Andrea Manica"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000144.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparisons_across_continents_of_rates_of_change_in_numbers_of_visits_to_protected_areas_1992_8211_2006_lines_boxes_error_bars_and_circles_show_medians_interquartile_ranges_minima_and_maxima_excluding_outliers_and_outliers_which_deviate_from_the_median_b/563255", "title"=>"Comparisons across continents of rates of change in numbers of visits to protected areas, 1992–2006; lines, boxes, error bars, and circles show medians, interquartile ranges, minima and maxima (excluding outliers), and outliers (which deviate from the median by >1.5× interquartile range), respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-30 00:54:15"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"29", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"22", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"48", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"45", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"26", "unique-ip"=>"30", "pdf"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"18", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"16", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"18", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"19", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"27", "unique-ip"=>"34", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
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  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"14", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"13", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"20", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"20", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"26", "unique-ip"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"21", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"22", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"15", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"20", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"35", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"22", "unique-ip"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"21", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"23", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"0", "unique-ip"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"34", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"38", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"84", "unique-ip"=>"76", "pdf"=>"17", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"62", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"14", "unique-ip"=>"51", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"33", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"34", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"24", "unique-ip"=>"29", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"18", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"16", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"108", "full-text"=>"134", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"104", "full-text"=>"122", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
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Relative Metric

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