Convergent Evolution of Mechanically Optimal Locomotion in Aquatic Invertebrates and Vertebrates
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{"title"=>"Convergent Evolution of Mechanically Optimal Locomotion in Aquatic Invertebrates and Vertebrates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rahul", "last_name"=>"Bale", "scopus_author_id"=>"36337711500"}, {"first_name"=>"Izaak D.", "last_name"=>"Neveln", "scopus_author_id"=>"55388892200"}, {"first_name"=>"Amneet Pal Singh", "last_name"=>"Bhalla", "scopus_author_id"=>"23088379600"}, {"first_name"=>"Malcolm A.", "last_name"=>"MacIver", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003835519"}, {"first_name"=>"Neelesh A.", "last_name"=>"Patankar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003451232"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84929493852", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123", "pui"=>"604135627", "pmid"=>"25919026", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84929493852", "issn"=>"15457885"}, "id"=>"6337e441-efb4-3e95-935c-d31302483515", "abstract"=>"Examples of animals evolving similar traits despite the absence of that trait in the last common ancestor, such as the wing and camera-type lens eye in vertebrates and invertebrates, are called cases of convergent evolution. Instances of convergent evolution of locomotory patterns that quantitatively agree with the mechanically optimal solution are very rare. Here, we show that, with respect to a very diverse group of aquatic animals, a mechanically optimal method of swimming with elongated fins has evolved independently at least eight times in both vertebrate and invertebrate swimmers across three different phyla. Specifically, if we take the length of an undulation along an animal's fin during swimming and divide it by the mean amplitude of undulations along the fin length, the result is consistently around twenty. We call this value the optimal specific wavelength (OSW). We show that the OSW maximizes the force generated by the body, which also maximizes swimming speed. We hypothesize a mechanical basis for this optimality and suggest reasons for its repeated emergence through evolution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/convergent-evolution-mechanically-optimal-locomotion-aquatic-invertebrates-vertebrates", "reader_count"=>102, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Engineering"=>16, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>16}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>6, "Japan"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Sweden"=>2, "Turkey"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042740"], "description"=>"<p>St was computed using <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.e005\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 3</a>, in which the mean value of <i>γ</i> = 6.7 for batoid fish, presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>, was used. The OSW is highlighted by a dashed vertical line. The dashed contour lines correspond to the St range of 0.2–0.4. Also plotted are the data points (open circles) of the batoid fishes. The data are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S5 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396749, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Isolines_of_St_against_SW_on_the_x_axis_and_wave_efficiency_on_the_y_axis_/1396749", "title"=>"Isolines of St against SW on the <i>x</i>-axis and wave efficiency on the <i>y</i>-axis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042739"], "description"=>"<p>The order on the left plot is the same as <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>, except we have moved <i>G</i>. <i>niloticus</i> and <i>A</i>. <i>albifrons</i> to below the dashed line. Below the dashed line, the superscripts indicate data at different swimming speeds: For <i>G</i>. <i>niloticus</i>, 1 = 19.7 cm/s, 2 = 21.2 cm/s, 3 = 22.3 cm/s, 4 = 23.8 cm/s, 5 = 26.6 cm/s. For <i>A</i>. <i>albifrons</i>, 1 = 14.9 cm/s, 2 = 19.7 cm/s, and 3 = 32.6 cm/s. When the swimming velocity increases, amplitude is increased and the number of undulations is decreased to maintain an SW that is close to the OSW. (B) compares the predicted and measured number of undulations of both the head and the tail waves of the counterpropagating undulations in <i>E</i>. <i>virescens</i> averaged over five fish. The trends seen are largely due to the change in the lengths of the head and tail waves as the point where the two waves meet shift caudally with increased forward swimming speed. The STD across these data ranges from 0.15 to 0.67 and is not shown for clarity. The data are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396748, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_number_of_undulations_along_a_fin_open_circles_compared_to_measured_number_of_undulations_filled_squares_for_the_20_species_shown_in_Fig_1_plus_D_americana_in_A_and_E_virescens_in_B_same_data_sources_as_listed_in_Fig_1_/1396748", "title"=>"Predicted number of undulations along a fin (open circles) compared to measured number of undulations (filled squares) for the 20 species shown in Fig 1, plus <i>D</i>. <i>americana</i> in (A) and <i>E</i>. <i>virescens</i> in (B) (same data sources as listed in Fig 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042736"], "description"=>"<p>Modified from Fig 4B and Fig 5B of [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.ref020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>]. The error bars show STD from five trials of speed and force measurement experiments. The STD of error in measuring force is less than 1.5%, hence the error bars are barely visible at the scale of the plot. The fin was 32.60 cm long and 3.37 cm tall. For these experiments, <i>f</i> = 4 Hz and θ<sub>max</sub> = 30°. Further details of measurements and error estimation can be found in our prior work [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.ref020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>]. Image of the robot taken by the authors. B) Axial swimming speed and propulsive force computed from simulations of a knifefish-sized fin (ten cm long, one cm tall, <i>f</i> = 2 Hz, θ<sub>max</sub> = 30°) immersed in water, plotted against the number of undulations along the fin. In each plot, the left axis (in blue) and the blue curve corresponds to swimming speed, and the right axis (in black) and the black curve corresponds to propulsive force. Simulation code can be found at [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.ref026\" target=\"_blank\">26</a>]. The data are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396745, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>48, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Experimentally_measured_axial_swimming_speed_and_propulsive_force_of_a_robotic_knifefish_as_a_function_of_the_number_of_undulations_along_the_fin_fin_length_divided_by_undulation_wavelength_/1396745", "title"=>"A) Experimentally measured axial swimming speed and propulsive force of a robotic knifefish as a function of the number of undulations along the fin (fin length divided by undulation wavelength).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042733"], "description"=>"<p>The eight instances of independent emergence of elongated median/paired fin swimming are highlighted in blue. The SW of these organisms and sources of the data are also tabulated in the <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.s019\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a>. Not shown here because of space constraints is the SW for the ray <i>Dasyatis americana</i>, which has an SW of 25.1, and the weakly electric knifefish <i>Eigenmannia virescens</i>, which use two counter-propagating waves on their fin during slow speed swimming and have an average SW of 17.7. See <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.s021\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Table</a>. The following images are licensed under CC-BY: C) <i>Sepia officinalis</i> image courtesy of Hans Dappen. D) <i>Raja eglanteria</i> image courtesy of George Burgess. F) <i>Rhinoptera bonasus</i> image courtesy of Juan Aguere. J) <i>Taeniura lymma</i> image courtesy of Nicolai Johannesen. M) <i>Regalecus glesne</i> image courtesy of Sandstein. N) <i>Apteronotus albifrons</i> image courtesy of Clinton and Charles Robertson. O) <i>Apteronotus leptorhynchus</i> image courtesy of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology. P) <i>Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus</i> image courtesy of Mark Sabaj with support from IXingu Project (NSF DEB-1257813). S) <i>Gymnarchus niloticus</i> image courtesy of Masashi Kawasaki. All remaining images are public domain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396742, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Undulatory_median_paired_fin_swimmer_phylogenetic_relationships_and_SW__227_where_and_227_are_wavelength_and_mean_amplitude_of_undulations_present_along_the_fin_respectively_/1396742", "title"=>"Undulatory median/paired fin swimmer phylogenetic relationships and SW = λ / <i>ã</i>, where λ and <i>ã</i> are wavelength and mean amplitude of undulations present along the fin, respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042741"], "description"=>"<p>Keeping the amplitude, length, and frequency fixed, as the wavelength is increased (top to bottom), the wave velocity increases proportionally (indicated by the downward arrow on the right). As the wave velocity increases, the fluid is propelled backward at higher velocity. At the same time, the effectiveness with which the fin can trap and transport the fluid decreases (indicated by the upward arrow on the left).