Oocyte Polarization Is Coupled to the Chromosomal Bouquet, a Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration in Meiosis
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{"title"=>"Oocyte Polarization Is Coupled to the Chromosomal Bouquet, a Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration in Meiosis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yaniv M.", "last_name"=>"Elkouby", "scopus_author_id"=>"35740287700"}, {"first_name"=>"Allison", "last_name"=>"Jamieson-Lucy", "scopus_author_id"=>"57187166000"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary C.", "last_name"=>"Mullins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102767999"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26741740", "issn"=>"15457885", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335", "pui"=>"607981262", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84961384877", "sgr"=>"84961384877"}, "id"=>"c4726aac-d2e4-3551-be19-111eb50acc73", "abstract"=>"The source of symmetry breaking in vertebrate oocytes is unknown. Animal-vegetal oocyte polarity is established by the Balbiani body (Bb), a conserved structure found in all animals examined that contains an aggregate of specific mRNAs, proteins, and organelles. The Bb specifies the oocyte vegetal pole, which is key to forming the embryonic body axes as well as the germline in most vertebrates. How Bb formation is regulated and how its asymmetric position is established are unknown. Using quantitative image analysis, we trace oocyte symmetry breaking in zebrafish to a nuclear asymmetry at the onset of meiosis called the chromosomal bouquet. The bouquet is a universal feature of meiosis where all telomeres cluster to one pole on the nuclear envelope, facilitating chromosomal pairing and meiotic recombination. We show that Bb precursor components first localize with the centrosome to the cytoplasm adjacent to the telomere cluster of the bouquet. They then aggregate around the centrosome in a specialized nuclear cleft that we identified, assembling the early Bb. We show that the bouquet nuclear events and the cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization are mechanistically coordinated by microtubules. Thus the animal-vegetal axis of the oocyte is aligned to the nuclear axis of the bouquet. We further show that the symmetry breaking events lay upstream to the only known regulator of Bb formation, the Bucky ball protein. Our findings link two universal features of oogenesis, the Bb and the chromosomal bouquet, to oocyte polarization. We propose that a meiotic-vegetal center couples meiosis and oocyte patterning. Our findings reveal a novel mode of cellular polarization in meiotic cells whereby cellular and nuclear polarity are aligned. We further reveal that in zygotene nests, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges remain between oocytes and that the position of the cytoplasmic bridge coincides with the location of the centrosome meiotic-vegetal organizing center. These results suggest that centrosome positioning is set by the last mitotic oogonial division plane. Thus, oocytes are polarized in two steps: first, mitotic divisions preset the centrosome with no obvious polarization yet, then the meiotic-vegetal center forms at zygotene bouquet stages, when symmetry is, in effect, broken.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/oocyte-polarization-coupled-chromosomal-bouquet-conserved-polarized-nuclear-configuration-meiosis", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623188"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Tracking of <i>dazl</i> mRNA, Buc, and DiOC6 (membrane marker of organelles), together with mAb414 (a marker of nuclear pores, red) and DAPI (blue). The nuclear cleft morphology and in-cleft aggregation at pachytene through diplotene (≤40 μm) stages, as well as the normal Bb at diplotene (50–70 μm) stages, were observed in 100% of the oocytes (<i>dazl</i>, <i>n</i> = 26 ovaries; Buc, <i>n</i> = 8 ovaries, DiOC6, <i>n</i> > 100 ovaries). mAb414 detects the NE (fine line) and perinuclear granules (spherules, <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S4C Fig</a>). mAb414 channel is omitted in DiOC6 50–70 μm. Arrowheads: mature Bb. In all figures, images are partial sum projections, unless noted otherwise. Scale bar: 10 μm. Oocyte sizes (diameter in μm) are indicated at top of panels. <b>(B)</b> Quantification of Bb precursor enrichment in the nuclear cleft of pachytene to early diplotene oocytes (17–25 μm). Left panels are examples of automated measurements (cleft analysis; white, entire measured cytoplasm; red, noncleft cytoplasm; green, cleft cytoplasm; <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Fig</a> shows the full stacks; <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>). Mean and standard error of the mean (SEM) of pooled data are plotted in the graphs. <i>p</i>-value, ****<0.0001; average fold enrichment is indicated (×). <b>(C)</b> LamB1 and DAPI (blue) labeling in fixed ovaries (<i>n</i> = 15 ovaries), and images of live oocytes from whole ovaries (<i>n</i> = 13 ovaries) stained with DiOC6 and Mitotracker, confirms the shape of the NE (arrowheads) during cleft stages. <b>(D)</b> A schematic of the Bb precursor aggregate during cleft stages and in the mature Bb.