Sex Determination: Why So Many Ways of Doing It?
Publication Date
July 01, 2014
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
Doris Bachtrog, Judith E. Mank, Catherine L. Peichel, Mark Kirkpatrick, et al
Volume
12
Issue
7
Pages
e1001899
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001899
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24983465
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4077654
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24983465
Web of Science
000340550400003
Scopus
84905366183
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/sex-determination-so-ways-doing-it-1
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Sex Determination: Why So Many Ways of Doing It?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Doris", "last_name"=>"Bachtrog", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602536584"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith E.", "last_name"=>"Mank", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603493469"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine L.", "last_name"=>"Peichel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602163057"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Kirkpatrick", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103091513"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah P.", "last_name"=>"Otto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101616327"}, {"first_name"=>"Tia Lynn", "last_name"=>"Ashman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004647960"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew W.", "last_name"=>"Hahn", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201578309"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Kitano", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603793505"}, {"first_name"=>"Itay", "last_name"=>"Mayrose", "scopus_author_id"=>"8135122000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ray", "last_name"=>"Ming", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004507143"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Perrin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005154574"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Ross", "scopus_author_id"=>"26040972600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicole", "last_name"=>"Valenzuela", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701409094"}, {"first_name"=>"Jana C.", "last_name"=>"Vamosi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602117604"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith E.", "last_name"=>"Mank", "scopus_author_id"=>"56308379400"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine L.", "last_name"=>"Peichel", "scopus_author_id"=>"56307877800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tia Lynn", "last_name"=>"Ashman", "scopus_author_id"=>"56308505500"}, {"first_name"=>"Heath", "last_name"=>"Blackmon", "scopus_author_id"=>"56206114000"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma E.", "last_name"=>"Goldberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"8574429200"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew W.", "last_name"=>"Hahn", "scopus_author_id"=>"56308154200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Kirkpatrick", "scopus_author_id"=>"56990200600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Kitano", "scopus_author_id"=>"56307942000"}, {"first_name"=>"Itay", "last_name"=>"Mayrose", "scopus_author_id"=>"57190519629"}, {"first_name"=>"Ray", "last_name"=>"Ming", "scopus_author_id"=>"57201276459"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew W.", "last_name"=>"Pennell", "scopus_author_id"=>"55261367000"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Perrin", "scopus_author_id"=>"56308810400"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicole", "last_name"=>"Valenzuela", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200612611"}, {"first_name"=>"Jana C.", "last_name"=>"Vamosi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56308284300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15457885", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905366183", "sgr"=>"84905366183", "pui"=>"373686627", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24983465", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899"}, "id"=>"2ae67e3f-e7fb-3156-a9b5-6cbbf86bd19a", "abstract"=>"<sec> <title></title> <p>Sex is universal amongst most eukaryotes, yet a remarkable diversity of sex determining mechanisms exists. We review our current understanding of how and why sex determination evolves in animals and plants.</p> </sec>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sex-determination-so-ways-doing-it-1", "reader_count"=>533, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>30, "Researcher"=>91, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>135, "Student > Postgraduate"=>20, "Student > Master"=>81, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>90, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>24}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>30, "Researcher"=>91, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>135, "Student > Postgraduate"=>20, "Student > Master"=>81, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>90, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>24}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>25, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>360, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>4, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>85, "Mathematics"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>25}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>360}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>85}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>12, "Portugal"=>1, "Netherlands"=>5, "Sweden"=>3, "Austria"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "Poland"=>3, "France"=>2, "Argentina"=>2, "Uruguay"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>2, "Norway"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Taiwan"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>12}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84905366183"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84905366183?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84905366183&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84905366183&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84905366183", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84905366183", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84905366183", "dc:title"=>"Sex Determination: Why So Many Ways of Doing It?", "dc:creator"=>"Bachtrog D.