Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia
Publication Date
November 16, 2015
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
Attila J. Bergou, Sharon M. Swartz, Hamid Vejdani, Daniel K. Riskin, et al
Volume
13
Issue
11
Pages
e1002297
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002297
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26569116
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4646499
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26569116
Web of Science
000365898900009
Scopus
84948811290
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/falling-style-bats-perform-complex-aerial-rotations-adjusting-wing-inertia
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Attila J.", "last_name"=>"Bergou", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506635806"}, {"first_name"=>"Sharon M.", "last_name"=>"Swartz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101619335"}, {"first_name"=>"Hamid", "last_name"=>"Vejdani", "scopus_author_id"=>"55921100800"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel K.", "last_name"=>"Riskin", "scopus_author_id"=>"8357115300"}, {"first_name"=>"Lauren", "last_name"=>"Reimnitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"56996176200"}, {"first_name"=>"Gabriel", "last_name"=>"Taubin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003956628"}, {"first_name"=>"Kenneth S.", "last_name"=>"Breuer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006610817"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"607171623", "pmid"=>"26569116", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297", "issn"=>"15457885", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84948811290", "sgr"=>"84948811290"}, "id"=>"91a25689-ca5b-3f86-8394-694fb2f5c7b7", "abstract"=>"The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats’ wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for all other extant flyers. Although the inertia in bat wings would typically be associated with decreased aerial maneuverability, we show that bat maneuvers challenge this notion. We use a model-based tracking algorithm to measure the wing and body kinematics of bats performing complex aerial rotations. Using a minimal model of a bat with only six degrees of kinematic freedom, we show that bats can perform body rolls by selectively retracting one wing during the flapping cycle. We also show that this maneuver does not rely on aerodynamic forces, and furthermore that a fruit fly, with nearly massless wings, would not exhibit this effect. Similar results are shown for a pitching maneuver. Finally, we combine high-resolution kinematics of wing and body movements during landing and falling maneuvers with a 52-degree-of-freedom dynamical model of a bat to show that modulation of wing inertia plays the dominant role in reorienting the bat during landing and falling maneuvers, with minimal contribution from aerodynamic forces. Bats can, therefore, use their wings as multifunctional organs, capable of sophisticated aerodynamic and inertial dynamics not previously observed in other flying animals. This may also have implications for the control of aerial robotic vehicles.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/falling-style-bats-perform-complex-aerial-rotations-adjusting-wing-inertia", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>14, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>14}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442440"], "description"=>"<p>Videos are captured using three high-speed cameras (A) equipped with 50 mm lenses (C), at a frame rate of 1,000 frames per second. A uniform background (B) made of heavy-duty paper is placed behind the bat (D) to enhance contrast and visibility. The landing pad (E) is removed in order to generate a falling-and-recovery maneuver.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604420, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apparatus_for_motion_capture_of_landing_bats_/1604420", "title"=>"Apparatus for motion capture of landing bats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442441"], "description"=>"<p>(Above) Selected images from high-speed recordings of <i>C</i>. <i>perspicillata</i> executing a landing maneuver and, upon failing to find a landing site, executing a righting maneuver. (Below) Corresponding 3-D reconstruction of the 52-degree-of-freedom flight kinematics. The images from left to right correspond to <i>t</i> = 0.185 s, 0.26 s, 0.335 s, 0.41 s, and 0.485 s (also, see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297#pbio.1002297.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>). To give a sense of scale, <i>C</i>. <i>perspicillata</i> have a characteristic tip-to-tip wingspan of approximately 30 cm. Tracked video data available in file tracked_data.zip from the Dryad Digital Repository, <a href=\"http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5\" target=\"_blank\">http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5</a> [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297#pbio.1002297.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604421, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bats_rapidly_reorient_their_bodies_during_landing_/1604421", "title"=>"Bats rapidly reorient their bodies during landing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442443"], "description"=>"<p>The top two frames indicate body orientation and angular velocity (about body-fixed axes). The lower three frames show simplified wing kinematics: instantaneous wing extension, <i>e</i>, wing stroke angle, <i>ϕ</i><sub><i>w</i></sub>, and protraction-retraction angle, <i>θ</i><sub><i>w</i></sub>. The departure from symmetric left-right wing motion coincides with changes in the body orientation. The five moments in time indicated by dashed vertical lines correspond to the images shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297#pbio.1002297.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604423, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_to_a_landing_bat_s_body_orientation_roll_968_pitch_952_and_yaw_981_are_prompted_by_pronounced_changes_in_its_wing_kinematics_/1604423", "title"=>"Changes to a landing bat’s body orientation, roll, <i>ψ</i>, pitch, <i>θ</i>, and yaw, <i>ϕ</i>, are prompted by pronounced changes in its wing kinematics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442444"], "description"=>"<p>Both wings are fully extended (<i>e</i><sub><i>r</i></sub> = <i>e</i><sub><i>l</i></sub> = 1) at mid-dowstroke, while one wing is fully retracted (<i>e</i><sub><i>r</i></sub> = 0) at mid-upstroke. For morphological parameters matched to those of <i>C</i>. <i>perspicillata</i> (<i>I*</i> = 5), simulations show that this asymmetric wing extension induces body roll and that aerodynamic forces do not influence the motion significantly. The response is insensitive to modest changes in the relative wing inertia (<i>I*</i> = 2), although when the morphological parameters are matched to those of fruit flies (<i>I*</i> = 0.02,<i>C</i>* = 0.05), aerodynamic forces dominate, while inertial forces have minimal effect on the body orientation. MATLAB code available in file minimal_simulation.zip from the Dryad Digital Repository, <a href=\"http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5\" target=\"_blank\">http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5</a> [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297#pbio.1002297.