A Species-Specific Cluster of Defensin-Like Genes Encodes Diffusible Pollen Tube Attractants in Arabidopsis
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{"title"=>"A Species-Specific Cluster of Defensin-Like Genes Encodes Diffusible Pollen Tube Attractants in Arabidopsis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hidenori", "last_name"=>"Takeuchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55007392800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tetsuya", "last_name"=>"Higashiyama", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006261611"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23271953", "issn"=>"15449173", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449", "pui"=>"368012940", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871674059", "sgr"=>"84871674059"}, "id"=>"4bf7ab71-606b-3f33-b52f-5b6cf4350317", "abstract"=>"Genes directly involved in male/female and host/parasite interactions are believed to be under positive selection. The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has more than 300 defensin-like (DEFL) genes, which are likely to be involved in both natural immunity and cell-to-cell communication including pollen-pistil interactions. However, little is known of the relationship between the molecular evolution of DEFL genes and their functions. Here, we identified a recently evolved cluster of DEFL genes in A. thaliana and demonstrated that these DEFL (cysteine-rich peptide [CRP810_1]) peptides, named AtLURE1 peptides, are pollen tube attractants guiding pollen tubes to the ovular micropyle. The AtLURE1 genes formed the sole species-specific cluster among DEFL genes compared to its close relative, A. lyrata. No evidence for positive selection was detected in AtLURE1 genes and their orthologs, implying neutral evolution of AtLURE1 genes. AtLURE1 peptides were specifically expressed in egg-accompanying synergid cells and secreted toward the funicular surface through the micropyle. Genetic analyses showed that gametophytic mutants defective in micropylar guidance (myb98, magatama3, and central cell guidance) do not express AtLURE1 peptides. Downregulation of the expression of these peptides impaired precise pollen tube attraction to the micropylar opening of some populations of ovules. Recombinant AtLURE1 peptides attracted A. thaliana pollen tubes at a higher frequency compared to A. lyrata pollen tubes, suggesting that these peptides are species-preferential attractants in micropylar guidance. In support of this idea, the heterologous expression of a single AtLURE1 peptide in the synergid cell of Torenia fournieri was sufficient to guide A. thaliana pollen tubes to the T. fournieri embryo sac and to permit entry into it. Our results suggest the unique evolution of AtLURE1 genes, which are directly involved in male-female interaction among the DEFL multigene family, and furthermore suggest that these peptides are sufficient to overcome interspecific barriers in gametophytic attraction and penetration.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/speciesspecific-cluster-defensinlike-genes-encodes-diffusible-pollen-tube-attractants-arabidopsis", "reader_count"=>138, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>112, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>112}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>15}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>3, "China"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Indonesia"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523440"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Representative fluorescence microscopic image of immunostained ovules on the septum with anti-CRP810_1.2 antibodies for the vector control and RNAi line. Arrows indicate fluorescence around the micropylar end of the ovules. Scale bar, 50 µm. (B–E) Aniline blue staining for pollen tubes inside the pistil. Asterisks indicate the micropylar opening. The ovule is delineated by the dashed line. f, funiculus. (B) The pollen tube was attracted normally to the wild-type ovule. (C) The pollen tube went past the micropylar opening and then turned back and grew into the micropyle. (D) The pollen tube growing on the funiculus (left side) went back down (right side) near the micropylar opening and then grew on the funiculus again (center) and reached the micropyle. (E) The wandering pollen tube failed to grow into the micropyle. Scale bar, 50 µm for (B–E). (F) Summary of abnormal pollen tube guidance around the micropylar opening in wild-type and transgenic ovules. Sums of