The “Parahippocampal Place Area” Responds Preferentially to High Spatial Frequencies in Humans and Monkeys
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{"title"=>"The \"parahippocampal place area\" responds preferentially to high spatial frequencies in humans and monkeys", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Reza", "last_name"=>"Rajimehr", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603416388"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathryn J.", "last_name"=>"Devaney", "scopus_author_id"=>"24070527200"}, {"first_name"=>"Natalia Y.", "last_name"=>"Bilenko", "scopus_author_id"=>"24764568800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeremy C.", "last_name"=>"Young", "scopus_author_id"=>"24072416700"}, {"first_name"=>"Roger B.H.", "last_name"=>"Tootell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005368664"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15449173", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79955517413", "pui"=>"361688628", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\n1544-9173 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"79955517413", "pmid"=>"21483719"}, "id"=>"fbe0561c-2a8d-37a0-8feb-809d6b0d6a69", "abstract"=>"Defining the exact mechanisms by which the brain processes visual objects and scenes remains an unresolved challenge. Valuable clues to this process have emerged from the demonstration that clusters of neurons (\"modules\") in inferior temporal cortex apparently respond selectively to specific categories of visual stimuli, such as places/scenes. However, the higher-order \"category-selective\" response could also reflect specific lower-level spatial factors. Here we tested this idea in multiple functional MRI experiments, in humans and macaque monkeys, by systematically manipulating the spatial content of geometrical shapes and natural images. These tests revealed that visual spatial discontinuities (as reflected by an increased response to high spatial frequencies) selectively activate a well-known place-selective region of visual cortex (the \"parahippocampal place area\") in humans. In macaques, we demonstrate a homologous cortical area, and show that it also responds selectively to higher spatial frequencies. The parahippocampal place area may use such information for detecting object borders and scene details during spatial perception and navigation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/parahippocampal-place-area-responds-preferentially-high-spatial-frequencies-humans-monkeys", "reader_count"=>153, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>40, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>42, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>40, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>42, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Engineering"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>13, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>72, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>8, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>13}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>72}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>8}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>4, "United States"=>7, "China"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>3, "Australia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785990"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) Examples of scenes with relatively higher (H scenes) (A) and lower\n (L scenes) (B) power at high SFs. These two images had the highest (H1) and\n the lowest (L1) normalized high SF power in our scene image database (see\n <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#pbio.1000608.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure\n S10</a> for details). (C and D) The FFT of the H1 (C) and L1 (D)\n images. The H1 scene had more high SF power (and less low SF power) than the\n L1 scene. The frequency bias was not confined to specific scene categories\n (e.g., outdoor versus indoor scenes). (E) PPA was localized based on a\n blocked-design comparison between scene stimuli and single-object stimuli,\n in five human subjects. The group-averaged activity map is displayed on a\n medial view of an averaged inflated cortical surface (right hemisphere). (F)\n The comparison between H scenes and L scenes revealed a strong fMRI activity\n for H scenes within PPA. This activity extended posteriorly, in\n occipito-temporal cortex.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reflects", "spectral"], "article_id"=>456360, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PPA_activity_reflects_the_spectral_variation_in_natural_scenes_/456360", "title"=>"PPA activity reflects the spectral variation in natural scenes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:46:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785909"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The comparison of responses to faces versus places showed FFA and PPA in\n the averaged map of four human subjects. The group-averaged activity map is\n displayed on a ventral view of an averaged inflated cortical surface; the\n left hemisphere is shown on the right. (B) The comparison of responses to\n high SF places versus low SF places revealed a high SF bias within PPA, in\n the averaged map of the same four subjects. The high SF patch was prominent\n in the lateral-posterior subdivision of PPA. As a control, FFA did not show\n any differential activity for SF