Host–Pathogen Coevolution: The Selective Advantage of Bacillus thuringiensis Virulence and Its Cry Toxin Genes
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{"title"=>"Host–pathogen coevolution: The selective advantage of Bacillus thuringiensis virulence and its cry toxin genes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Leila", "last_name"=>"Masri", "scopus_author_id"=>"55548076600"}, {"first_name"=>"Antoine", "last_name"=>"Branca", "scopus_author_id"=>"15836355800"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna E.", "last_name"=>"Sheppard", "scopus_author_id"=>"56428668100"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrei", "last_name"=>"Papkou", "scopus_author_id"=>"55930692400"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Laehnemann", "scopus_author_id"=>"55672175700"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick S.", "last_name"=>"Guenther", "scopus_author_id"=>"56707089300"}, {"first_name"=>"Swantje", "last_name"=>"Prahl", "scopus_author_id"=>"56019739000"}, {"first_name"=>"Manja", "last_name"=>"Saebelfeld", "scopus_author_id"=>"56707476400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacqueline", "last_name"=>"Hollensteiner", "scopus_author_id"=>"56582338000"}, {"first_name"=>"Heiko", "last_name"=>"Liesegang", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602828350"}, {"first_name"=>"Elzbieta", "last_name"=>"Brzuszkiewicz", "scopus_author_id"=>"14064460800"}, {"first_name"=>"Rolf", "last_name"=>"Daniel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201792304"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolaas K.", "last_name"=>"Michiels", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003545222"}, {"first_name"=>"Rebecca D.", "last_name"=>"Schulte", "scopus_author_id"=>"15760721500"}, {"first_name"=>"Joachim", "last_name"=>"Kurtz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102216756"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip", "last_name"=>"Rosenstiel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603628533"}, {"first_name"=>"Arndt", "last_name"=>"Telschow", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507206894"}, {"first_name"=>"Erich", "last_name"=>"Bornberg-Bauer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603818279"}, {"first_name"=>"Hinrich", "last_name"=>"Schulenburg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603595699"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169", "sgr"=>"84934767518", "isbn"=>"1545-7885", "pmid"=>"26042786", "issn"=>"15457885", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84934767518", "pui"=>"605059979"}, "id"=>"c951adf4-6ca6-3cf7-b6b2-6ad636ac6b56", "abstract"=>"Reciprocal coevolution between host and pathogen is widely seen as a major driver of evolution and biological innovation. Yet, to date, the underlying genetic mechanisms and associated trait functions that are unique to rapid coevolutionary change are generally unknown. We here combined experimental evolution of the bacterial biocontrol agent Bacillus thuringiensis and its nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans with large-scale phenotyping, whole genome analysis, and functional genetics to demonstrate the selective benefit of pathogen virulence and the underlying toxin genes during the adaptation process. We show that: (i) high virulence was specifically favoured during pathogen-host coevolution rather than pathogen one-sided adaptation to a nonchanging host or to an environment without host; (ii) the pathogen genotype BT-679 with known nematocidal toxin genes and high virulence specifically swept to fixation in all of the independent replicate populations under coevolution but only some under one-sided adaptation; (iii) high virulence in the BT-679-dominated populations correlated with elevated copy numbers of the plasmid containing the nematocidal toxin genes; (iv) loss of virulence in a toxin-plasmid lacking BT-679 isolate was reconstituted by genetic reintroduction or external addition of the toxins. We conclude that sustained coevolution is distinct from unidirectional selection in shaping the pathogen's genome and life history characteristics. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the pathogen genes involved in coevolutionary adaptation in an animal host-pathogen interaction system.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hostpathogen-coevolution-selective-advantage-bacillus-thuringiensis-virulence-cry-toxin-genes", "reader_count"=>144, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>97, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>97}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>3}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096353"], "description"=>"<p>The different shades of blue indicate alternative combinations of toxin genes present, as indicated. The toxin genes were all restricted to evolved clones of the BT-679 background (i.e., horizontal transfer was not detected). The top two rows refer to the coevolved, the middle two rows to one-sided adapted, and the bottom two rows to the control evolved replicate populations. Replicate populations are given along the horizontal axis. Data is shown for both transfer 12 and 20 and a total of 55 replicate populations. Crosses indicate extinction of replicates and \"miss\" that genetic material for the population was unavailable. The original data is shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Selective Advantage", "Pathogen genes", "bt", "nonchanging host", "toxin genes", "life history