How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work
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{"title"=>"How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anders", "last_name"=>"Hedenström", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005169745"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372909828", "sgr"=>"84899026680", "issn"=>"15457885", "pmid"=>"24667632", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899026680", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001822", "isbn"=>"1545-7885"}, "id"=>"84c9e0fc-0c07-38c3-bcfb-97065ad20ebb", "abstract"=>"Insights into how exactly a fly powers and controls flight have been hindered by the need to unpick the dynamic complexity of the muscles involved. The wingbeats of insects are driven by two antagonistic groups of power muscles and the force is funneled to the wing via a very complex hinge mechanism. The hinge consists of several hardened and articulated cuticle elements called sclerites. This articulation is controlled by a great number of small steering muscles, whose function has been studied by means of kinematics and muscle activity. The details and partly novel function of some of these steering muscles and their tendons have now been revealed in research published in this issue of PLOS Biology. The new study from Graham Taylor and colleagues applies time-resolved X-ray microtomography to obtain a three-dimensional view of the blowfly wingbeat. Asymmetric power output is achieved by differential wingbeat amplitude on the left and right wing, which is mediated by muscular control of the hinge elements to mechanically block the wing stroke and by absorption of work by steering muscles on one of the sides. This new approach permits visualization of the motion of the thorax, wing muscles, and the hinge mechanism. This very promising line of work will help to reveal the complete picture of the flight motor of a fly. It also holds great potential for novel bio-inspired designs of fly-like micro air vehicles.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/insect-flight-steering-muscles-work", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>7}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1434952"], "description"=>"<p>Contraction by the b1 and b2 muscles move the basalare forward and their antagonist b3 moves it backwards when contracted. Redrawn from <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001822#pbio.1001822-Dickinson1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["steering", "muscles", "inserted", "nail-shaped", "basalare"], "article_id"=>974096, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anders Hedenström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001822.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>57, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_position_of_the_three_steering_flight_muscles_b1_8211_b3_inserted_to_the_nail_shaped_basalare_sclerite_/974096", "title"=>"The position of the three steering flight muscles b1–b3 inserted to the nail-shaped basalare sclerite.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-25 04:03:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1434949"], "description"=>"<p>The cartoon (bottom) shows a transverse section through the thorax with dorso-ventral muscles (DVM) and dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLM) indicated. The two upper illustrations are redrawn from <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001822#pbio.1001822-Dickinson1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thorax", "dorsal", "longitudinal", "dorso-ventral", "muscles"], "article_id"=>974093, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anders Hedenström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001822.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_thorax_with_and_dorsal_longitudinal_upper_left_and_dorso_ventral_upper_right_power_flight_muscles_of_a_fly_/974093", "title"=>"The thorax with and dorsal longitudinal (upper left) and dorso-ventral (upper right) power flight muscles of a fly.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-25 04:03:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1434951"], "description"=>"<p>The basalare sclerite (not shown) is positioned anterior of the first axillary sclerite (Ax1). The indicated structures are dorso-ventral power muscle (DVM), pleural wing process (PWP), post-medial notal process (PMNP), parascutal shelf (PSS), axial wing sclerites (Ax1, Ax2, Ax3), and radial stop (RS). Redrawn and modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001822#pbio.1001822-Walker1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transverse", "thorax", "elements", "hinge", "consisting", "ridges", "protrusions", "hardened", "plates", "cuticle"], "article_id"=>974095, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anders Hedenström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001822.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>107, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cartoon_illustration_of_a_transverse_section_of_the_thorax_of_a_fly_in_rear_view_showing_some_elements_of_the_complex_wing_hinge_of_a_fly_consisting_of_ridges_and_protrusions_on_the_thorax_and_a_number_of_hardened_plates_of_cuticle_sclerites_between_the_/974095", "title"=>"Cartoon illustration of a transverse section of the thorax of a fly in rear view, showing some elements of the complex wing hinge of a fly, consisting of ridges and protrusions on the thorax and a number of hardened plates of cuticle (sclerites) between the body (thorax) and the wing root.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-25 04:03:12"}

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