variation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "activate", "ppa"], "article_id"=>456277, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_pass_filtered_place_images_also_activate_human_PPA____selectively_/456277", "title"=>"High-pass-filtered place images also activate human PPA\n selectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:44:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785432"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sphere and cube stimuli and their FFTs. The top row shows sample images\n of the “smooth” sphere and the “smooth” cube. The\n bottom row shows the averaged 2-D FFT of the four sphere (left) and the four\n cube (right) images. The four images were distinguished only by changes in\n the location of the illuminant (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials\n and Methods</a>). The red/blue color map represents the FFT magnitude\n (magnitude  =  red > yellow > cyan > blue) in\n Fourier space; the center of this space indicates the DC component of the\n FFT. The spectral distribution included a complex pattern of high SF\n components in the cube, but not in the sphere. Here and in the other FFT\n maps, the SF units are in cycles per pixel. (B) As a control, we produced an\n fMRI map based on a conventional, blocked-design comparison of naturalistic\n face versus place images, in five human subjects (using independent\n localizer scans). The group-averaged activity map is displayed on a ventral\n view of the averaged inflated cortical surface; the left hemisphere is shown\n on the right, with anterior towards the top. Faces and places produced\n relatively higher activity in FFA and PPA, respectively. (C) Relative\n activation to the cube versus the sphere is based on the averaged data, from\n the same five subjects shown in (B). The cube activated PPA robustly and\n selectively, with a topography similar to that produced by place-based\n activation. The color scale bars in the cortical maps here and in the other\n figures indicate the <i>p-</i>values, in a logarithmic format\n (i.e., −log<sub>10</sub>[<i>p</i>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["higher-order", "cortical", "ppa", "responds", "differentially", "cubes"], "article_id"=>455794, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_higher_order_cortical_area_PPA_responds_differentially_to_cubes____versus_spheres_/455794", "title"=>"The higher-order cortical area PPA responds differentially to cubes\n versus spheres.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:36:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785621"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) Examples of low SF (A) and high SF (B) checkerboards. In the actual\n experiment, an array of 6×6 checks was used, and the phase of the\n stimulus was systematically varied (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> for further details). The border around\n the stimuli is for illustration purposes only. (C and D) The FFTs of low SF\n (C) and high SF (D) checkerboards. The color map represents the FFT\n magnitude in Fourier space (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#pbio-1000608-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1A</a> for more details about FFT maps). (E) The comparison\n between faces and places (an independent localizer scan) showed the\n classical areas FFA and PPA in the averaged map of four human subjects. The\n group-averaged activity map is displayed on a flattened view of the right\n occipito-temporal cortex. (F) The comparison of activity between high SF\n (yellow/red) and low SF (cyan/blue) checkerboards revealed a high SF bias\n within PPA. If anything, the opposite bias was found in parts of FFA. The\n maps are significant at the threshold of\n <i>p</i><10<sup>−2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["checkerboard", "images", "selectively", "activate"], "article_id"=>455989, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_pass_filtered_checkerboard_images_selectively_activate_PPA_/455989", "title"=>"High-pass-filtered checkerboard images selectively activate PPA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:39:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786312"], "description"=>"<p>In each image class, the root mean square contrast values were\n averaged across all images in that class. In each image, the pixel\n intensities were normalized in the range [0,1].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sf-filtered"], "article_id"=>456687, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_root_mean_square_contrast_of_SF_filtered_stimuli_/456687", "title"=>"The root mean square contrast of SF-filtered stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:51:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785714"], "description"=>"<p>The original stimuli were naturalistic face (and place) images (i.e.,\n unfiltered). These stimuli were then spatially filtered using FFT to produce\n low SF (<1 c/deg), middle SF (1–5 c/deg), or high SF (>5 c/deg)\n images. For a complete set of stimuli, see <a href=\"http://nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/~reza/SFstimuli.