class I and class II abnormalities in pollen tube guidance are shown. The data are averages and standard deviations of the frequencies per pistil. The total numbers of counted ovules are 339, 230, 183, 389, 135, and 173 for wild-type, vector control #1, #2, RNAi #1, #2, and #3 ovules, respectively. The frequencies of RNAi lines (#1–3) are significantly different from the wild type (asterisks, <i>p</i><0.01). (G and H) In vitro comparative pollen tube attraction assay. (G) An arrow indicates the tip of the pollen tube that was initially between the wild-type and RNAi ovules (upper panel). The pollen tube was preferentially attracted to the wild-type ovule (lower panel). An arrowhead indicates the pollen tube entering the wild-type micropyle. (H) Summary of attraction frequencies in this assay. The attraction frequencies for the wild-type ovule (black boxes) or competing ovules (gray boxes) are represented collaterally. The numbers (<i>n</i>) are the total number of pollen tubes competitively attracted to the ovules. Asterisks indicate significant differences from a 1∶1 ratio in the binomial test (<i>p</i><0.01). Also see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analyses", "defects", "micropylar"], "article_id"=>193932, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Knockdown_analyses_of_the_defects_in_micropylar_guidance_/193932", "title"=>"Knockdown analyses of the defects in micropylar guidance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:05:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282764", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282817", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282856", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282898", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282933", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282979", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283028", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283088", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283129", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283165", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283180", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283202", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283218", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283238", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283258"], "description"=>"<div><p>Genes directly involved in male/female and host/parasite interactions are believed to be under positive selection. The flowering plant <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> has more than 300 defensin-like (<em>DEFL</em>) genes, which are likely to be involved in both natural immunity and cell-to-cell communication including pollen–pistil interactions. However, little is known of the relationship between the molecular evolution of <em>DEFL</em> genes and their functions. Here, we identified a recently evolved cluster of <em>DEFL</em> genes in <em>A. thaliana</em> and demonstrated that these DEFL (cysteine-rich peptide [CRP810_1]) peptides, named AtLURE1 peptides, are pollen tube attractants guiding pollen tubes to the ovular micropyle. The <em>AtLURE1</em> genes formed the sole species-specific cluster among <em>DEFL</em> genes compared to its close relative, <em>A. lyrata</em>. No evidence for positive selection was detected in <em>AtLURE1</em> genes and their orthologs, implying neutral evolution of <em>AtLURE1</em> genes. AtLURE1 peptides were specifically expressed in egg-accompanying synergid cells and secreted toward the funicular surface through the micropyle. Genetic analyses showed that gametophytic mutants defective in micropylar guidance (<em>myb98</em>, <em>magatama3</em>, and <em>central cell guidance</em>) do not express AtLURE1 peptides. Downregulation of the expression of these peptides impaired precise pollen tube attraction to the micropylar opening of some populations of ovules. Recombinant AtLURE1 peptides attracted <em>A. thaliana</em> pollen tubes at a higher frequency compared to <em>A. lyrata</em> pollen tubes, suggesting that these peptides are species-preferential attractants in micropylar guidance. In support of this idea, the heterologous expression of a single AtLURE1 peptide in the synergid cell of <em>Torenia fournieri</em> was sufficient to guide <em>A. thaliana</em> pollen tubes to the <em>T. fournieri</em> embryo sac and to permit entry into it. Our results suggest the unique evolution of <em>AtLURE1</em> genes, which are directly involved in male–female interaction among the <em>DEFL</em> multigene family, and furthermore suggest that these peptides are sufficient to overcome interspecific barriers in gametophytic attraction and penetration.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species-specific", "defensin-like", "genes", "encodes", "diffusible", "pollen", "attractants"], "article_id"=>115765, "categories"=>["Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.s015"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>67, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Species_Specific_Cluster_of_Defensin_Like_Genes_Encodes_Diffusible_Pollen_Tube_Attractants_in_Arabidopsis__/115765", "title"=>"A Species-Specific Cluster of Defensin-Like Genes Encodes Diffusible Pollen Tube Attractants in <em>Arabidopsis</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:36:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523559"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Pollen tube attraction toward gelatin beads containing 50 µM histidine-tagged CRP810_1.2. Arrowheads mark the position of the pollen tube tips when the gelatin beads (asterisk) were placed (0 min). Arrows indicate the tips of pollen tubes growing toward the beads 30 and 60 min after placement. At 60 min, the upper pollen tube was spontaneously disrupted and the lower pollen tube was trapped at the bead. Scale bar, 20 µm. (B) Concentration-dependent pollen tube attraction activity of CRP810_1.2 (AtLURE1.2). The data are the frequencies for the total number of pollen tubes (<i>n</i>) in at least three assays. Pollen tubes growing toward beads with a >30° change were designated as attracted pollen tubes. (C) Representative samples of attracted or non-attracted pollen tubes to recombinant TfLURE1 and CRP810_1. Arrowheads mark the position of the pollen tube tip when the gelatin beads (asterisk) were placed. Arrows indicate the tips of the pollen tubes. Scale bar, 20 µm. (D) Summary of the rates of attraction of the pollen tubes to each recombinant protein. The data are the frequencies for the total number of pollen tubes (<i>n</i>) in at least three assays per protein. An asterisk and double asterisks indicate significant differences compared with buffer alone (0 M) (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio-1001449-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5B</a>) using Fisher exact test (*<i>p</i><0.03; **<i>p</i><0.01). Also see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vitro", "pollen", "assay", "recombinant"], "article_id"=>194054, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_vitro_pollen_tube_attraction_assay_using_recombinant_proteins_/194054", "title"=>"In vitro pollen tube attraction assay using recombinant proteins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:07:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523264"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Real-time qRT-PCR analysis of <i>CRP810_1</i> genes (<i>CRP810_1.1</i> to _<i>1.6</i>) in seedlings 10 d after germination (Sd), stems (St), leaves (Le), open flowers without the pistil (Fl), pistils (Pi), and siliques 2 d after pollination (Si). Relative quantities are expression levels relative to that in the pistil. Each expression level was normalized to that of <i>ACT2</i>. The data are the means and standard errors of three independent samples. (B) Absolute gene expression levels of <i>CRP810_1</i> genes. Absolute quantity represents the copy number of cDNA per that of <i>MYB98</i> cDNA. The means and standard deviations of three independent experiments are shown. (C) Schematic of the ovule (left) and part of the synergid cell (sy) (right) in <i>A. thaliana</i>. The filiform apparatus (fa) is formed by the thickened cell walls of the synergid cells. f, funiculus; mp, micropyle. (D) Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) image of a <i>pCRP810_1.2::GFP</i> ovule. Scale bar, 20 µm. (E) Fluorescence microscopic images of <i>pCRP810_1::CRP810_1-GFP</i> ovules. Scale bar, 20 µm. (F) A CLSM image of an ovule after immunostaining with anti-CRP810_1.2 antibodies. Green Alexa Fluor fluorescence (for CRP810_1 peptides) was observed at the micropyle and funicular surface. Magenta indicates autofluorescence of the ovule. The synergid cell is delineated by the dashed line. Scale bar, 20 µm. Also see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S3</a>. (G) Immunostaining with anti-CRP810_1.2 antibodies for the female gametophytic mutants <i>myb98</i>/<i>myb98</i>, <i>myb98</i>/<i>MYB98</i>, <i>ccg</i>/<i>CCG</i>, and <i>maa3</i>/<i>MAA3</i>. Representative