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604424, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Minimal_model_of_bat_dynamics_applied_to_body_roll_maneuver_/1604424", "title"=>"Minimal model of bat dynamics applied to body roll maneuver.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442445"], "description"=>"<p>The wings are protracted during the downstroke and retracted to the pitch-neutral position during the upstroke. Three values of the relative wing inertial parameter, <i>I*</i> = 2,5,7, are shown. <i>I*</i> = 5 corresponds to the morphology of <i>C</i>. <i>perspicillata</i>. MATLAB code available in file minimal_simulation.zip from the Dryad Digital Repository, <a href=\"http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5\" target=\"_blank\">http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5</a> [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297#pbio.1002297.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604425, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Minimal_model_of_inertial_mechanism_bats_use_to_adjust_body_pitch_along_with_schematic_of_wing_positions_/1604425", "title"=>"Minimal model of inertial mechanism bats use to adjust body pitch along with schematic of wing positions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442447"], "description"=>"<p>Beginning at <i>t</i> = 0.25 sec, we simulate the free motion of a virtual bat due to the inertial effects of the measured wing motion. The simulated posture (dotted line) is compared with the measured posture (solid line). Data available in file EulerAngles.txt from the Dryad Digital Repository, <a href=\"http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5\" target=\"_blank\">http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5</a> [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297#pbio.1002297.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604427, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inertial_changes_due_to_wing_movement_are_sufficient_to_explain_the_complex_reorientation_of_the_bat_8217_s_body_/1604427", "title"=>"Inertial changes due to wing movement are sufficient to explain the complex reorientation of the bat’s body.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442449"], "description"=>"<p>The symbols denote the species (○: <i>C</i>. <i>perspicillata</i>; +: <i>C</i>. <i>brachyotis</i>); the colors identify each flight sequence. For clarity, every fifth data point during each flight sequence is plotted. For all flights, after subtracting the angle at <i>t</i> = 0 so as to remove bias, the correlations between the measured and predicted roll, pitch, and yaw angles is <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.687, 0.935, and 0.721, respectively. Data available in file EulerAngles.txt from the Dryad Digital Repository, <a href=\"http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5\" target=\"_blank\">http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.21qs5</a> [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297#pbio.1002297.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604429, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_between_the_simulated_and_measured_Euler_angles_for_11_flight_sequences_/1604429", "title"=>"Comparison between the simulated and measured Euler angles for 11 flight sequences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442450"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological and other constants used to simulate simplified dynamics using the minimal model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604430, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_and_other_constants_used_to_simulate_simplified_dynamics_using_the_minimal_model_/1604430", "title"=>"Morphological and other constants used to simulate simplified dynamics using the minimal model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442456", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442457", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442458", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442459", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442460", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442461", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442462", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2442463"], "description"=>"<div><p>The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats’ wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for all other extant flyers. Although the inertia in bat wings would typically be associated with decreased aerial maneuverability, we show that bat maneuvers challenge this notion. We use a model-based tracking algorithm to measure the wing and body kinematics of bats performing complex aerial rotations. Using a minimal model of a bat with only six degrees of kinematic freedom, we show that bats can perform body rolls by selectively retracting one wing during the flapping cycle. We also show that this maneuver does not rely on aerodynamic forces, and furthermore that a fruit fly, with nearly massless wings, would not exhibit this effect. Similar results are shown for a pitching maneuver. Finally, we combine high-resolution kinematics of wing and body movements during landing and falling maneuvers with a 52-degree-of-freedom dynamical model of a bat to show that modulation of wing inertia plays the dominant role in reorienting the bat during landing and falling maneuvers, with minimal contribution from aerodynamic forces. Bats can, therefore, use their wings as multifunctional organs, capable of sophisticated aerodynamic and inertial dynamics not previously observed in other flying animals. This may also have implications for the control of aerial robotic vehicles.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bat maneuvers challenge", "Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations", "multifunctional organs", "body kinematics", "body movements", "Similar results", "Bat wings", "body mass", "animals results", "wing inertia", "body rolls", "kinematic freedom", "wing shape", "massless wings"], "article_id"=>1604436, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Attila J. Bergou", "Sharon M. Swartz", "Hamid Vejdani", "Daniel K. Riskin", "Lauren Reimnitz", "Gabriel Taubin", "Kenneth S. Breuer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002297.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Falling_with_Style_Bats_Perform_Complex_Aerial_Rotations_by_Adjusting_Wing_Inertia_/1604436", "title"=>"Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-11-16 03:47:18"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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