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">http://nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/~reza/SFstimuli.pdf</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/sensory systems"], "article_id"=>456082, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SF_filtered_stimuli_/456082", "title"=>"SF-filtered stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:41:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786076"], "description"=>"<p>The maps show the activity produced by place images, in a comparison of\n places versus faces (map threshold:\n <i>p</i><10<sup>−4</sup>), in awake monkeys. The\n activity map is displayed on a flattened view of macaque visual cortex in\n two monkeys (four hemispheres). The left panels show right hemispheres. The\n right panels show left hemispheres, mirror-reversed for ease of comparison.\n In all hemispheres, a place-selective patch (mPPA) was consistently\n localized in posterior IT cortex, adjacent/overlapping the posterior middle\n temporal sulcus, immediately ventral to the posterior temporal face patch\n (not shown). The topographic location of mPPA was slightly variable across\n individuals. A similar individual variability has been reported for the\n location of peak activity in human PPA (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#pbio.1000608-Aminoff1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a> and unpublished data).\n An additional place-selective patch was also localized in the anterior bank\n of the lunate sulcus, in occipito-parietal cortex. Presumably this dorsal\n patch is the monkey homolog of an additional human place-selective area\n located in the transverse occipital sulcus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["homolog", "ppa"], "article_id"=>456453, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evidence_for_a_monkey_homolog_of_PPA_in_individual_maps_/456453", "title"=>"Evidence for a monkey homolog of PPA in individual maps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:47:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786147"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A flattened view of macaque IT cortex (left hemisphere);\n posterior-to-anterior is left-to-right in this figure. Major sulci in this\n view are the following: AMTS, anterior middle temporal; IOS, inferior\n occipital; OTS, occipito-temporal; PMTS, posterior middle temporal; STS,\n superior temporal. (B) The activity map for normal faces (yellow) versus\n normal places (cyan) in the same hemisphere. As described earlier (e.g.,\n <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#pbio.1000608-Tsao1\" target=\"_blank\">[2]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#pbio.1000608-Rajimehr1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>), we consistently found a large face patch (here\n termed mFFA, based on its apparent homology with human FFA) in the fundus\n and the lower bank of superior temporal sulcus, and a smaller\n “anterior temporal face patch” (ATFP) in the upper bank of\n anterior middle temporal sulcus. Our maps also revealed a robust\n place-selective patch, mPPA (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#pbio-1000608-g008\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 8</a>, the upper-right panel), located\n adjacent and anterior-ventral to the mFFA. (C and D) The activity maps for\n high SF (yellow) versus low SF (cyan) places (C), and high SF (yellow)\n versus middle SF (cyan) faces (D) in the left hemisphere. The mPPA\n (especially its dorsal and posterior subdivisions) responded selectively to\n high SFs, whereas the face-selective mFFA (especially the central “hot\n spot” area of mFFA, which is most face-selective) responded\n selectively to lower SFs; a similar selectivity was found in the anterior\n face-selective area (anterior temporal face patch). That hot spot center of\n mFFA (delineated with a black/white dotted contour) was selected by\n increasing the statistical threshold to\n <i>p</i><10<sup>−16</sup> in the face/place map shown\n in (B). These SF-related activations were independent of the stimulus\n category (e.g., the “place” patch was preferentially activated\n even with high SF faces). (E and F) The activity maps for high SF (yellow)\n versus low SF (cyan) checkerboards in the left (E) and right (F)\n hemispheres. Again the mPPA in both hemispheres (marked with a black\n contour) showed a selective activation to high SFs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sf", "selectivity", "macaque"], "article_id"=>456517, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Topographic_relationship_between_SF_selectivity_and_place_face____selectivity_in_macaque_IT_cortex_/456517", "title"=>"Topographic relationship between SF selectivity and place/face\n selectivity in macaque IT cortex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:48:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785812"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The comparison of responses to normal faces versus normal places showed\n FFA and PPA in human ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Activation maps are\n displayed on magnified, flattened views of four hemispheres from four\n subjects. (B) The comparison of responses to high SF faces versus middle SF\n faces produced a selective activation to high SFs in PPA, even though the\n stimuli were faces instead of places. In some subjects, the reverse pattern\n of activation was found in the adjacent FFA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "activate", "ppa"], "article_id"=>456179, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_pass_filtered_face_images_activate_human_PPA_selectively_/456179", "title"=>"High-pass-filtered face images activate human PPA selectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:42:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/785506"], "description"=>"<p>(A) In this experiment, the PPA responses were measured for\n “smooth,” “bumpy,” and “textured”\n versions of the sphere and cube (see icons). For each stimulus, the mean SF\n was estimated by the weighted averaging of SFs in the FFT power spectrum.