fluorescence microscopic images of ovules on the septum are shown. Arrows indicate fluorescence around the micropylar end of the ovules. Scale bars, 50 µm. (H) The rate of immunostained ovules to the total number (<i>n</i>) of ovules in the wild type and mutants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["localization", "crp810_1"], "article_id"=>193763, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_pattern_and_localization_of_CRP810_1_peptides_/193763", "title"=>"Expression pattern and localization of CRP810_1 peptides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:02:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523116"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Phylogenetic tree of the <i>CRP810_1</i> (blue) and <i>AlCRP810_1</i> (red) genes based on the coding region of their genomic sequences, with <i>At4g08869</i> and <i>At4g08875</i> (the closest related genes to <i>CRP810_1</i> genes) as the outgroup. Only bootstrap values ≥90 are indicated. The scale shows the number of substitutions per site. (B) Representations of syntenic regions containing <i>CRP810_1</i> and <i>AlCRP810_1</i> genes in the <i>A. thaliana</i> (Col-0) and <i>A. lyrata</i> genomes. Blue and red arrows represent <i>CRP810_1</i> and <i>AlCRP810_1</i> genes, respectively. Gray arrows show flanking genes. Dashed lines indicate syntenic genes between <i>A. thaliana</i> and <i>A. lyrata</i>. The genes with asterisks in (A and B) are probably nonfunctional. Also see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a>. (C) Full-length amino acid sequences of CRP810_1.1 to _1.5 and CRP810_1.6 (Ψ). The arrow indicates the position of the predicted cleavage sites. Asterisks mark conserved cysteine residues. Also see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a> for comparison with AlCRP810_1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["syntenic", "genes"], "article_id"=>193617, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_and_syntenic_relationship_between_the_CRP810_1_genes_of_A_thaliana_and_A_lyrata_/193617", "title"=>"Phylogenetic and syntenic relationship between the <i>CRP810_1</i> genes of <i>A. thaliana</i> and <i>A. lyrata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:00:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523832"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic of the sequences introduced into <i>T. fournieri</i>. The <i>TfLURE2</i> promoter (pTfLURE2) was used to express both <i>AtLURE1.2</i> and <i>GFP</i> genes in synergid cells. The sequence of the <i>AtLURE1.2</i> gene is a genomic sequence from the translation initiation codon to the putative 3′ untranslated region. Gray boxes indicate <i>nopaline synthase</i> terminators. (B) GFP expression in two synergid cells of the transgenic <i>T. fournieri</i> ovule. Scale bar, 50 µm. (C) Immunostaining of transgenic <i>T. fournieri</i> ovules with anti-AtLURE1.2 (CRP810_1.2) antibodies. Red Alexa Fluor fluorescence for AtLURE1.2 (arrow) was observed at the micropylar surface of the embryo sac of the ovule labeled with GFP (left panel). In the ovule without GFP labeling (right panel), a weaker pseudo-signal was observed at the micropylar surface of the embryo sac. Scale bars, 50 µm. (D) An overview of the pollen tube attraction assay. Pollen tubes of <i>A. thaliana</i> (<i>At</i> PTs) are observed emerging from a cut style and growing across the medium. A manipulated <i>T. fournieri</i> ovule (<i>Tf</i> OV) was placed near the out-growing pollen tubes. Scale bar, 200 µm. (E) Pollen tube attraction toward the synergid cell of a transgenic <i>T. fournieri</i> ovule. Arrowheads indicate the position of the tip of the <i>A. thaliana</i> pollen tube. At 0 min, an ovule was placed in front of the tip of the pollen tube using a glass needle. The ovule expressed GFP in the synergid cell, indicating co-expression of the AtLURE1.2 peptide. Green fluorescence in the pollen tube indicates pollen-expressed <i>pLAT52::GFP</i>. The pollen tube was attracted to the ovule (20 min). After shifting the position of the transgenic ovule (22 min), the pollen tube redirected itself once again toward the micropyle (80 min). The arrow indicates the ovular micropyle penetrated by the attracted pollen tube. Scale bar, 50 µm. (F) A confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) image of the transgenic <i>T. fournieri</i> ovule shown in (E), demonstrating that the tip of the <i>A. thaliana</i> pollen tube has fully penetrated the transgenic embryo sac (arrowhead). The pollen tube within the embryo sac is delineated