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634542, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Bb_begins_to_form_in_a_nuclear_cleft_at_the_onset_of_pachytene_/1634542", "title"=>"The Bb begins to form in a nuclear cleft at the onset of pachytene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623189"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Telomere (Telo-FISH) dynamics in early meiotic zebrafish oocytes costained with DAPI (blue). Nuclear zoom-in views are shown (<i>n</i> = 41 ovaries). Scale bar: 5 μm. Lower panels show schematics of telomere positions in the corresponding stages. <b>(B)</b> Centrosome localization during early meiosis. Left: costaining of γTub, Telo-FISH and DAPI (blue; <i>n</i> = 8 ovaries). Pie chart: frequencies of zygotene centrosome localization relative to the telomere cluster. Right: costaining of γTub, DiOC6 and DAPI (blue; <i>n</i> = 7 ovaries). Scale bar: oogonia, zygotene is 5 μm; pachytene, diplotene is 10 μm. <b>(C)</b> Development of early meiotic oocytes in nests. Left: A group of zygotene oocytes (clustered telomeres marked by Telo-FISH in red) reside in a cluster (outlined) with follicle cells (amorphous smaller DAPI-positive cells) not apparent between them, but are present in the cluster periphery (<i>n</i> = 41 ovaries). Right: Detection of the germ cell specific marker Vasa (green) in zygotene cells (staged according to A—B and <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Fig</a>) are surrounded by Vasa-negative, DAPI-positive (blue) somatic follicle cells. The nest is outlined (<i>n</i> = 11 ovaries). Scale bars: 10 μm. Video S7 shows a 3-D view of a nest, demonstrating the intimate clustering of the zygotene oocytes, surrounded by follicle cell nuclei. <b>(D)</b> Early oocytes in the nest show adjacent cytoplasmic membranes (β-Catenin; green), costained with DiOC6 (magenta) and DAPI (blue) (<i>n</i> = 22 ovaries). Scale bar: 10 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634543, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Telomere_dynamics_and_the_centrosome_during_early_meiosis_and_the_chromosomal_bouquet_configuration_/1634543", "title"=>"Telomere dynamics and the centrosome during early meiosis and the chromosomal bouquet configuration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623192"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Mitochondria localize to the telomere cluster. Top: DiOC6 pattern relative to telomeres (Telo-FISH) in oogonia and zygotene (DAPI, blue). Scale bar, 5 μm. Graph: DiOC6 pattern frequencies (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>). Bottom: mitochondria (pseudocolored magenta) in oogonia and zygotene and relative to the presumptive telomere cluster. At zygotene, SCs are detected (arrowheads). SC-NE contact points mark the presumptive telomere cluster (yellow arrowheads). The cell membrane is outlined (orange) in zygotene. *, nucleoli. Scale bar, 2 μm. Graph: counts of mitochondria around the zygotene nucleus (<i>n</i> = 7 oocytes; <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Fig</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>). <b>(B)</b> DiOC6 and Buc distribution in oogonia and zygotene. Zygotene nest analysis (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#sec010\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>) results are plotted showing enrichment around the centrosome cytoplasm (triangles) versus the remaining cytoplasm (circles) in zygotene but not oogonia (DiOC6: 6 ovaries ‒ Zygotene, <i>n</i> = 168 oocytes in 8 nests, Oogonia, <i>n</i> = 59 oocytes in 7 nests; Buc: 10 ovaries − Zygotene, <i>n</i> = 111 oocytes in 4 nests, Oogonia, <i>n</i> = 21 oocytes in 5 nests). <i>p</i>-value: *<0.05; **<0.01; ns: not significant. Bars indicate mean and SEM. Average fold enrichment is indicated (×). Data in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>. Scale bar, 5 μm. <b>(C)</b> Buc localizes to the centrosome (white) in zygotene (<i>n</i> = 13 ovaries). Labeling cell membranes (β-catenin; white) and analyzing individual oocytes confirms Buc localization to the centrosome cytoplasmic region (cyan arrowheads; 100%, <i>n</i> = 14 oocytes). Two examples are shown. Scale bar, 5 μm <b>(D)</b> GasZ and piRNA pathway granules localize to the telomere cluster. mAb414 spherules, Zili and Ziwi patterns relative