characteristics", "coevolutionary adaptation", "nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans", "adaptation process", "coevolutionary change", "trait functions", "biocontrol agent Bacillus", "pathogen virulence", "nematocidal toxin genes", "genome analysis", "Cry Toxin Genes Reciprocal coevolution", "copy numbers"], "article_id"=>1437205, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leila Masri", "Antoine Branca", "Anna E. Sheppard", "Andrei Papkou", "David Laehnemann", "Patrick S. Guenther", "Swantje Prahl", "Manja Saebelfeld", "Jacqueline Hollensteiner", "Heiko Liesegang", "Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz", "Rolf Daniel", "Nicolaas K. Michiels", "Rebecca D. Schulte", "Joachim Kurtz", "Philip Rosenstiel", "Arndt Telschow", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Hinrich Schulenburg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_BT_679_toxin_genes_cry21Aa2_and_cry35Aa4_among_the_evolved_replicate_populations_/1437205", "title"=>"Frequency of BT-679 toxin genes <i>cry21Aa2</i> and <i>cry35Aa4</i> among the evolved replicate populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-04 03:36:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096352"], "description"=>"<p><b>A,</b> Genome analysis workflow: A metareference genome created from five genomes representative of the ancestral population was used for sequence read mapping and subsequent identification of strain composition for 55 evolved populations. <b>B–C,</b> Pie charts show pathogen strain composition of the ancestral and the evolved populations from ten replicates per treatment (horizontal axis) and two time points (transfer 12 and 20). Coloured slices indicate the relative abundance of the various <i>B</i>. <i>thuringiensis</i> strains. Crosses indicate extinction of replicates and \"miss\" that genetic material for the population was unavailable. The data is given in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Selective Advantage", "Pathogen genes", "bt", "nonchanging host", "toxin genes", "life history characteristics", "coevolutionary adaptation", "nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans", "adaptation process", "coevolutionary change", "trait functions", "biocontrol agent Bacillus", "pathogen virulence", "nematocidal toxin genes", "genome analysis", "Cry Toxin Genes Reciprocal coevolution", "copy numbers"], "article_id"=>1437204, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leila Masri", "Antoine Branca", "Anna E. Sheppard", "Andrei Papkou", "David Laehnemann", "Patrick S. Guenther", "Swantje Prahl", "Manja Saebelfeld", "Jacqueline Hollensteiner", "Heiko Liesegang", "Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz", "Rolf Daniel", "Nicolaas K. Michiels", "Rebecca D. Schulte", "Joachim Kurtz", "Philip Rosenstiel", "Arndt Telschow", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Hinrich Schulenburg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Broad_scale_genomic_analysis_reveals_clonal_selection_during_experimental_evolution_/1437204", "title"=>"Broad-scale genomic analysis reveals clonal selection during experimental evolution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-04 03:36:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096355"], "description"=>"<p>Mean virulence of plasmid-lacking BT-679 (Cry-) with reintroduced <i>Cry14Aa1</i> (+14) or <i>Cry21Aa2</i> (+21; left panel) or two concentrations of Cry21Aa2-expressing <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> (+EC21_low, +EC21_high; right panel). Cry+, toxin gene plasmid-bearing BT-679; Cry-_0, empty vector control for BT-679; EC0, empty vector control for <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i>. The data is provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S6 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Selective Advantage", "Pathogen genes", "bt", "nonchanging host", "toxin genes", "life history characteristics", "coevolutionary adaptation", "nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans", "adaptation process", "coevolutionary change", "trait functions", "biocontrol agent Bacillus", "pathogen virulence", "nematocidal toxin genes", "genome analysis", "Cry Toxin Genes Reciprocal coevolution", "copy numbers"], "article_id"=>1437207, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leila Masri", "Antoine Branca", "Anna E. Sheppard", "Andrei Papkou", "David Laehnemann", "Patrick S. Guenther", "Swantje Prahl", "Manja Saebelfeld", "Jacqueline Hollensteiner", "Heiko Liesegang", "Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz", "Rolf Daniel", "Nicolaas K. Michiels", "Rebecca D. Schulte", "Joachim Kurtz", "Philip Rosenstiel", "Arndt Telschow", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Hinrich Schulenburg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Virulence_of_BT_679_pathogens_with_or_without_nematocidal_toxin_genes_/1437207", "title"=>"Virulence of BT-679 pathogens with or without nematocidal toxin genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-04 