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Biology", "prism:issn"=>"15449173", "prism:eIssn"=>"15457885", "prism:volume"=>"12", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"7", "prism:pageRange"=>"1-13", "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-01-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"1 January 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899", "citedby-count"=>"216", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of California, Berkeley", "affiliation-city"=>"Berkeley", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24983465", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1001899", "source-id"=>"12977", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosbiology%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pbio.1001899", "share_count"=>4, "like_count"=>3, "comment_count"=>3, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>10}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1319", "xml_views"=>"25", "html_views"=>"7138"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"404", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"3223"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"259", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"2006"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"236", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"1444"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"186", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"962"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"105", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"618"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"110", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"661"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"102", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"712"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"135", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"838"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"125", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1020"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"95", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"929"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"87", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"582"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"95", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"635"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"92", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"766"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"131", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"858"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"177", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"859"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"153", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"918"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"78", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"698"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"86", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"755"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"147", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"954"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"95", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"660"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"126", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"673"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"126", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"760"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"84", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"548"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"92", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"641"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"144", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"668"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"172", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"903"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"159", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1091"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"82", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"1099"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"113", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"1102"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"155", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"1295"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"159", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"1750"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"263", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"2186"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"164", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"1545"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"166", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"1673"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"118", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1159"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"172", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"997"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"131", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"869"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"215", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"1410"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"242", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"1550"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"229", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"1465"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"160", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"963"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"258", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"2987"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"234", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"682"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"202", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"698"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"360", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"604"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"317", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"509"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"271", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"431"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"326", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"842"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"323", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"492"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"261", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"445"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"372", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"653"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"213", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"395"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576429"], "description"=>"<p>The bubble insert graph for the plant clades represents the relative proportion of species with documented sex chromosomes within plants with separate sexes. Vertebrates: Mammalia (placental, marsupial, and monotreme mammals), Aves (birds), Reptilia (turtles, snakes, crocodiles, lizards), Amphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders), and Teleostei (bony fishes). Invertebrates: Acari (mites and ticks), Crustacea (shrimps, barnacles, crabs), and Insects, which include Coccoidea (scale insects), Coleoptera (beetles), Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), Lepidoptera (butterflies), and Diptera (flies). Plants: Gymnosperms (non-flowering plants) and Angiosperms (flowering plants).