to telomeres (Telo-FISH), and GasZ and Vasa relative to mAb414 in oogonia and zygotene (DAPI costained, blue). Scale bar, 5 μm. mAb414, Zili, Ziwi, and Vasa graphs indicate patterns frequencies (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>). GasZ graph shows pixel-wise Pearson correlation coefficient of GasZ and mAb414 signals, confirming colocalization (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#sec010\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>). <b>(E)</b> mAb414 NE spherules (red) position in oogonia and zygotene oocytes further confirms Buc (green) radial distribution in oogonia and localization to the telomere cluster apposing cytoplasm at zygotene in individual cells. Graph indicates patterns and frequencies (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>). <b>(F)</b> A schematic of oocyte symmetry breaking at the zygotene bouquet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634546, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aggregation_of_Bb_precursor_components_in_the_telomere_cluster_cytoplasm_/1634546", "title"=>"Aggregation of Bb precursor components in the telomere cluster cytoplasm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623193"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Telomere clustering and centrosome positioning (DAPI, blue) are normal in <i>buc</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> oocytes (<i>n</i> = 5 ovaries). Pie chart: centrosome position frequencies. <b>(B)</b><i>buc</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> ovaries display normal early polarization. Pie charts show the frequencies of each phenotype. The typical phenotype is shown (top), with colors matching the represented phenotype in the charts (<i>n</i> = 26 ovaries). White arrowheads, nuclear cleft; yellow arrowheads, DiOC6 enrichment. Scale bars as in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2B</a>. <b>(C)</b> Cleft analysis results for <i>dazl</i> localization in <i>buc</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> pachytene to early diplotene oocytes. Compare with Wt in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1B</a>. Mean and SEM are plotted. ns, not significant. Data in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634547, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Early_oocyte_polarization_is_normal_in_buc__oocytes_/1634547", "title"=>"Early oocyte polarization is normal in <i>buc</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> oocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623196"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Microtubule (<i>Tg(βAct</i>:<i>emtb-3GFP)</i>, immunostained for GFP, green) organization during early meiotic oocytes costained with γTub (red) and DAPI (blue) (<i>n</i> = 6 ovaries). Scale bar: oogonia, zygotene = 5 μm; pachytene, diplotene = 10 μm. <b>(B)</b> Acetylated microtubule (Ac.Tub) cables in the nest. Ac.Tub cables (green) associate with centrosomes (red) of leptotene (center) and zygotene (right) oocytes (costained with DAPI), but are not present in oogonia (left) (<i>n</i> = 4 ovaries). Scale bar: 10μm. Right panel shows a full projection of Ac.Tub cables and centrosomes in the zygotene nest shown (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s015\" target=\"_blank\">S8 Video</a>). <b>(C)</b> Some Ac.Tub cables (red) appeared to extend across the cell membranes (β-Catenin; green) of neighboring oocytes in the nest (costained with DAPI, blue; <i>n</i> = 12 ovaries). Arrowheads indicate crossing sites. Scale bar: 10 μm. Two single optical slices of the same nest are shown, see also <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s016\" target=\"_blank\">S9 Video</a>. <b>(D)</b> Zygotene to pachytene transitioning oocytes (DAPI, blue) show thin microtubule connections (<i>Tg(βact</i>:<i>emtb-3GFP)</i>, green; white arrowheads) from the dense microtubule network around the centrosome (red; red arrowheads) of one cell to that of the other (<i>n</i> = 6 ovaries). The nuclei of the connected oocytes are labeled with white dots. Grey dot, grey and orange arrowheads indicate another oocyte with its centrosome and microtubule connection to an oocyte outside the image plane. Such oocytes were always observed in the periphery of a zygotene nest (nuclei labeled with blue dots, left panel; outside the image plane of right panel). Scale bar: 10 μm. Arrowheads indicate the centrosomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634550, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microtubules_in_early_meiosis_/1634550", "title"=>"Microtubules in early meiosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623199"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Bouquet microtubules (<i>Tg(βAct</i>:<i>emtb-3GFP)</i>, white) are intact in DMSO-treated ovaries (100%; <i>n</i> = 4 ovaries), but depolymerized in nocodazole treated ovaries (100%; <i>n</i> = 5 ovaries). A representative zygotene nest is shown (costained with DAPI, blue). Scale bar: 10 μm. <b>(B)</b> Acetylated tubulin cables (white) are intact in DMSO ovaries (100%; <i>n</i> = 3 ovaries), but are lost in nocodazole treated ovaries (100%; <i>n</i> = 6 ovaries; except for rare cases (3 nests) where cables were still intact, all other nest cables were disrupted). A representative zygotene nest is shown (costained with DAPI, blue). Scale bar: 10 μm. <b>(C)</b> Microtubules are simultaneously required for telomere clustering and DiOC6 localization at zygotene bouquet. DMSO zygotene oocytes (left panel) show the typical bouquet telomere cluster (Telo-FISH, red, red arrowheads) with the apposing localized DiOC6 (green, white arrowhead), similar to WT control (compare with <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 4A</a>). In contrast, nocodazole treatments (four right panels) resulted in simultaneous radial expansion of both telomeres and DiOC6. Four representative oocytes are shown. Note the partial to complete radial expansion of telomeres (red arrowheads) and the concomitant expansion and ectopic enrichments of DiOC6 (white arrowheads). Scale bar: 5 μm. <b>(D)</b> Schematics of the effects of the loss of microtubules on telomeres and DiOC6 distributions during zygotene bouquet. <b>(E)</b> Quantification of the results shown in (C). Zygotene oocytes were scored blind and mid-zygotene oocytes (11.5–13 μm) were selected for analysis. These were examined for their telomere clustering and DiOC6 patterns. A representative DMSO control nest is shown (left), where zygotene oocytes show the typical telomere clustering and apposing DiOC6 localization (nuclei labeled with blue dots). Partial projections of three different planes of a representative nocodazole-treated nest are shown (three right panels sequentially). In this nest, 10 oocytes showed radially-expanded telomeres as well as radial expansion, dispersion, or ectopic enrichments of DiOC6 (nuclei labeled with red dots), and one oocyte was normal (blue dot). Scale bar: 10 μm. <b>(F)</b> Pooled statistics of the analyzed nests as in (E). 93% (<i>n</i> = 45) of DMSO midzygotene oocytes were normal, while only 11.5% of midzygotene oocytes in nocodazole-treated ovaries were normal and 88.5% (<i>n</i> = 71) showed the effects described in (C, E). Bars are standard deviation (SD) of two independent experiments. Data in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335#pbio.1002335.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Data</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634553, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nuclear_telomere_clustering_and_cytoplasmic_Bb_precursor_localization_are_mechanistically_coordinated_by_the_bouquet_microtubules_/1634553", "title"=>"Nuclear telomere clustering and cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization are mechanistically coordinated by the bouquet microtubules.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623200"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Oocyte symmetry breaking model and early Bb formation. In the premeiotic oogonia, Bb precursors are distributed radially in the cytoplasm, telomeres are scattered intranuclearly, and the centrosome is at a perinuclear position. Nuclear and cytoplasmic asymmetry is first evident when meiosis initiates, and the centrosome and the telomere cluster form the meiotic—vegetal center (circled by a dashed line) during zygotene stages. Bb precursors transition to the cytoplasm localized around the centrosome and adjacent to the telomere cluster of the zygotene bouquet configuration. At this stage the nuclear axis of the bouquet configuration predicts the animal—vegetal cellular axis of the oocyte, with the telomere cluster and the centrosome marking the future vegetal pole. At the subsequent pachytene stage, the nuclear cleft forms at the position of the centrosome where the Bb precursor components also aggregate. The nuclear cleft is most pronounced at the onset of diplotene (20 μm). Throughout pachytene and early diplotene (17–25 μm), the centrosome is found at the center of the Bb precursor aggregate and the cleft. During the following diplotene stages, the nuclear cleft gradually rounds out and the mature, spherical Bb forms, marking the definitive vegetal pole in the oocyte. <b>(B)</b> Model for polarization in the cyst. Oogonia in the cyst are connected by cytoplasmic bridges due to incomplete cytokinesis. With the onset of meiosis, specialized acetylated tubulin cables may connect sister oocyte pairs through the cytoplasmic bridges of the last mitotic oogonial division (a highlighted pair is shown). The division plane of the mitotic oogonia therefore positions the centrosome and the future meiotic—vegetal center at zygotene. While the polarity axis may be preset in the mitotic oogonia, polarization is only active at the onset of meiosis, when symmetry is in effect broken.