03:36:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096356", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096357", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096358", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096359", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096360", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096361", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096362", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096363", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096364", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096365", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096366", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096367", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096368", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096369", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096370", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096371", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096372", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096373", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096374", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096375", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096376", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096378", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096379", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096380", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096381", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096382", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096383", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096384", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096385", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096388", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096389", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096390", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096391", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096392", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096393"], "description"=>"<div><p>Reciprocal coevolution between host and pathogen is widely seen as a major driver of evolution and biological innovation. Yet, to date, the underlying genetic mechanisms and associated trait functions that are unique to rapid coevolutionary change are generally unknown. We here combined experimental evolution of the bacterial biocontrol agent <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> and its nematode host <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> with large-scale phenotyping, whole genome analysis, and functional genetics to demonstrate the selective benefit of pathogen virulence and the underlying toxin genes during the adaptation process. We show that: (i) high virulence was specifically favoured during pathogen–host coevolution rather than pathogen one-sided adaptation to a nonchanging host or to an environment without host; (ii) the pathogen genotype BT-679 with known nematocidal toxin genes and high virulence specifically swept to fixation in all of the independent replicate populations under coevolution but only some under one-sided adaptation; (iii) high virulence in the BT-679-dominated populations correlated with elevated copy numbers of the plasmid containing the nematocidal toxin genes; (iv) loss of virulence in a toxin-plasmid lacking BT-679 isolate was reconstituted by genetic reintroduction or external addition of the toxins. We conclude that sustained coevolution is distinct from unidirectional selection in shaping the pathogen's genome and life history characteristics. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the pathogen genes involved in coevolutionary adaptation in an animal host–pathogen interaction system.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Selective Advantage", "Pathogen genes", "bt", "nonchanging host", "toxin genes", "life history characteristics", "coevolutionary adaptation", "nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans", "adaptation process", "coevolutionary change", "trait functions", "biocontrol agent Bacillus", "pathogen virulence", "nematocidal toxin genes", "genome analysis", "Cry Toxin Genes Reciprocal coevolution", "copy numbers"], "article_id"=>1437208, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leila Masri", "Antoine Branca", "Anna E. Sheppard", "Andrei Papkou", "David Laehnemann", "Patrick S. Guenther", "Swantje Prahl", "Manja Saebelfeld", "Jacqueline Hollensteiner", "Heiko Liesegang", "Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz", "Rolf Daniel", "Nicolaas K. Michiels", "Rebecca D. Schulte", "Joachim Kurtz", "Philip Rosenstiel", "Arndt Telschow", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Hinrich Schulenburg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s029", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s030", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s031", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s032", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s033", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s034", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s035", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s036", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s037", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.s038"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>79, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Host_Pathogen_Coevolution_The_Selective_Advantage_of_Bacillus_thuringiensis_Virulence_and_Its_Cry_Toxin_Genes/1437208", "title"=>"Host–Pathogen Coevolution: The Selective Advantage of <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> Virulence and Its Cry Toxin Genes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-04 03:36:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096354"], "description"=>"<p><b>A,</b> Workflow: Genomic variation of BT-679 populations was contrasted between treatments or correlated with