\n This mean value was significantly greater in the three cubes, compared to\n the three spheres (<i>p</i><0.005; paired\n <i>t</i>-test). (B) The fMRI responses to variations of the sphere\n and cube shapes in PPA. The PPA region of interest was defined functionally\n based on an independent place/face localizer (using naturalistic images; see\n <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). An asterisk\n denotes a statistically significant difference\n (<i>F</i> = 14.45,\n <i>p</i><0.05; ANOVA, Sidak post-hoc test). Error bars indicate\n one standard error of the mean, based on a within-subjects ANOVA design. PPA\n showed a consistently higher fMRI response to cubes (which had a higher mean\n SF) than to spheres, with a significant linear trend of increased activity\n (<i>p</i><0.001) from the addition of bumpy and textured\n patterns to the stimuli. These results suggest a sensitivity to spatial\n discontinuities (e.g., higher SFs) in PPA, as confirmed more directly in\n subsequent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "computer-generated", "3-d"], "article_id"=>455876, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PPA_responses_to_a_range_of_computer_generated_3_D_shapes_/455876", "title"=>"PPA responses to a range of computer-generated 3-D shapes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:37:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/786228"], "description"=>"<p>The top panel shows an image of two apes (gibbons) navigating through the\n forest canopy. The middle and bottom panels show the same image, when\n filtered for high and low SFs, respectively. The high SFs highlight the\n borders of the branches and vines, but those borders are essentially\n invisible in the low SF image. In the normal image (top), the borders are\n arguably less identifiable than in the high SF image, due to competing\n visual clutter. The ability to exactly localize the borders of these\n environmental features has obvious survival value. The original image was\n taken from <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608#pbio.1000608-Filler1\" target=\"_blank\">[50]</a> with permission.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sfs", "primate"], "article_id"=>456609, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detection_of_high_SFs_is_crucial_for_primate_place_perception_/456609", "title"=>"Detection of high SFs is crucial for primate place perception.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 01:50:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393707", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393736", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393763", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393788", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393817", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393845", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393873", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393896", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393921", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393937", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393957", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393974", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/393988", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/394003"], "description"=>"<div><p>Defining the exact mechanisms by which the brain processes visual objects and scenes remains an unresolved challenge. Valuable clues to this process have emerged from the demonstration that clusters of neurons (“modules”) in inferior temporal cortex apparently respond selectively to specific categories of visual stimuli, such as places/scenes. However, the higher-order “category-selective” response could also reflect specific lower-level spatial factors. Here we tested this idea in multiple functional MRI experiments, in humans and macaque monkeys, by systematically manipulating the spatial content of geometrical shapes and natural images. These tests revealed that visual spatial discontinuities (as reflected by an increased response to high spatial frequencies) selectively activate a well-known place-selective region of visual cortex (the “parahippocampal place area”) in humans. In macaques, we demonstrate a homologous cortical area, and show that it also responds selectively to higher spatial frequencies. The parahippocampal place area may use such information for detecting object borders and scene details during spatial perception and navigation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responds", "preferentially", "spatial", "frequencies", "humans", "monkeys"], "article_id"=>137746, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Reza Rajimehr", "Kathryn J. Devaney", "Natalia Y. Bilenko", "Jeremy C. Young", "Roger B. H. Tootell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000608.s014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Parahippocampal_Place_Area_Responds_Preferentially___to_High_Spatial_Frequencies_in_Humans_and_Monkeys/137746", "title"=>"The “Parahippocampal Place Area” Responds Preferentially\n to High Spatial Frequencies in Humans and Monkeys", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-04-05 02:09:06"}

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Relative Metric

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