Caring for Offspring in a World of Cheats
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{"title"=>"Caring for Offspring in a World of Cheats", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dieter", "last_name"=>"Lukas", "scopus_author_id"=>"8574527200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84875414311", "pui"=>"368602090", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001519", "pmid"=>"23555192", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875414311", "issn"=>"15449173", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"5b46e4c8-a2ed-341e-a521-14cbeff239d4", "abstract"=>"Parents providing care to offspring face the same problem that exists in every biological system in which some individuals offer resources to others: cheaters, who exploit these benefits. In almost all species in which males contribute to parental care, females mate with multiple males. As a result, males frequently provide efforts for unrelated offspring at a cost to their own reproductive fitness. In a new study, Griffin et al. find that across a wide range of animal species, males flexibly adjust their contribution to parental care in relation to extra-pair paternity. However, adjustment is not perfect, because males are limited by the potential costs of withholding help to their own offspring, which is only outweighed if cheating occurs frequently and if providing care reduces a male's future reproductive success. These findings illustrate how in biological systems cheater and cheated can adapt to changes in each other, preventing either one from gaining control.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/caring-offspring-world-cheats", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1013322"], "description"=>"<p>Cheaters, individuals who exploit the efforts of others, exist in a variety of contexts. In response, strategies have evolved that reduce the risks and costs of being cheated. The table describes three general strategies, shows how they apply to the context of fathers reducing the costs of caring for unrelated offspring including the finding by Griffin et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001519#pbio.1001519-Griffin1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>, and provides examples from other contexts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["risks", "costs", "exploited"], "article_id"=>673733, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dieter Lukas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001519.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strategies_to_minimize_the_risks_and_costs_of_being_exploited_by_cheaters_/673733", "title"=>"Strategies to minimize the risks and costs of being exploited by cheaters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-26 01:02:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/997241"], "description"=>"<p>In earth-boring dung beetles (<i>Geotrupes vernalis</i>) (1) and oyster catchers (<i>Haematopus ostralegus</i>) (2), males and females live in pairs and share the burdens of providing food for their offspring. In cotton-top tamarins (<i>Saguinus oedipus</i>) (3), males carry and protect offspring as they travel with the group while they are still being nursed by their mothers. Rainforest rocket frog (<i>Silverstoneia flotator</i>) (4) mothers transfer their eggs to the male before leaving, and the father cares for the developing offspring alone. Picture credit: All pictures under Creative Commons Attribution License: (1) HaPe_Gera, <a href=\"http://www.flickr.com/photos/hape_gera/235786194/\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.flickr.com/photos/hape_gera/235786194/</a>; (2) John Haslam, <a href=\"http://www.flickr.com/photos/foxypar4/511910343/\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.flickr.com/photos/foxypar4/511910343/</a>; (3) Qi Wei Fong, <a href=\"http://www.flickr.com/photos/photo-gratis/4631252697/\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.flickr.com/photos/photo-gratis/4631252697/</a>; (4) Brian Gratwicke, <a href=\"http://www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke/5414228931/\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke/5414228931/</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raising", "offspring", "ways"], "article_id"=>659622, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Dieter Lukas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001519.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Males_contribute_to_the_raising_of_offspring_in_a_variety_of_ways_in_different_species_/659622", "title"=>"Males contribute to the raising of offspring in a variety of ways in different species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-27 08:20:17"}

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Relative Metric

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