phenotypic variation. <b>B,</b> mviN gene deletion and plasmid with cry toxins. <b>C,</b> Pathogen killing ability correlates negatively with mviN deletion frequency (left axis, filled circles) and positively with toxin plasmid copy number (right axis, open diamonds). The two most deviating values in all three considered traits were recorded for the same two populations (coevolved populations one and five, both from transfer 20, as indicated adjacent to the measured values), strongly indicating a link between reduced plasmid copy number, increased deletion frequency, and loss of virulence. <b>D,</b> Significant variation among the evolution treatments in population genomic statistics for the plasmid Bti_GWDALJX04I0LJH_51–405_fm319.5 (its structure is given in the outer circle). Using a sliding window-based analysis, approximately 65 kb of the plasmid yielded significant ANOVA FDR-corrected q-values, which are shown as-log<sub>10</sub>(q) on the light grey inner circles as coloured areas for the three inferred population genomic statistics (Θ<sub>W</sub>, Θ<sub>π</sub>, and D<sub>T</sub>; see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#sec008\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). The 5% significance threshold is indicated by the dark grey line within each light grey circle. Thus, coloured areas above this line indicate significant variation among the evolution treatments. This region contains genes encoding for transposases, toxins with unknown effect, a membrane protein, a secreted acid phosphatase, and other proteins (outer circle and legend at the bottom). The total size of the plasmid is about 126 kb. The original data is given in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S5 Data</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s033\" target=\"_blank\">S19 Table</a>, and <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s034\" target=\"_blank\">S20 Table</a>. The results for the statistical analysis is provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s028\" target=\"_blank\">S14</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s035\" target=\"_blank\">S21</a> Tables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Selective Advantage", "Pathogen genes", "bt", "nonchanging host", "toxin genes", "life history characteristics", "coevolutionary adaptation", "nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans", "adaptation process", "coevolutionary change", "trait functions", "biocontrol agent Bacillus", "pathogen virulence", "nematocidal toxin genes", "genome analysis", "Cry Toxin Genes Reciprocal coevolution", "copy numbers"], "article_id"=>1437206, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leila Masri", "Antoine Branca", "Anna E. Sheppard", "Andrei Papkou", "David Laehnemann", "Patrick S. Guenther", "Swantje Prahl", "Manja Saebelfeld", "Jacqueline Hollensteiner", "Heiko Liesegang", "Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz", "Rolf Daniel", "Nicolaas K. Michiels", "Rebecca D. Schulte", "Joachim Kurtz", "Philip Rosenstiel", "Arndt Telschow", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Hinrich Schulenburg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fine_scale_genomics_and_functional_analysis_demonstrate_importance_of_nematocidal_toxins_and_other_genetic_elements_during_adaptation_/1437206", "title"=>"Fine-scale genomics and functional analysis demonstrate importance of nematocidal toxins and other genetic elements during adaptation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-04 03:36:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096351"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Qualitative assessment of the presence (indicated by +) or absence (-) of biofilm flakes in evolved bacterial populations, washed off assay plates after 48 h of growth and inspected by eye in tubes. <b>B,</b> Ability of <i>B</i>. <i>thuringiensis</i> populations to form biofilms (% of populations) using the qualitative assay of Fig 2A. Red indicates coevolution, green one-sided adaptation, and grey control evolution. <b>C,</b> Quantification of the temporal dynamics of biofilm formation by measuring mean particle size during bacterial growth on plates across time; results for four evolved clones and three ancestral strains; grey shades indicate three of the ancestral strains (light grey: BT-247; dark grey: BT-246; black: BT-679), red a coevolved clone, green a one-sided adapted clone that is able to form biofilms, purple a one-sided adapted clone unable to form biofilms, and blue a non-biofilm-forming control-evolved clone. <b>D,</b> Similar quantification of mean biofilm particle size after growth on plates for 96 h for the evolved populations across transfers from the evolution experiment. Red indicates coevolution, green one-sided adaptation, and grey control evolution. <b>E</b>, Competitive ability of biofilm-forming (B) versus non-biofilm-forming (NB) clones on nutrient-rich nematode growth medium (left) or nutrient-poor peptone-free medium (right). Two clones always competed with each other in a paired setup. The value for the second listed phenotype was subtracted from the value for the first listed phenotype (e.g., B–NB, value for biofilm-producer minus value for non-biofilm-producer; see combinations on <i>x</i>-axis) to calculate a competitiveness index (<i>y</i>-axis). The red horizontal line indicates a value of zero (i.e., no difference). Different letters on top indicate significant variation between the different combinations. The original data is given