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "Organismal evolution", "population genetics", "genetics", "cytogenetics", "systems"], "article_id"=>1090304, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Doris Bachtrog", "Judith E. Mank", "Catherine L. Peichel", "Mark Kirkpatrick", "Sarah P. Otto", "Tia-Lynn Ashman", "Matthew W. Hahn", "Jun Kitano", "Itay Mayrose", "Ray Ming", "Nicolas Perrin", "Laura Ross", "Nicole Valenzuela", "Jana C. Vamosi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>180, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diversity_of_sex_determination_systems_for_representative_plant_and_animal_clades_/1090304", "title"=>"Diversity of sex determination systems for representative plant and animal clades.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:18:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576438"], "description"=>"<p>Transitions between homomorphic sex chromosomes result from new masculinizing (M′) or feminizing (F′) mutations that invade an existing XY or ZW system to create a new chromosome pair (in grey) that harbors the sex-determining gene (additional transitional karyotypes are indicated by unshaded circles). XY→XY transitions result in the loss of the ancestral Y (and ZW→ZW transitions cause loss of the ancestral W). Transitions between XY and ZW systems result in some offspring that are homozygous for the Y (blue) or W (red) chromosome and are thus more likely if the chromosomes have similar gene content but become increasingly difficult if these chromosomes have degenerated (side boxes on left and right), causing YY and WW individuals to be less fit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "Organismal evolution", "population genetics", "genetics", "cytogenetics", "differentiation"], "article_id"=>1090313, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Doris Bachtrog", "Judith E. Mank", "Catherine L. Peichel", "Mark Kirkpatrick", "Sarah P. Otto", "Tia-Lynn Ashman", "Matthew W. Hahn", "Jun Kitano", "Itay Mayrose", "Ray Ming", "Nicolas Perrin", "Laura Ross", "Nicole Valenzuela", "Jana C. Vamosi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transitions_versus_differentiation_of_sex_chromosomes_/1090313", "title"=>"Transitions versus differentiation of sex chromosomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:18:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576426"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are two-step pathways involving intermediate male- and female-sterile individuals. Loss-of-function mutations (red) are assumed to be recessive, while gain-of-function mutations (green) are assumed to be dominant. Ancestral alleles are in black. M, male fertility allele; m, male sterility mutation; F, female fertility allele; f, female sterility mutation. Because loss of function mutations (red) are almost 50 times more frequent than gain of function mutations (green) in flowering plants, we would expect pathways 1 (e.g., some poplar species) or 2 (e.g., papaya) to arise earlier. Furthermore, transitions through gynodioecy, pathways 2 and 3 (e.g., strawberry) allow females to completely avoid inbreeding depression, while transitions through androdioecy are more costly because males must compete with hermaphrodites for fertilization and do not have any of their own ovules to fertilize. These theoretical arguments help to account for the prevalence of gynodioecy and the XY chromosome system (via pathway 2) observed in plants; nevertheless, all four pathways may be biologically relevant, although no known examples for pathway 4 currently exist.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "Organismal evolution", "population genetics", "genetics", "cytogenetics", "pathways", "hermaphroditism"], "article_id"=>1090301, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Doris Bachtrog", "Judith E. Mank", "Catherine L. Peichel", "Mark Kirkpatrick", "Sarah P. Otto", "Tia-Lynn Ashman", "Matthew W. Hahn", "Jun Kitano", "Itay Mayrose", "Ray Ming", "Nicolas Perrin", "Laura Ross", "Nicole Valenzuela", "Jana C. Vamosi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>90, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evolutionary_pathways_from_hermaphroditism_to_separate_sexes_/1090301", "title"=>"Evolutionary pathways from hermaphroditism to separate sexes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:18:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576440"], "description"=>"<p>Known master sex-determining genes in vertebrates and insects, and their paralogs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "Organismal evolution", "population genetics", "genetics", "cytogenetics", "sex-determining", "genes", "vertebrates"], "article_id"=>1090315, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Doris Bachtrog", "Judith E. Mank", "Catherine L. Peichel", "Mark Kirkpatrick", "Sarah P. Otto", "Tia-Lynn Ashman", "Matthew W. Hahn", "Jun Kitano", "Itay Mayrose", "Ray Ming", "Nicolas Perrin", "Laura Ross", "Nicole Valenzuela", "Jana C. Vamosi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Known_master_sex_determining_genes_in_vertebrates_and_insects_and_their_paralogs_/1090315", "title"=>"Known master sex-determining genes in vertebrates and insects, and their paralogs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:18:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576422"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Reconstructed evolutionary path of sex chromosome differentiation in humans. Sex chromosomes originate from autosomes that acquired a sex-determining function (the <i>Sry</i> gene) after their split from monotremes. Suppression of recombination between the sex chromosomes, associated with degeneration of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, results in the morphological and genetic differentiation of sex chromosomes. Recombination suppression occurred in multiple episodes along the human X and Y chromosome, forming so-called evolutionary strata. The oldest stratum is shared between eutherian mammals and marsupials, while the youngest stratum of humans is primate-specific. <b>B.</b> The degree of sex chromosome differentiation ranges widely across species, spanning the entire spectrum of homomorphic to heteromorphic sex chromosomes, from a single sex-determining locus, as seen in pufferfish, a small differentiated region (strawberry and emu), most of the sex chromosomes apart from short recombining regions (humans), to the entire sex chromosome pair, as seen in <i>Drosophila</i>. Note that the sex chromosomes are not drawn to scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "Organismal evolution", "population genetics", "genetics", "cytogenetics", "chromosome"], "article_id"=>1090297, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Doris Bachtrog", "Judith E. Mank", "Catherine L. Peichel", "Mark Kirkpatrick", "Sarah P. Otto", "Tia-Lynn Ashman", "Matthew W. Hahn", "Jun Kitano", "Itay Mayrose", "Ray Ming", "Nicolas Perrin", "Laura Ross", "Nicole Valenzuela", "Jana C. Vamosi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sex_chromosome_differentiation_/1090297", "title"=>"Sex chromosome differentiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:18:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576433"], "description"=>"<p>M refers to meiosis, F to fertilization. Haploid stages (n) are indicated as shaded areas and diploid stages (nn) are unshaded. <b>Hermaphrodites:</b> Most flowering plants (and gastropods and earthworms) simultaneously contain both male and female sexual organs (<i>simultaneous hermaphrodites</i>). Many fish and some gastropods and plants are <i>sequential hermaphrodites</i>; clownfish, for