by a dashed line. Note that discharge of sperm cells (arrows, sperm nuclei labeled with <i>pHTR10::HTR10:mRFP</i>) did not occur. (G) A projection of a 3-D reconstruction from CLSM images of cytosolic GFP-expressing synergid cells in the transgenic <i>T. fournieri</i> ovule and an attracted <i>A. thaliana</i> pollen tube (<i>pLAT52::GFP</i>×<i>pHTR10::HTR10:mRFP</i>). The arrowhead, double arrowheads, and arrow indicate the tip of the pollen tube, two synergid cells, and sperm nuclei, respectively. The projection is an oblique perspective viewed from the micropylar end of the embryo sac. The pollen tube entered the embryo sac at the filiform apparatus, which is surrounded by two synergid cells and an egg cell (left third part lacking GFP staining, adjacent to the two synergid cells).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pollen", "assay", "transgenic", "ovules"], "article_id"=>194329, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interspecific_pollen_tube_attraction_assay_using_transgenic_T_fournieri_ovules_and_A_thaliana_pollen_tubes_/194329", "title"=>"Interspecific pollen tube attraction assay using transgenic <i>T. fournieri</i> ovules and <i>A. thaliana</i> pollen tubes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:12:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/522970"], "description"=>"<p>The tree includes 13 subtrees, which belong to 13 <i>CRP</i> subgroups. Each subtree contains four or more paralogous <i>DEFL</i> genes of <i>A. thaliana</i> (blue filled circle) and their orthologs from <i>A. lyrata</i> (red filled circle). The scale shows the number of substitutions per site. The <i>CRP90</i> subtree contains <i>AtPDF1</i> genes <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449-Thomma1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>. The <i>CRP700</i> subtree contains <i>A. thaliana</i> trypsin inhibitor (<i>ATTI</i>) genes <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449-Clauss1\" target=\"_blank\">[75]</a>. The <i>CRP580</i> and <i>CRP860</i> subtrees contain genes that form the largest gene cluster of <i>LCR</i> (low molecular weight, cysteine-rich) and <i>SCRL</i> (<i>SCR</i>-like), respectively <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449-Vanoosthuyse1\" target=\"_blank\">[76]</a>. The <i>CRP810</i> subtree branched into <i>A. thaliana</i> and <i>A. lyrata</i> gene clusters. Also see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449#pbio.1001449.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> for sequences of these <i>DEFL</i> genes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "paralogous", "genes"], "article_id"=>193464, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_phylogenetic_tree_of_paralogous_DEFL_genes_of_A_thaliana_and_a_close_relative_A_lyrata_/193464", "title"=>"A phylogenetic tree of paralogous <i>DEFL</i> genes of <i>A. thaliana</i> and a close relative <i>A. lyrata</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 00:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523729"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A representative example of an attracted pollen tube of <i>A. lyrata</i> (<i>Al</i> PT) to recombinant AlCRP810_1.3 (AlLURE1.3). Arrowheads mark the position of the pollen tube tip when a gelatin bead (asterisk) was placed. An arrow indicates the tip of the pollen tube. Scale bar, 20 µm. (B) Attraction activity of AtLURE1.2 (5 µM) and AlLURE1.3 (50 µM) to <i>A. thaliana</i> and <i>A. lyrata</i> pollen tubes. The data represent the frequencies of the total number of attracted pollen tubes (<i>n</i>) in at least three assays. An asterisk indicates a significant difference according to Fisher exact test (*<i>p</i> = 0.033). Note that the effective rate for each recombinant peptide is unknown because of differing efficiencies in peptide refolding.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preferentiality", "atlure1", "allure1"], "article_id"=>194226, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Hidenori Takeuchi", "Tetsuya Higashiyama"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001449.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pollen_tube_attraction_of_A_lyrata_and_species_preferentiality_of_AtLURE1_and_AlLURE1_peptides_/194226", "title"=>"Pollen tube attraction of <i>A. lyrata</i> and species preferentiality of AtLURE1 and AlLURE1 peptides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:10:26"}

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Relative Metric

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