in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Data</a> and the corresponding statistical results in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s020\" target=\"_blank\">S6 Table</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s021\" target=\"_blank\">S7 Table</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Selective Advantage", "Pathogen genes", "bt", "nonchanging host", "toxin genes", "life history characteristics", "coevolutionary adaptation", "nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans", "adaptation process", "coevolutionary change", "trait functions", "biocontrol agent Bacillus", "pathogen virulence", "nematocidal toxin genes", "genome analysis", "Cry Toxin Genes Reciprocal coevolution", "copy numbers"], "article_id"=>1437203, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leila Masri", "Antoine Branca", "Anna E. Sheppard", "Andrei Papkou", "David Laehnemann", "Patrick S. Guenther", "Swantje Prahl", "Manja Saebelfeld", "Jacqueline Hollensteiner", "Heiko Liesegang", "Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz", "Rolf Daniel", "Nicolaas K. Michiels", "Rebecca D. Schulte", "Joachim Kurtz", "Philip Rosenstiel", "Arndt Telschow", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Hinrich Schulenburg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_of_evolved_B_thuringiensis_in_biofilm_formation_/1437203", "title"=>"Variation of evolved <i>B</i>. <i>thuringiensis</i> in biofilm formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-04 03:36:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2096350"], "description"=>"<p><b>A,</b> The five evolution treatments: (i) host control (grey) adapting to general laboratory conditions in the absence of the pathogen, (ii) host one-sided adaptation (blue) where the host adapted to the nonevolving, ancestral pathogen taken from a frozen stock culture at each transfer, (iii) host–pathogen coevolution (red) during which both antagonists were continuously forced to coevolve to each other, (iv) pathogen one-sided adaptation (green) where the pathogen adapted to the nonevolving, ancestral host population taken from a frozen stock culture at each transfer; and (v) pathogen control (grey) adapting to general laboratory conditions in the absence of the host. <b>B–C,</b> Analysis of reciprocal coadaptations in host survival and pathogen killing ability <i>(y</i>-axis) by comparing (along the <i>x</i>-axis) exposures of coevolved hosts with coevolved pathogens from the same replicate population and time point (indicated by Co-H Co-P in the middle of the panels) with either coevolved hosts from the same replicate exposed to ancestral pathogens (Co-H Anc-P, right side) or ancestral hosts exposed to coevolved pathogens from the same replicate (Anc-H Co-P, left side). Results are given for transfers 12 (<b>B</b>) and 20 (<b>C</b>) separately. The lines connect the results for particular replicate populations of the coevolution treatment. <b>D,</b> Survival of evolved host populations from different treatments (colors as in Fig 1A) upon exposure to the ancestral pathogen. <b>E,</b> Pathogen population extinctions under one-sided adaptation (green) and coevolution (red). <b>F–G</b>, Analysis of evolved pathogen populations from different treatments (colors as in Fig 1A) upon exposure to the ancestral host, including pathogen killing ability (measured as host death rate in %) (<b>F</b>) and pathogen infection load (<b>G</b>). Bars denote standard error. The original data is provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>, and the results of the corresponding statistical analyses are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s015\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s016\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s017\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Table</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s018\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Table</a>, and <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169#pbio.1002169.s019\" target=\"_blank\">S5 Table</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Selective Advantage", "Pathogen genes", "bt", "nonchanging host", "toxin genes", "life history characteristics", "coevolutionary adaptation", "nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans", "adaptation process", "coevolutionary change", "trait functions", "biocontrol agent Bacillus", "pathogen virulence", "nematocidal toxin genes", "genome analysis", "Cry Toxin Genes Reciprocal coevolution", "copy numbers"], "article_id"=>1437202, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Leila Masri", "Antoine Branca", "Anna E. Sheppard", "Andrei Papkou", "David Laehnemann", "Patrick S. Guenther", "Swantje Prahl", "Manja Saebelfeld", "Jacqueline Hollensteiner", "Heiko Liesegang", "Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz", "Rolf Daniel", "Nicolaas K. Michiels", "Rebecca D. Schulte", "Joachim Kurtz", "Philip Rosenstiel", "Arndt Telschow", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Hinrich Schulenburg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002169.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_host_8211_pathogen_coevolution_causes_phenotypic_changes_in_both_antagonists_/1437202", "title"=>"Experimental host–pathogen coevolution causes phenotypic changes in both antagonists.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-04 03:36:18"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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