Clade Age and Species Richness Are Decoupled Across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life
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{"title"=>"Clade Age and Species Richness Are Decoupled Across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel L.", "last_name"=>"Rabosky", "scopus_author_id"=>"14523174200"}, {"first_name"=>"Graham J.", "last_name"=>"Slater", "scopus_author_id"=>"23991474000"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael E.", "last_name"=>"Alfaro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004720066"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84865802385", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381", "pui"=>"365577412", "pmid"=>"22969411", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865802385", "issn"=>"15449173", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"f8600be3-d914-3d8b-b60c-826cf431d70e", "abstract"=>"Explaining the dramatic variation in species richness across the tree of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in species richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that species richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and species richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described species. We find no evidence that clade age predicts species richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of species richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/clade-age-species-richness-decoupled-across-eukaryotic-tree-life", "reader_count"=>388, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>27, "Researcher"=>104, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>22, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>101, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>39, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>35, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>21}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>27, "Researcher"=>104, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>22, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>101, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>39, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>35, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>21}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>26, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>314, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>21, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>21}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>314}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>26}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>2, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>19, "United Kingdom"=>9, "Portugal"=>2, "Switzerland"=>3, "Spain"=>5, "New Zealand"=>2, "Canada"=>3, "Sweden"=>3, "Belgium"=>1, "Norway"=>2, "Panama"=>1, "Brazil"=>12, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "Mexico"=>4, "Italy"=>1, "Uganda"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "France"=>6, "Australia"=>1, "Peru"=>2, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585171"], "description"=>"<p>“Clades” gives the number of subclades within each taxon, and <i>N</i> is the total species richness based on our compilation (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381#pbio.1001381.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>). β gives observed PGLS slope for the relationship between log(richness) and clade age (in millions of years) for each group. Two-tailed <i>p</i> values for test of null hypothesis (β = 0) are given in parentheses after slope. SES gives the standardized effect sizes of the observed slope relative to model-predicted values under two relative extinction rates (ε); the corresponding cumulative tail probability is given in parentheses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "12", "higher", "taxonomic", "groups", "subclade", "compared", "relaxed-rate", "among-clade", "diversification"], "article_id"=>255660, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel L. Rabosky", "Graham J. Slater", "Michael E. Alfaro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_richness_relationships_within_12_higher_taxonomic_groups_with_dense_subclade_sampling_compared_to_expected_relationships_under_a_relaxed_rate_model_of_among_clade_variation_in_net_diversification_rates_/255660", "title"=>"Age-richness relationships within 12 higher taxonomic groups with dense subclade sampling, compared to expected relationships under a relaxed-rate model of among-clade variation in net diversification rates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:34:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585102"], "description"=>"<p>Vertical red lines show the observed correlation for each group. Observed correlations are significantly lower than the corresponding model-predicted value for 10 of the 12 groups. The high variance of the MEDUSA-predicted distributions for gymnosperms and actinopterygiians is largely explained by the small number of clades (<i>N</i> = 12) available for those groups (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381#pbio.1001381.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S5</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rank-order", "correlations", "clade", "richness", "medusa", "12", "taxonomic"], "article_id"=>255595, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel L. Rabosky", "Graham J. Slater", "Michael E. Alfaro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distributions_of_rank_order_correlations_between_clade_age_and_species_richness_predicted_under_MEDUSA_model_of_rate_variation_for_12_major_taxonomic_groups_/255595", "title"=>"Distributions of rank-order correlations between clade age and species richness predicted under MEDUSA model of rate variation for 12 major taxonomic groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:33:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307766", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307810", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307907", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/308159", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/308195", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/308239", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/308290"], "description"=>"<div><p>Explaining the dramatic variation in species richness across the tree of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in species richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that species richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and species richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described species. We find no evidence that clade age predicts species richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of species richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clade", "richness", "are", "decoupled", "eukaryotic"], "article_id"=>120690, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel L. Rabosky", "Graham J. Slater", "Michael E. Alfaro"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>64, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Clade_Age_and_Species_Richness_Are_Decoupled_Across_the_Eukaryotic_Tree_of_Life/120690", "title"=>"Clade Age and Species Richness Are Decoupled Across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 00:11:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585008"], "description"=>"<p>Lines represent fitted PGLS relationships between log(richness) and clade age. Beetles show a significant age-diversity relationship (β = 0.017, <i>p</i> = 0.004). However, all slopes are less than expected under both relaxed-rate and phylogenetic-rate models of among-clade heterogeneity in net diversification rates (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381#pbio-1001381-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "12", "taxonomic", "groups", "subclade", "sampling", "was", "timetree"], "article_id"=>255498, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel L. Rabosky", "Graham J. Slater", "Michael E. Alfaro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>64, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_age_and_richness_within_12_major_taxonomic_groups_for_which_dense_subclade_sampling_was_available_as_part_of_the_timetree_project_24_/255498", "title"=>"Relationships between age and richness within 12 major taxonomic groups for which dense subclade sampling was available as part of the timetree project [<b>24</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:31:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585212"], "description"=>"<p>“Clades” gives the number of subclades within each taxon, and <i>N</i> is the total species richness based on our compilation (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381#pbio.1001381.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>). AICc-1 is the Akaike Information Criterion value with finite sample size correction (AICc) for a model with a single set of diversification parameters (speciation, extinction) across the full tree. AICc-MEDUSA is the corresponding AICc value under the best-fit multi-rate model selected by the MEDUSA stepwise procedure. <i>Shifts</i> gives number of diversification rate shifts under the best-fit model, and <i>np</i> is the corresponding total number of parameters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fitting", "medusa", "12", "higher", "taxonomic", "groups", "subclade"], "article_id"=>255703, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel L. Rabosky", "Graham J. Slater", "Michael E. Alfaro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_fitting_MEDUSA_model_to_12_higher_taxonomic_groups_with_dense_subclade_sampling_/255703", "title"=>"Results of fitting MEDUSA model to 12 higher taxonomic groups with dense subclade sampling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:35:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584841"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Time-calibrated tree of 1,397 clades of multicellular eukaryotes; length of gray bars indicates relative log-transformed species richness of each group. (B) Total species richness of major groups. Clade colors in (A) correspond to names in (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "eukaryotic"], "article_id"=>255340, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel L. Rabosky", "Graham J. Slater", "Michael E. Alfaro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_distribution_of_species_richness_across_the_eukaryotic_tree_of_life_/255340", "title"=>"Phylogenetic distribution of species richness across the eukaryotic tree of life.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584938"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Relationship between log(richness) and clade age (PGLS β = 0.0008, <i>p</i> = 0.66). (B) Same relationship as (A), but fitted model is projected onto logarithmic timescale to better visualize the relationship among age and richness for younger clades. The regression coefficient β represents the change in log-transformed diversity per million years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "unrelated", "clades", "multicellular"], "article_id"=>255435, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel L. Rabosky", "Graham J. Slater", "Michael E. Alfaro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001381.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>71, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clade_age_and_species_richness_are_unrelated_across_1_397_clades_of_multicellular_eukaryotes_/255435", "title"=>"Clade age and species richness are unrelated across 1,397 clades of multicellular eukaryotes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:30:35"}

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Relative Metric

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