Extinction Risk and Diversification Are Linked in a Plant Biodiversity Hotspot
Publication Date
May 24, 2011
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
T. Jonathan Davies, Gideon F. Smith, Dirk U. Bellstedt, James S. Boatwright, et al
Volume
9
Issue
5
Pages
e1000620
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000620
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21629678
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3101198
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21629678
Web of Science
000291144800006
Scopus
79958024907
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/extinction-risk-diversification-linked-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Extinction risk and diversification are linked in a plant biodiversity hotspot", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"T. Jonathan", "last_name"=>"Davies", "scopus_author_id"=>"35738622600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gideon F.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406737852"}, {"first_name"=>"Dirk U.", "last_name"=>"Bellstedt", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602071631"}, {"first_name"=>"James S.", "last_name"=>"Boatwright", "scopus_author_id"=>"17345013700"}, {"first_name"=>"Benny", "last_name"=>"Bytebier", "scopus_author_id"=>"16066687300"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard M.", "last_name"=>"Cowling", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007163910"}, {"first_name"=>"Félix", "last_name"=>"Forest", "scopus_author_id"=>"15922773000"}, {"first_name"=>"Luke J.", "last_name"=>"Harmon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004753639"}, {"first_name"=>"A. Muthama", "last_name"=>"Muasya", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602084882"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian D.", "last_name"=>"Schrire", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602178717"}, {"first_name"=>"Yolande", "last_name"=>"Steenkamp", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507091917"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle", "last_name"=>"van der Bank", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602695903"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincent", "last_name"=>"Savolainen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006741560"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15449173", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79958024907", "pui"=>"361895970", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"79958024907", "pmid"=>"21629678"}, "id"=>"2c9bc5b4-63a9-3e5f-8562-b0bbf04091fe", "abstract"=>"It is widely recognized that we are entering an extinction event on a scale approaching the mass extinctions seen in the fossil record. Present-day rates of extinction are estimated to be several orders of magnitude greater than background rates and are projected to increase further if current trends continue. In vertebrates, species traits, such as body size, fecundity, and geographic range, are important predictors of vulnerability. Although plants are the basis for life on Earth, our knowledge of plant extinctions and vulnerabilities is lagging. Here, we disentangle the underlying drivers of extinction risk in plants, focusing on the Cape of South Africa, a global biodiversity hotspot. By comparing Red List data for the British and South African floras, we demonstrate that the taxonomic distribution of extinction risk differs significantly between regions, inconsistent with a simple, trait-based model of extinction. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic tree for the Cape, we reveal a phylogenetic signal in the distribution of plant extinction risks but show that the most threatened species cluster within short branches at the tips of the phylogeny--opposite to trends in mammals. From analyzing the distribution of threatened species across 11 exemplar clades, we suggest that mode of speciation best explains the unusual phylogenetic structure of extinction risks in plants of the Cape. Our results demonstrate that explanations for elevated extinction risk in plants of the Cape flora differ dramatically from those recognized for vertebrates. In the Cape, extinction risk is higher for young and fast-evolving plant lineages and cannot be explained by correlations with simple biological traits. Critically, we find that the most vulnerable plant species are nonetheless marching towards extinction at a more rapid pace but, surprisingly, independently from anthropogenic effects. Our results have important implications for conservation priorities and cast doubts on the utility of current Red List criteria for plants in regions such as the Cape, where speciation has been rapid, if our aim is to maximize the preservation of the tree-of-life.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/extinction-risk-diversification-linked-plant-biodiversity-hotspot", "reader_count"=>304, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>19, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>84, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>68, "Student > Postgraduate"=>17, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>20}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>19, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>84, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>68, "Student > Postgraduate"=>17, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>20}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>52, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>219, "Philosophy"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>219}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>52}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>16, "Ukraine"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>7, "Kenya"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>5, "Canada"=>1, "China"=>2, "Brazil"=>11, "Denmark"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "Italy"=>3, "South Africa"=>3, "France"=>4, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>10}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/771989"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Cypereae, (B) <i>Disa</i>, (C) <i>Indiogofera</i>,\n (D) <i>Lachnaea</i>, (E) <i>Muraltia</i>, (F)\n <i>Pentaschistis</i>, (G) <i>Podalyrieae</i>, (H)\n Restionaceae, (I) <i>Zygophyllum</i>, (J) <i>Protea</i>,\n and (K) <i>Moraea</i>. Solid line, observed values; dashed red\n line, Brownian expectations; dashed blue line, punctuated model (range\n asymmetry factor  = 2, s.d. for evolutionary drift\n  = 2, evolutionary trend  = 0.3;\n <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). Clade age\n is scaled between 0 and 1, with 0 zero representing clade origins and 1\n representing the present day. High relative disparity towards the present\n (e.g., Cypereae, <i>Indigofera</i>, <i>Muraltia</i>,\n <i>Podalyrieae</i>, <i>Protea</i>, and Restionaceae)\n indicates that most variation in extinction risk is between species within\n subclades, i.e. closely related species frequently differ strongly in\n extinction risk. Low relative disparity towards the root of the tree (e.g.,\n <i>Disa</i>, <i>Indigofera</i>,\n <i>Moraea</i>, and <i>Muraltia</i>) indicates that\n most variation in extinction risk is between subclades, i.e. species are\n more similar in extinction risk within subclades than between subclades.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extinction"], "article_id"=>442356, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["T. Jonathan Davies", "Gideon F. Smith", "Dirk U. Bellstedt", "James S. Boatwright", "Benny Bytebier", "Richard M. Cowling", "Félix Forest", "Luke J. Harmon", "A. Muthama Muasya", "Brian D. Schrire", "Yolande Steenkamp", "Michelle van der Bank", "Vincent Savolainen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Disparity_through_time_in_extinction_risk_/442356", "title"=>"Disparity through time in extinction risk.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-24 00:39:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387515", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387618", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387711", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387758", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387850", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387880", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387909", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387937", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387985", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/388018", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/388047", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/388069", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/388103", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/388144"], "description"=>"<div><p>It is widely recognized that we are entering an extinction event on a scale approaching the mass extinctions seen in the fossil record. Present-day rates of extinction are estimated to be several orders of magnitude greater than background rates and are projected to increase further if current trends continue. In vertebrates, species traits, such as body size, fecundity, and geographic range, are important predictors of vulnerability. Although plants are the basis for life on Earth, our knowledge of plant extinctions and vulnerabilities is lagging. Here, we disentangle the underlying drivers of extinction risk in plants, focusing on the Cape of South Africa, a global biodiversity hotspot. By comparing <em>Red List</em> data for the British and South African floras, we demonstrate that the taxonomic distribution of extinction risk differs significantly between regions, inconsistent with a simple, trait-based model of extinction. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic tree for the Cape, we reveal a phylogenetic signal in the distribution of plant extinction risks but show that the most threatened species cluster within short branches at the tips of the phylogeny—opposite to trends in mammals. From analyzing the distribution of threatened species across 11 exemplar clades, we suggest that mode of speciation best explains the unusual phylogenetic structure of extinction risks in plants of the Cape. Our results demonstrate that explanations for elevated extinction risk in plants of the Cape flora differ dramatically from those recognized for vertebrates. In the Cape, extinction risk is higher for young and fast-evolving plant lineages and cannot be explained by correlations with simple biological traits. Critically, we find that the most vulnerable plant species are nonetheless marching towards extinction at a more rapid pace but, surprisingly, independently from anthropogenic effects. Our results have important implications for conservation priorities and cast doubts on the utility of current <em>Red List</em> criteria for plants in regions such as the Cape, where speciation has been rapid, if our aim is to maximize the preservation of the tree-of-life.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extinction", "diversification", "are", "linked", "plant", "biodiversity", "hotspot"], "article_id"=>136515, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["T. Jonathan Davies", "Gideon F. Smith", "Dirk U. Bellstedt", "James S. Boatwright", "Benny Bytebier", "Richard M. Cowling", "Félix Forest", "Luke J. Harmon", "A. Muthama Muasya", "Brian D. Schrire", "Yolande Steenkamp", "Michelle van der Bank", "Vincent Savolainen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.s014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>109, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Extinction_Risk_and_Diversification_Are_Linked_in_a_Plant___Biodiversity_Hotspot/136515", "title"=>"Extinction Risk and Diversification Are Linked in a Plant\n Biodiversity Hotspot", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-05-24 01:48:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772222"], "description"=>"a<p>Branch lengths transformed to make tree ultrametric using penalized\n likelihood as implemented in the APE R-library <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620#pbio.1000620-Paradis1\" target=\"_blank\">[74]</a>.</p>b<p>Restionaceae demonstrates significant phylogenetic signal from\n randomizations, but the very low K-value (0.02) suggests the covariation\n with phylogeny is weak.</p><p>*<i>p</i><0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenies", "cape"], "article_id"=>442580, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["T. Jonathan Davies", "Gideon F. Smith", "Dirk U. Bellstedt", "James S. Boatwright", "Benny Bytebier", "Richard M. Cowling", "Félix Forest", "Luke J. Harmon", "A. Muthama Muasya", "Brian D. Schrire", "Yolande Steenkamp", "Michelle van der Bank", "Vincent Savolainen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_level_phylogenies_for_Cape_clades_/442580", "title"=>"Species-level phylogenies for Cape clades.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-24 00:43:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772186"], "description"=>"<p>Generalized linear models of extinction risk against species richness,\n taxon age, and diversification (genera endemic to the Cape of South\n Africa).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["linear", "models", "extinction", "taxon", "diversification", "endemic", "cape", "south"], "article_id"=>442539, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["T. Jonathan Davies", "Gideon F. Smith", "Dirk U. Bellstedt", "James S. Boatwright", "Benny Bytebier", "Richard M. Cowling", "Félix Forest", "Luke J. Harmon", "A. Muthama Muasya", "Brian D. Schrire", "Yolande Steenkamp", "Michelle van der Bank", "Vincent Savolainen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalized_linear_models_of_extinction_risk_against_species_richness____taxon_age_and_diversification_genera_endemic_to_the_Cape_of_South____Africa_/442539", "title"=>"Generalized linear models of extinction risk against species richness,\n taxon age, and diversification (genera endemic to the Cape of South\n Africa).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-05-24 00:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/771874"], "description"=>"<p>Global number of angiosperm species listed within each category of the IUCN\n Red List (A). Comparison of the taxonomic distribution of extinction risk\n between the South African (B) and the British (C) floras (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620#pbio.1000620.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Tables\n S3</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620#pbio.1000620.s011\" target=\"_blank\">S10</a>). Families with higher than expected\n proportions of threatened species are shown in red, and families with\n significantly lower proportions of threatened species are shown in blue\n (five most extreme families shown). The dashed line represents the mean\n proportion of threatened species across all families.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "ecology/global change ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology"], "article_id"=>442227, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["T. Jonathan Davies", "Gideon F. Smith", "Dirk U. Bellstedt", "James S. Boatwright", "Benny Bytebier", "Richard M. Cowling", "Félix Forest", "Luke J. Harmon", "A. Muthama Muasya", "Brian D. Schrire", "Yolande Steenkamp", "Michelle van der Bank", "Vincent Savolainen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Taxonomic_distribution_of_threat_/442227", "title"=>"Taxonomic distribution of threat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-24 00:37:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/772074"], "description"=>"<p>Threat (A) correlates with diversification rates (B) rather than habitat\n transformation (C). Colors reflect interpolated values derived from QDS cell\n centre points using Ordinary Kriging with a 12-cell neighborhood and scaled\n from high (red) to low (blue). Point estimates for threat and rates from\n mean values for endemic genera.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cape"], "article_id"=>442431, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["T. Jonathan Davies", "Gideon F. Smith", "Dirk U. Bellstedt", "James S. Boatwright", "Benny Bytebier", "Richard M. Cowling", "Félix Forest", "Luke J. Harmon", "A. Muthama Muasya", "Brian D. Schrire", "Yolande Steenkamp", "Michelle van der Bank", "Vincent Savolainen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geography_of_threat_in_the_Cape_of_South_Africa_/442431", "title"=>"Geography of threat in the Cape of South Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-24 00:40:31"}

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Relative Metric

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