Occipital Alpha Activity during Stimulus Processing Gates the Information Flow to Object-Selective Cortex
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{"title"=>"Occipital Alpha Activity during Stimulus Processing Gates the Information Flow to Object-Selective Cortex", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Johanna M.", "last_name"=>"Zumer", "scopus_author_id"=>"10046318500"}, {"first_name"=>"René", "last_name"=>"Scheeringa", "scopus_author_id"=>"23568619700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan Mathijs", "last_name"=>"Schoffelen", "scopus_author_id"=>"8248969300"}, {"first_name"=>"David G.", "last_name"=>"Norris", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201567247"}, {"first_name"=>"Ole", "last_name"=>"Jensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35487830300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84920413792", "sgr"=>"84920413792", "issn"=>"15457885", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965", "pmid"=>"25333286", "isbn"=>"1545-7885", "pui"=>"601112621"}, "id"=>"3ab9b656-7a4d-302f-a937-1942e03a5471", "abstract"=>"Given the limited processing capabilities of the sensory system, it is essential that attended information is gated to downstream areas, whereas unattended information is blocked. While it has been proposed that alpha band (8-13 Hz) activity serves to route information to downstream regions by inhibiting neuronal processing in task-irrelevant regions, this hypothesis remains untested. Here we investigate how neuronal oscillations detected by electroencephalography in visual areas during working memory encoding serve to gate information reflected in the simultaneously recorded blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging in downstream ventral regions. We used a paradigm in which 16 participants were presented with faces and landscapes in the right and left hemifields; one hemifield was attended and the other unattended. We observed that decreased alpha power contralateral to the attended object predicted the BOLD signal representing the attended object in ventral object-selective regions. Furthermore, increased alpha power ipsilateral to the attended object predicted a decrease in the BOLD signal representing the unattended object. We also found that the BOLD signal in the dorsal attention network inversely correlated with visual alpha power. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that oscillations in the alpha band are implicated in the gating of information from the visual cortex to the ventral stream, as reflected in the representationally specific BOLD signal. This link of sensory alpha to downstream activity provides a neurophysiological substrate for the mechanism of selective attention during stimulus processing, which not only boosts the attended information but also suppresses distraction. Although previous studies have shown a relation between the BOLD signal from the dorsal attention network and the alpha band at rest, we demonstrate such a relation during a visuospatial task, indicating that the dorsal attention network exercises top-down control of visual alpha activity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/occipital-alpha-activity-during-stimulus-processing-gates-information-flow-objectselective-cortex", "reader_count"=>168, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>61, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>61, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>17, "Engineering"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Neuroscience"=>39, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>60, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>39}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>60}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>17}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>2, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Finland"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>4, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725803"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Participants fixated on a central cross while covertly attending to the left or the right object as indicated by the cue. We predicted enhanced (black lines) processing in the hemisphere contralateral to the attended object in early visual regions and suppressed (gray lines) processing in early visual regions ipsilateral to the attended object. Furthermore, the allocation of spatial attention was expected to result in an enhanced response in object-selective cortex (including FFA and PPA) of the attended object. In this study we asked whether alpha activity measured by EEG in early visual regions gates the object-selective activation as measured by the BOLD signal. (B) Illustration of the one-back visuospatial working memory paradigm involving two object categories (faces and landscapes). Participants were asked to press a button if the cued object matched the object attended in the previous trial. To obtain an EEG signal free from gradient artifacts during the presence of stimuli (4.0 s duration), the fMRI was collected only during the working memory delay period (8.0 s duration). (C) A depiction of an example trial indicates the time range from which alpha power was extracted (EEG), the silent MRI period, and the relative timings between events within a trial. Faces and landscapes depicted here are for illustration and were not used in the experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "Stimulus Processing Gates", "Occipital Alpha Activity", "region", "dorsal attention network", "BOLD signal", "information", "object"], "article_id"=>1211138, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Johanna M. Zumer", "René Scheeringa", "Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen", "David G. Norris", "Ole Jensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Task_design_and_hypothesis_/1211138", "title"=>"Task design and hypothesis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:09:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725821", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725822", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725823", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725824", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725825"], "description"=>"<div><p>Given the limited processing capabilities of the sensory system, it is essential that attended information is gated to downstream areas, whereas unattended information is blocked. While it has been proposed that alpha band (8–13 Hz) activity serves to route information to downstream regions by inhibiting neuronal processing in task-irrelevant regions, this hypothesis remains untested. Here we investigate how neuronal oscillations detected by electroencephalography in visual areas during working memory encoding serve to gate information reflected in the simultaneously recorded blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging in downstream ventral regions. We used a paradigm in which 16 participants were presented with faces and landscapes in the right and left hemifields; one hemifield was attended and the other unattended. We observed that decreased alpha power contralateral to the attended object predicted the BOLD signal representing the attended object in ventral object-selective regions. Furthermore, increased alpha power ipsilateral to the attended object predicted a decrease in the BOLD signal representing the unattended object. We also found that the BOLD signal in the dorsal attention network inversely correlated with visual alpha power. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that oscillations in the alpha band are implicated in the gating of information from the visual cortex to the ventral stream, as reflected in the representationally specific BOLD signal. This link of sensory alpha to downstream activity provides a neurophysiological substrate for the mechanism of selective attention during stimulus processing, which not only boosts the attended information but also suppresses distraction. Although previous studies have shown a relation between the BOLD signal from the dorsal attention network and the alpha band at rest, we demonstrate such a relation during a visuospatial task, indicating that the dorsal attention network exercises top-down control of visual alpha activity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "Stimulus Processing Gates", "Occipital Alpha Activity", "region", "dorsal attention network", "BOLD signal", "information", "object"], "article_id"=>1211156, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Johanna M. Zumer", "René Scheeringa", "Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen", "David G. Norris", "Ole Jensen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Occipital_Alpha_Activity_during_Stimulus_Processing_Gates_the_Information_Flow_to_Object_Selective_Cortex_/1211156", "title"=>"Occipital Alpha Activity during Stimulus Processing Gates the Information Flow to Object-Selective Cortex", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:09:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725809"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The grand average of the source plot of the alpha band modulation in the early retention interval (0.1–1.9 s after picture stimulus onset) quantified by the AMI (attention left minus attention right). The alpha activity was suppressed in early visual cortex contralateral to the direction of attention, whereas ipsilateral it relatively increased. (B) Time–frequency representations of oscillatory power derived for the sources in left (left panel) and right (right panel) visual cortex. (C) The time–frequency representations combined (left minus right, divided by two) over the two hemispheres demonstrate that the modulation was constrained to the alpha band and was sustained. (D) The grand average of the statistical contrast (<i>t</i>-statistic) of hemodynamic activity of attend-left versus attend-right trials. The grand averages of this contrast specific to select sub-regions are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965#pbio.1001965.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a>. A, anterior; L, left; P, posterior; R, right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "Stimulus Processing Gates", "Occipital Alpha Activity", "region", "dorsal attention network", "BOLD signal", "information", "object"], "article_id"=>1211144, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Johanna M. Zumer", "René Scheeringa", "Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen", "David G. Norris", "Ole Jensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_modulation_of_visual_oscillatory_and_hemodynamic_brain_activity_with_the_direction_of_covert_attention_/1211144", "title"=>"The modulation of visual oscillatory and hemodynamic brain activity with the direction of covert attention.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:09:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725811"], "description"=>"<p>(A) BMI is the relative difference of a given region's activity between two conditions, normalized by the mean of the activity in both conditions (computed as in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965#pbio.1001965.e002\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 2</a>). Error bars are the standard error over participants. Both FFA and PPA showed a BMI significantly different from zero (<i>p</i><0.001). BMI for the FFA is shown per participant (left panel) and as the mean over participants (right panel). (B) BMI for the PPA is shown per participant (left panel) and as the mean over participants (right panel). A visualization of the FFA and PPA regions per participant is shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965#pbio.1001965.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>. The time course of the FFA and PPA regions' BOLD signal is shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965#pbio.1001965.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "Stimulus Processing Gates", "Occipital Alpha Activity", "region", "dorsal attention network", "BOLD signal", "information", "object"], "article_id"=>1211146, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Johanna M. Zumer", "René Scheeringa", "Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen", "David G. Norris", "Ole Jensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modulation_of_BOLD_activity_with_different_object_types_in_the_attended_hemifield_/1211146", "title"=>"Modulation of BOLD activity with different object types in the attended hemifield.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:09:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725812"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Each bar is specific to whether the alpha power is recorded from the hemisphere contra- or ipsilateral to the attended direction, and whether the BOLD amplitude is from the region corresponding to the attended or unattended object type. The Spearman correlation was computed over trials within a participant; error bars indicate standard error over participants. All mean correlations over participants were significantly different from zero (*<i>p</i><0.05). (B) An additional partial Spearman correlation was computed to account for the alpha power of the other hemisphere and the BOLD response of the other object-selective region (*<i>p</i><0.05). The first bar depicts a negative correlation, indicating that a decrease in alpha power contralateral to the attended object predicted an increase in the ventral BOLD signal for the attended object. The last bar also depicts a negative correlation, indicating that the alpha power ipsilateral to the attended object predicted a decrease in the ventral BOLD signal for the unattended object. The correlations of occipital alpha power with occipital BOLD activity are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965#pbio.1001965.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S4</a>. LOcc, left occipital; ROcc, right occipital.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "Stimulus Processing Gates", "Occipital Alpha Activity", "region", "dorsal attention network", "BOLD signal", "information", "object"], "article_id"=>1211147, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Johanna M. Zumer", "René Scheeringa", "Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen", "David G. Norris", "Ole Jensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_hemispheric_occipital_alpha_power_and_object_selective_region_BOLD_amplitude_/1211147", "title"=>"Correlations between hemispheric occipital alpha power and object-selective region BOLD amplitude.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:09:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725816"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The BOLD activity inversely related to the left and right occipital alpha power for combined left and right attention. The dorsal attention network including the IPS and the right FEF emerges from this analysis (<i>p</i><0.005 uncorrected followed by <i>p</i><0.05 FWE cluster-level corrected). (B) The BOLD activity inversely related to the ipsilateral alpha power only. Again, the dorsal attention network emerges. No significant effects were identified when considering the contralateral alpha power only (<i>p</i><0.005 uncorrected followed by <i>p</i><0.05 FWE cluster-level corrected). The control analysis of BOLD activity assessing which regions were associated with the task of spatial attention is shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965#pbio.1001965.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "Stimulus Processing Gates", "Occipital Alpha Activity", "region", "dorsal attention network", "BOLD signal", "information", "object"], "article_id"=>1211151, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Johanna M. Zumer", "René Scheeringa", "Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen", "David G. Norris", "Ole Jensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001965.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regions_showing_significant_relationships_with_occipital_alpha_power_independent_of_direction_or_object_of_attention_/1211151", "title"=>"Regions showing significant relationships with occipital alpha power, independent of direction or object of attention.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:09:05"}

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