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396750, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_schematic_of_a_hypothesis_for_two_competing_mechanisms_that_could_lead_to_the_optimal_propulsive_force_and_therefore_swimming_speed_/1396750", "title"=>"A schematic of a hypothesis for two competing mechanisms that could lead to the optimal propulsive force and therefore swimming speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042738"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Fin height is varied, <i>L</i> = 32.6 cm, <i>f</i> = 4 Hz, and θ<sub>max</sub> = 30°. (B) Angle of excursion is varied, <i>L</i> = 32.6 cm, <i>h</i> = 5 cm, and <i>f</i> = 3 Hz. (C) Frequency of undulations is varied, <i>L</i> = 32.6 cm, <i>h</i> = 5 cm, and θ<sub>max</sub> = 30°. Results of a parametric study of the simulated fin plotted against SW in (D) to (F). (D) Fin height is varied, <i>L</i> = 2 cm, <i>f</i> = 1 Hz, and θ<sub>max</sub> = 30° (E) Angle of excursion is varied, <i>L</i> = 2 cm, <i>h</i> = 0.4 cm, and <i>f</i> = 1 Hz. (F) Fin length is varied, <i>h</i> = 2 cm, <i>f</i> = 1 Hz, and θ<sub>max</sub> = 30°. The fluid was water in all cases. The simulation code can be found at [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.ref026\" target=\"_blank\">26</a>]. The data are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396747, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_a_parametric_study_of_the_robotic_fin_plotted_against_SW_in_A_to_C_/1396747", "title"=>"Results of a parametric study of the robotic fin plotted against SW in (A) to (C).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042737"], "description"=>"<p>A) As the fin length is reduced from 32.6 cm to 16.3 cm, the optimal number of undulations reduces from 2 to 1. B) With the same changes in fin length, the OSW remains unaffected. Experimental parameters: θ<sub>max</sub> = 20° (peak angle from midsagittal plane), fin height <i>h</i> = 5 cm, frequency of fin ray oscillation <i>f</i> = 3 Hz. The data are available in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123#pbio.1002123.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396746, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_changes_to_fin_length_of_a_robotic_knifefish_on_the_optimal_number_of_undulations_and_OSW_/1396746", "title"=>"Effect of changes to fin length of a robotic knifefish on the optimal number of undulations and OSW.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042748", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042749", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042750", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042751", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042752", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042753", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042754", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042755", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042756", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042757", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042758", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042759", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042760", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042761", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042762", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042763", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042764", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042765", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042766", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042767", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042768", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2042769"], "description"=>"<div><p>Examples of animals evolving similar traits despite the absence of that trait in the last common ancestor, such as the wing and camera-type lens eye in vertebrates and invertebrates, are called cases of convergent evolution. Instances of convergent evolution of locomotory patterns that quantitatively agree with the mechanically optimal solution are very rare. Here, we show that, with respect to a very diverse group of aquatic animals, a mechanically optimal method of swimming with elongated fins has evolved independently at least eight times in both vertebrate and invertebrate swimmers across three different phyla. Specifically, if we take the length of an undulation along an animal’s fin during swimming and divide it by the mean amplitude of undulations along the fin length, the result is consistently around twenty. We call this value the optimal specific wavelength (OSW). We show that the OSW maximizes the force generated by the body, which also maximizes swimming speed. We hypothesize a mechanical basis for this optimality and suggest reasons for its repeated emergence through evolution.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mechanically Optimal Locomotion", "osw", "fin", "trait", "undulation", "Convergent evolution", "length"], "article_id"=>1396754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rahul Bale", "Izaak D. Neveln", "Amneet Pal Singh Bhalla", "Malcolm A. MacIver", "Neelesh A. Patankar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002123.s022"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>76, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Convergent_Evolution_of_Mechanically_Optimal_Locomotion_in_Aquatic_Invertebrates_and_Vertebrates_/1396754", "title"=>"Convergent Evolution of Mechanically Optimal Locomotion in Aquatic Invertebrates and Vertebrates", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-28 02:52:50"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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