example, are born males and change into females, while many wrasses or gobies begin life as females and then change to males. <b>Environmental Sex Determination:</b> In turtles and some other reptiles, sex is determined by incubation temperature of the eggs (<i>temperature-dependent sex determination</i>). <i>Social factors</i> can act as primary sex-determining cues: sexually undifferentiated larvae of the marine green spoonworm that land on unoccupied sea floor develop into females (and grow up to 15 cm long), while larvae that come into contact with females develop into tiny males (1–3 mm long) that live inside the female. <b>Genotypic Sex Determination:</b> Almost all mammals and beetles, many flies and some fish have <i>male heterogamety</i> (XY sex chromosomes), while <i>female heterogamety</i> (ZW sex chromosomes) occurs in birds, snakes, butterflies, and some fish. In mosses or liverworts, separate sexes are only found in the haploid phase of the life cycle of an individual (<i>UV sex chromosomes</i>). In some flowering plants and fish, such as zebrafish, sex is determined by multiple genes (<i>polygenic sex determination</i>). In bees, ants, and wasps, males develop from unfertilized haploid eggs, and females from fertilized diploid eggs (<i>haplodiploidy</i>), while males of many scale insects inactivate or lose their paternal chromosomes (<i>paternal genome elimination</i>). In some species, sex is under the control of cytoplasmic elements, such as intracellular parasites (e.g., <i>Wolbachia</i>) in many insects or mitochondria in many flowering plants (<i>cytoplasmic sex determination</i>). In some flies and crustaceans, all offspring of a particular individual female are either exclusively male or exclusively female (<i>monogeny</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "Organismal evolution", "population genetics", "genetics", "cytogenetics", "overview"], "article_id"=>1090308, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Doris Bachtrog", "Judith E. Mank", "Catherine L. Peichel", "Mark Kirkpatrick", "Sarah P. Otto", "Tia-Lynn Ashman", "Matthew W. Hahn", "Jun Kitano", "Itay Mayrose", "Ray Ming", "Nicolas Perrin", "Laura Ross", "Nicole Valenzuela", "Jana C. Vamosi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001899.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_overview_of_some_sex_determination_SD_mechanisms_/1090308", "title"=>"Schematic overview of some sex determination (SD) mechanisms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:18:29"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"105", "full-text"=>"89", "pdf"=>"70", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"45", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"87", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"108", "full-text"=>"114", "pdf"=>"40", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"31", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"88", "full-text"=>"113", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"36", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"36", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"30", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"103", "full-text"=>"109", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"146", "full-text"=>"157", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"29", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"117", "full-text"=>"137", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"26", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"85", "full-text"=>"90", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"47", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"78", "full-text"=>"94", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"76", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"31", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"29", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"107", "full-text"=>"110", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"25", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"160", "full-text"=>"163", "pdf"=>"30", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"22", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"157", "full-text"=>"194", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"45", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"112", "full-text"=>"126", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"98", "full-text"=>"105", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"180", "full-text"=>"189", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"34", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"160", "full-text"=>"162", "pdf"=>"45", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"26", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"178", "full-text"=>"205", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"38", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"118", "full-text"=>"137", "pdf"=>"38", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"90", "full-text"=>"96", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"117", "full-text"=>"131", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"137", "full-text"=>"148", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"311", "full-text"=>"362", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"322", "full-text"=>"363", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"41", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"331", "full-text"=>"394", "pdf"=>"36", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"26", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"228", "full-text"=>"269", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"232", "full-text"=>"271", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"220", "full-text"=>"257", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"37", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"285", "full-text"=>"320", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"38", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"207", "full-text"=>"193", "pdf"=>"69", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"142", "full-text"=>"155", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"30", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"120", "full-text"=>"123", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"122", "full-text"=>"148", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"26", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"151", "full-text"=>"168", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"439", "full-text"=>"557", "pdf"=>"36", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"40", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"282", "full-text"=>"361", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"311", "full-text"=>"368", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"54", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"246", "full-text"=>"289", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"246", "full-text"=>"277", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"39", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"364", "full-text"=>"399", "pdf"=>"99", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"63", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[286]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[306, 482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts