Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton
Publication Date
December 17, 2015
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
Gabriel Yvon Durocher, Andrew P. Allen, Maria Cellamare, Matteo Dossena, et al
Volume
13
Issue
12
Pages
e1002324
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002324
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26680314
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4682994
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26680314
Web of Science
000368443000016
Scopus
84953255821
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/five-years-experimental-warming-increases-biodiversity-productivity-phytoplankton
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610725", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610726", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610727", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610728", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610729", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610730", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610731", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610732", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610733", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610734", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610735", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610736", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610737", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610738", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610739", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610740", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610741", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610742"], "description"=>"<div><p>Phytoplankton are key components of aquatic ecosystems, fixing CO<sub>2</sub> from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and supporting secondary production, yet relatively little is known about how future global warming might alter their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functioning. Here, we explore how the structure, function, and biodiversity of a planktonic metacommunity was altered after five years of experimental warming. Our outdoor mesocosm experiment was open to natural dispersal from the regional species pool, allowing us to explore the effects of experimental warming in the context of metacommunity dynamics. Warming of 4°C led to a 67% increase in the species richness of the phytoplankton, more evenly-distributed abundance, and higher rates of gross primary productivity. Warming elevated productivity indirectly, by increasing the biodiversity and biomass of the local phytoplankton communities. Warming also systematically shifted the taxonomic and functional trait composition of the phytoplankton, favoring large, colonial, inedible phytoplankton taxa, suggesting stronger top-down control, mediated by zooplankton grazing played an important role. Overall, our findings suggest that temperature can modulate species coexistence, and through such mechanisms, global warming could, in some cases, increase the species richness and productivity of phytoplankton communities.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton communities", "warming", "co", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "productivity", "ecosystem", "phytoplankton", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>1626274, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gabriel Yvon-Durocher", "Andrew P. Allen", "Maria Cellamare", "Matteo Dossena", "Kevin J. Gaston", "Maria Leitao", "José M. Montoya", "Daniel C. Reuman", "Guy Woodward", "Mark Trimmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.s018"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Five_Years_of_Experimental_Warming_Increases_the_Biodiversity_and_Productivity_of_Phytoplankton_/1626274", "title"=>"Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610717"], "description"=>"<p>Analyses reveal that (<b>a</b>) local taxon richness, (<b>b</b>) the Shannon-Diversity Index, and (<b>c</b>) total biomass were significantly elevated on average over the year in the warmed treatments. On the contrary, annual levels of (<b>d</b>) total abundance did not differ significantly between treatments (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). Different colors are used to represent warmed (red) and ambient (black) treatments. Tops and bottoms of boxes in box-whisker plots correspond to the 25th and 75th percentiles, horizontal white lines correspond to medians, and whisker extents correspond to 1.5 x the interquartile range. The data underlying these analyses can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton communities", "warming", "co", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "productivity", "ecosystem", "phytoplankton", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>1626266, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gabriel Yvon-Durocher", "Andrew P. Allen", "Maria Cellamare", "Matteo Dossena", "Kevin J. Gaston", "Maria Leitao", "José M. Montoya", "Daniel C. Reuman", "Guy Woodward", "Mark Trimmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_warming_on_phytoplankton_biodiversity_/1626266", "title"=>"Effects of warming on phytoplankton biodiversity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610718"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Rank-abundance curves for each pond on each of the seven sampling occasions for the ambient (black) and heated (red) treatments. Fitted lines represent maximum likelihood fits of the Poisson-lognormal distribution, the parameters of which are given in (<b>b)</b> standard deviation of abundance, σ and (<b>c)</b> mean log-abundance, μ. The parameter estimates of σ were significantly lower in the warmed treatments (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>), though estimates of μ were not significantly different between warmed and ambient treatments (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). Tops and bottoms of boxes in box-whisker plots correspond to the 25th and 75th percentiles, horizontal white lines correspond to medians, and whisker extents correspond to 1.5 x the interquartile range. The data underlying these analyses can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton communities", "warming", "co", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "productivity", "ecosystem", "phytoplankton", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>1626267, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gabriel Yvon-Durocher", "Andrew P. Allen", "Maria Cellamare", "Matteo Dossena", "Kevin J. Gaston", "Maria Leitao", "José M. Montoya", "Daniel C. Reuman", "Guy Woodward", "Mark Trimmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_warming_on_the_species_abundance_distributions_of_the_phytoplankton_communities_/1626267", "title"=>"Effects of warming on the species abundance distributions of the phytoplankton communities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610719"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) NMDS ordination of the phytoplankton communities for each mesocosm. Polygons outline the warmed and ambient treatments, where red circles represent the NMDS scores for each warmed mesocosm, while black circles correspond to the ambient mesocosms. The four taxa most strongly