Strength of Gamma Rhythm Depends on Normalization
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{"title"=>"Strength of Gamma Rhythm Depends on Normalization", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Supratim", "last_name"=>"Ray", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199001938"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy M.", "last_name"=>"Ni", "scopus_author_id"=>"36466778100"}, {"first_name"=>"John H.R.", "last_name"=>"Maunsell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003395517"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15449173", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\n1544-9173 (Linking)", "pui"=>"368467342", "sgr"=>"84874712360", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874712360", "pmid"=>"23393427"}, "id"=>"6c1a4f69-8800-3929-88cd-15b6bb4353b6", "abstract"=>"Neuronal assemblies often exhibit stimulus-induced rhythmic activity in the gamma range (30-80 Hz), whose magnitude depends on the attentional load. This has led to the suggestion that gamma rhythms form dynamic communication channels across cortical areas processing the features of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Recently, attention has been linked to a normalization mechanism, in which the response of a neuron is suppressed (normalized) by the overall activity of a large pool of neighboring neurons. In this model, attention increases the excitatory drive received by the neuron, which in turn also increases the strength of normalization, thereby changing the balance of excitation and inhibition. Recent studies have shown that gamma power also depends on such excitatory-inhibitory interactions. Could modulation in gamma power during an attention task be a reflection of the changes in the underlying excitation-inhibition interactions? By manipulating the normalization strength independent of attentional load in macaque monkeys, we show that gamma power increases with increasing normalization, even when the attentional load is fixed. Further, manipulations of attention that increase normalization increase gamma power, even when they decrease the firing rate. Thus, gamma rhythms could be a reflection of changes in the relative strengths of excitation and normalization rather than playing a functional role in communication or control.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/strength-gamma-rhythm-depends-normalization", "reader_count"=>151, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>62, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>62, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Engineering"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>70, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>27, "Physics and Astronomy"=>7, "Psychology"=>16, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>27}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>16}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>70}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Norway"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>4, "Switzerland"=>2, "Germany"=>5, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482421", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482424"], "description"=>"<div><p>Neuronal assemblies often exhibit stimulus-induced rhythmic activity in the gamma range (30–80 Hz), whose magnitude depends on the attentional load. This has led to the suggestion that gamma rhythms form dynamic communication channels across cortical areas processing the features of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Recently, attention has been linked to a normalization mechanism, in which the response of a neuron is suppressed (normalized) by the overall activity of a large pool of neighboring neurons. In this model, attention increases the excitatory drive received by the neuron, which in turn also increases the strength of normalization, thereby changing the balance of excitation and inhibition. Recent studies have shown that gamma power also depends on such excitatory–inhibitory interactions. Could modulation in gamma power during an attention task be a reflection of the changes in the underlying excitation–inhibition interactions? By manipulating the normalization strength independent of attentional load in macaque monkeys, we show that gamma power increases with increasing normalization, even when the attentional load is fixed. Further, manipulations of attention that increase normalization increase gamma power, even when they decrease the firing rate. Thus, gamma rhythms could be a reflection of changes in the relative strengths of excitation and normalization rather than playing a functional role in communication or control.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gamma", "depends", "normalization"], "article_id"=>155819, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Strength_of_Gamma_Rhythm_Depends_on_Normalization__/155819", "title"=>"Strength of Gamma Rhythm Depends on Normalization", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:36:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494395"], "description"=>"<p>A series of drifting Gabor stimuli was flashed at each of three locations: two within the receptive field of the MT neuron being recorded and one outside the receptive field. The two stimuli inside the receptive field moved in the cell's preferred and null directions, the stimulus outside moved in the intermediate direction. The monkey was cued to attend to one of the three locations and was required to detect a change in the direction of the cued Gabor. (A) “Normalization Protocol”: The monkey attended outside the receptive field while the preferred and null stimuli were presented at 0%, 50%, or 100% contrasts, thus creating nine stimulus conditions. (B) “Spatial Attention Protocol”: The monkey attended to one of the locations inside the receptive field. (C) Time line of the protocols. See <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>164917, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_design_/164917", "title"=>"Experiment design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:21:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494470"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Average time-frequency power spectrum of 96 sites for the P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub> condition. The sharp horizontal lines at 60 and 75 Hz reflect the increase in power due to the line noise and monitor refresh rate, respectively. (B) Left panel shows the average power spectrum (as a function of frequency) during the P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub> stimulus condition, computed by averaging the time-frequency power shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477#pbio-1001477-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2A</a> between 50 and 250 ms (red trace). Spectrum for the P<sub>0</sub>N<sub>0</sub> condition (orange) and the prestimulus baseline condition (black) are also shown for comparison. The inset shows the red trace at 2× magnification to highlight the narrow peak due to the monitor refresh rate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>165004, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_frequency_analysis_/165004", "title"=>"Time-frequency analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:23:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494536"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Average firing rate of 96 MT neurons from two animals when two stimuli—one moving in the preferred direction and the other in the opposite (null) direction—were presented in the receptive field while the monkeys attended to a third stimulus outside the receptive field. The preferred and null stimuli were presented at 0%, 50%, or 100% contrast, yielding nine stimulus configurations. Each plot shows the data for a fixed value of the preferred contrast: 0% (i.e., no preferred stimulus; left panel), 50% (middle), or 100% (right). The different colored lines in each plot each represent a different null contrast: 0% (red; lower preferred contrasts have a lighter shade), 50% (green), or 100% (blue). The stimuli were presented for 200 ms. Firing rates were computed between 50 and 250 ms (gray lines). (B) Time-frequency power difference spectra, which represent the change in power relative to a prestimulus baseline (100 ms immediately before stimulus onset) for the nine stimulus conditions. Gamma rhythm was computed between 50 and 250 ms at 65 and 80 Hz, indicated by a black box in each plot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depends"], "article_id"=>165060, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gamma_power_depends_on_normalization_/165060", "title"=>"Gamma power depends on normalization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:24:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494600"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Power spectra for different normalization conditions. (B) Change in power when both preferred and null stimuli are presented at 100% contrast (P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub>) versus when only a preferred stimulus is presented (P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub>). The shaded area represents the SEM. The frequency bins for which the change is significantly different are indicated by green (<i>p</i><0.01, no Bonferroni correction) and red (<i>p</i><0.05, Bonferroni corrected) squares at the bottom of the plot. Gray lines indicate the gamma range. (C) Gamma power (65–80 Hz, excluding 74–76 Hz) as a function of time, for different normalization conditions (same convention as A). (D) Change in gamma power between P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub> versus P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub> condition as a function of time (same convention as B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>165129, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LFP_power_as_a_function_of_frequency_and_time_/165129", "title"=>"LFP power as a function of frequency and time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:25:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494646"], "description"=>"<p>Percent changes in power from the P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub> condition for the gamma (A) and hi-gamma (B) ranges.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes", "gamma", "hi-gamma"], "article_id"=>165169, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_changes_in_power_from_the_P_100_N_0_condition_for_the_gamma_A_and_hi_gamma_B_ranges_/165169", "title"=>"Percent changes in power from the P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub> condition for the gamma (A) and hi-gamma (B) ranges.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:26:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494692"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Average firing rates of 96 neurons when a preferred and null stimulus was presented at 100% contrast inside the receptive field, while the monkeys attended to a stimulus outside the receptive field moving at an intermediate direction (P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub>), the null stimulus inside the receptive field (P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub><sup>Att</sup>), or the preferred stimulus (P<sub>100</sub><sup>Att</sup>N<sub>100</sub>) inside the receptive field. (B) Time-frequency power difference spectra for the three conditions described in (A). (C) Percent change in firing rates (Firing), gamma power (γ), and high-gamma power (Hi-γ) relative to the P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub> condition, for the three attentional conditions described in (A). (D) LFP power as a function of frequency (left column) and gamma power as a function of time (right column). The top plot shows the raw power for different attention conditions described in (A). The middle plot shows the comparison between P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub><sup>Att</sup> versus P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub>, while the bottom plot shows the comparison between P<sub>100</sub><sup>Att</sup>N<sub>100</sub> versus P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub>. Stimuli for these plots are identical, so the difference is purely due to attention. Same convention as in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477#pbio-1001477-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4B and 4D</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["increases", "gamma"], "article_id"=>165221, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Attention_increases_gamma_power_/165221", "title"=>"Attention increases gamma power.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:27:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494757"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Change in power from baseline, for nine normalization and two attention conditions. The data are shown in two plots for clarity. Alpha and beta2 bands are shaded in gray. (B) Change in power from the P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub> condition in the alpha (left) and beta2 (right) band.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["normalization"], "article_id"=>165279, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_normalization_and_attention_at_low_frequencies_/165279", "title"=>"Effect of normalization and attention at low frequencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:27:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494808"], "description"=>"<p>(A) For each neuron, the degree of normalization (α), defined as firing rate(P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>0</sub>)/firing rate (P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub>)−1 (<i>x</i>-axis), is plotted against the relative change in gamma power when attention is directed to a preferred stimulus versus outside: log10(gamma power(P<sub>100</sub><sup>Att</sup>N<sub>100</sub>)/gamma power(P<sub>100</sub>N<sub>100</sub>)) (<i>y</i>-axis). The Spearman rank correlation is indicated on the top. The black line indicates the best fit obtained through linear regression. (B) Same analysis when attention is directed to the null stimulus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["normalization", "neuron-to-neuron"], "article_id"=>165333, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Supratim Ray", "Amy M. Ni", "John H. R. Maunsell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001477.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_normalization_and_attention_on_a_neuron_to_neuron_basis_/165333", "title"=>"Comparison of normalization and attention on a neuron-to-neuron basis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:28:53"}

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Relative Metric

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