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634554, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamics_of_zebrafish_oocyte_polarization_/1634554", "title"=>"Dynamics of zebrafish oocyte polarization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623201", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623202", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623203", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623204", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623205", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623206", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623207", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623208", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623209", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623210", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623211", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623212", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623213", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623214", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623215", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623216"], "description"=>"<div><p>The source of symmetry breaking in vertebrate oocytes is unknown. Animal—vegetal oocyte polarity is established by the Balbiani body (Bb), a conserved structure found in all animals examined that contains an aggregate of specific mRNAs, proteins, and organelles. The Bb specifies the oocyte vegetal pole, which is key to forming the embryonic body axes as well as the germline in most vertebrates. How Bb formation is regulated and how its asymmetric position is established are unknown. Using quantitative image analysis, we trace oocyte symmetry breaking in zebrafish to a nuclear asymmetry at the onset of meiosis called the chromosomal bouquet. The bouquet is a universal feature of meiosis where all telomeres cluster to one pole on the nuclear envelope, facilitating chromosomal pairing and meiotic recombination. We show that Bb precursor components first localize with the centrosome to the cytoplasm adjacent to the telomere cluster of the bouquet. They then aggregate around the centrosome in a specialized nuclear cleft that we identified, assembling the early Bb. We show that the bouquet nuclear events and the cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization are mechanistically coordinated by microtubules. Thus the animal—vegetal axis of the oocyte is aligned to the nuclear axis of the bouquet. We further show that the symmetry breaking events lay upstream to the only known regulator of Bb formation, the Bucky ball protein. Our findings link two universal features of oogenesis, the Bb and the chromosomal bouquet, to oocyte polarization. We propose that a meiotic—vegetal center couples meiosis and oocyte patterning. Our findings reveal a novel mode of cellular polarization in meiotic cells whereby cellular and nuclear polarity are aligned. We further reveal that in zygotene nests, intercellular cytoplasmic bridges remain between oocytes and that the position of the cytoplasmic bridge coincides with the location of the centrosome meiotic—vegetal organizing center. These results suggest that centrosome positioning is set by the last mitotic oogonial division plane. Thus, oocytes are polarized in two steps: first, mitotic divisions preset the centrosome with no obvious polarization yet, then the meiotic—vegetal center forms at zygotene bouquet stages, when symmetry is, in effect, broken.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zygotene bouquet stages", "Bb formation", "mitotic oogonial division plane", "intercellular cytoplasmic bridges", "chromosomal bouquet", "Bb precursor components", "cytoplasmic Bb precursor localization", "trace oocyte symmetry", "meiotic", "centrosome", "Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration", "Bucky ball protein", "oocyte vegetal pole"], "article_id"=>1634555, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yaniv M. Elkouby", "Allison Jamieson-Lucy", "Mary C. Mullins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002335.s016"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oocyte_Polarization_Is_Coupled_to_the_Chromosomal_Bouquet_a_Conserved_Polarized_Nuclear_Configuration_in_Meiosis_/1634555", "title"=>"Oocyte Polarization Is Coupled to the Chromosomal Bouquet, a Conserved Polarized Nuclear Configuration in Meiosis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 14:36:31"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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