associated with each of the treatments (Warmed: <i>Anabaena constricta</i>, <i>Closterium venus</i>, <i>Spirogyra</i> sp., <i>Chlamydocapsa</i> cf., Ambient: <i>Chromulina</i> sp., <i>Tetraedron caudatum</i>, <i>Chlorella</i> spp., <i>Chlamydomonas</i> sp.) are highlighted by the grey rings. The ordination demonstrates a clear separation between the warmed and ambient treatments. (<b>b</b>) Box whisker plot of rescaled Raup-Crick metrics (β<sub>RC</sub>), which vary from −1 (communities more similar than expected by chance) to 1 (communities more dissimilar than expected by chance) and quantify the relative roles of stochastic and deterministic factors in driving community assembly. β<sub>RC</sub> values were predominantly < 0 for pairwise comparisons among ambient ponds (black), warmed ponds (red), and between ambient:warmed (grey) contrasts, suggesting deterministic mechanisms played a dominant role in community assembly across the experiment. Tops and bottoms of boxes in box-whisker plots correspond to the 25th and 75th percentiles, horizontal white lines correspond to medians, and whisker extents correspond to 1.5 x the interquartile range. The data underlying these analyses can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton communities", "warming", "co", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "productivity", "ecosystem", "phytoplankton", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>1626268, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gabriel Yvon-Durocher", "Andrew P. Allen", "Maria Cellamare", "Matteo Dossena", "Kevin J. Gaston", "Maria Leitao", "José M. Montoya", "Daniel C. Reuman", "Guy Woodward", "Mark Trimmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_warming_on_the_taxonomic_structure_of_the_phytoplankton_/1626268", "title"=>"Effects of warming on the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610720"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Frequency distributions of (based on counts) body mass in the plankton communities in each of the 16 mesocosms pooled over the seven sampling occasions (numbers correspond to mesocosm IDs). (<b>b</b>) The mean log<sub>10</sub> body mass of the phytoplankton was significantly higher in the warmed treatments (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). (<b>c</b>) In contrast, mean log<sub>10</sub> body mass of the zooplankton did not differ between treatments (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). Tops and bottoms of boxes in box-whisker plots correspond to the 25th and 75th percentiles, horizontal white lines correspond to medians, and whisker extents correspond to 1.5 x the interquartile range. The data underlying these analyses can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton communities", "warming", "co", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "productivity", "ecosystem", "phytoplankton", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>1626269, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gabriel Yvon-Durocher", "Andrew P. Allen", "Maria Cellamare", "Matteo Dossena", "Kevin J. Gaston", "Maria Leitao", "José M. Montoya", "Daniel C. Reuman", "Guy Woodward", "Mark Trimmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_warming_on_the_body_mass_distributions_of_the_phytoplankton_and_zooplankton_/1626269", "title"=>"Effects of warming on the body mass distributions of the phytoplankton and zooplankton.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610721"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Total biomass of the zooplankton communities, estimated for each mesocosm, on each of the seven sampling months, was not significantly different between the warmed and ambient treatments (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). (<b>b</b>) Consistent with that observed in the whole community, biomass estimates of cladocerans and copepods were also statistically indistinguishable between treatments (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). Tops and bottoms of boxes in box-whisker plots correspond to the 25th and 75th percentiles, horizontal white lines correspond to medians, and whisker extents correspond to 1.5 x the interquartile range. The data underlying these analyses can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton communities", "warming", "co", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "productivity", "ecosystem", "phytoplankton", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>1626270, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gabriel Yvon-Durocher", "Andrew P. Allen", "Maria Cellamare", "Matteo Dossena", "Kevin J. Gaston", "Maria Leitao", "José M. Montoya", "Daniel C. Reuman", "Guy Woodward", "Mark Trimmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_warming_on_the_biomass_and_body_mass_of_zooplankton_/1626270", "title"=>"Effects of warming on the biomass and body mass of zooplankton.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610722"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Box whisker plot of rates of CR and GPP by treatment, where tops and bottoms of boxes correspond to the 25th and 75th percentiles, horizontal white lines correspond to medians, and whisker extents correspond to 1.5 x the interquartile range. Analyses demonstrate that rates of CR did not differ between treatments, while rates of GPP were significantly elevated (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>). (<b>b</b>) Results of the best-fitting path model (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s014\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a> for model selection). Arrow widths are proportional to standardized path coefficients, which are given adjacent to the arrows. Path coefficients are standardized on the observed range and represent the percentage change in the range of the response as the predictor increases across its range. R<sup>2</sup> values are displayed below endogenous variables (i.e., variables with paths leading to them). Variable codes are as follows: Std Temp (standardized temperature), Prich (phytoplankton taxon richness), Pbio (phytoplankton biomass), GPP, CR, Zbio (zooplankton biomass). The data underlying these analyses can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324#pbio.1002324.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton communities", "warming", "co", "Species richness", "biodiversity", "productivity", "ecosystem", "phytoplankton", "metacommunity"], "article_id"=>1626271, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gabriel Yvon-Durocher", "Andrew P. Allen", "Maria Cellamare", "Matteo Dossena", "Kevin J. Gaston", "Maria Leitao", "José M. Montoya", "Daniel C. Reuman", "Guy Woodward", "Mark Trimmer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002324.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_temperature_and_plankton_community_structure_on_ecosystem_functioning_/1626271", "title"=>"Effects of temperature and plankton community structure on ecosystem functioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:02"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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Net::HTTPTooManyRequests

Source
Scopus
Time
2019-08-27 18:06:08 UTC
Target URL
https://api.elsevier.com/content/search/index:SCOPUS?query=DOI(10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002324)
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'