Neuropeptide-Driven Cross-Modal Plasticity following Sensory Loss in Caenorhabditis elegans
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{"title"=>"Neuropeptide-Driven Cross-Modal Plasticity following Sensory Loss in Caenorhabditis elegans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ithai", "last_name"=>"Rabinowitch", "scopus_author_id"=>"14033206800"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick", "last_name"=>"Laurent", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198006411"}, {"first_name"=>"Buyun", "last_name"=>"Zhao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55755719600"}, {"first_name"=>"Denise", "last_name"=>"Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404441374"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabel", "last_name"=>"Beets", "scopus_author_id"=>"35745780600"}, {"first_name"=>"Liliane", "last_name"=>"Schoofs", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006398883"}, {"first_name"=>"Jihong", "last_name"=>"Bai", "scopus_author_id"=>"57201150629"}, {"first_name"=>"William R.", "last_name"=>"Schafer", "scopus_author_id"=>"35392541700"}, {"first_name"=>"Millet", "last_name"=>"Treinin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701797287"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84961345914", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348", "pui"=>"607981256", "pmid"=>"26745270", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84961345914", "issn"=>"15457885", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"3bae4515-590c-3b78-9b8a-e4d13fb888ca", "abstract"=>"Sensory loss induces cross-modal plasticity, often resulting in altered performance in remaining sensory modalities. Whereas much is known about the macroscopic mechanisms underlying cross-modal plasticity, only scant information exists about its cellular and molecular underpinnings. We found that Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes deprived of a sense of body touch exhibit various changes in behavior, associated with other unimpaired senses. We focused on one such behavioral alteration, enhanced odor sensation, and sought to reveal the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that translate mechanosensory loss into improved olfactory acuity. To this end, we analyzed in mechanosensory mutants food-dependent locomotion patterns that are associated with olfactory responses and found changes that are consistent with enhanced olfaction. The altered locomotion could be reversed in adults by optogenetic stimulation of the touch receptor (mechanosensory) neurons. Furthermore, we revealed that the enhanced odor response is related to a strengthening of inhibitory AWC→AIY synaptic transmission in the olfactory circuit. Consistently, inserting in this circuit an engineered electrical synapse that diminishes AWC inhibition of AIY counteracted the locomotion changes in touch-deficient mutants. We found that this cross-modal signaling between the mechanosensory and olfactory circuits is mediated by neuropeptides, one of which we identified as FLP-20. Our results indicate that under normal function, ongoing touch receptor neuron activation evokes FLP-20 release, suppressing synaptic communication and thus dampening odor sensation. In contrast, in the absence of mechanosensory input, FLP-20 signaling is reduced, synaptic suppression is released, and this enables enhanced olfactory acuity; these changes are long lasting and do not represent ongoing modulation, as revealed by optogenetic experiments. Our work adds to a growing literature on the roles of neuropeptides in cross-modal signaling, by showing how activity-dependent neuropeptide signaling leads to specific cross-modal plastic changes in neural circuit connectivity, enhancing sensory performance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neuropeptidedriven-crossmodal-plasticity-following-sensory-loss-caenorhabditis-elegans", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>15, "Chemical Engineering"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>15}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623832"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Percent of withdrawal responses out of five anterior body gentle stimulations of wild-type an Mec mutants. (B) Percent of withdrawal responses out of five gentle nose stimulations of wild type and Mec mutants. Worms defective in sensing body touch also show reduced nose touch responses. (C) Chemotaxis scores of wild type and Mec mutants at varying concentrations of the attractive odorant, Bz. A score of 1 corresponds to perfect attraction; a score of 0 indicates complete indifference. mec-4(u253) mutants outperform wild type at low, 1:10,000, Bz concentrations. (D) Chemotaxis scores of wild type and Mec mutants for 1:10,000 concentrations of AWC-sensed Bz and IAA, and AWA-sensed DA and Py. Chemosensation of AWC-sensed odors is enhanced. Chemosensation of AWA-sensed odors is reduced. (E,F) Reversing frequency off-food (E) and on-food (F) of various Mec mutants. Reversing off-food is increased and on-food is decreased in Mec mutants compared to wild type. (G) Speed off-food and on-food of wild type and Mec mutants. Wild type and Mec mutants exhibit similar slowing on food (2-way ANOVA interaction <i>p</i> = 0.6, main effect of food <i>p</i> < 0.0001). (H) Mec mutant reversing rate off-food immediately or 2 h after artificial stimulation of the TRNs using random blue light flashing, with or without (control) supplemental all-trans retinal (ATR). TRN stimulation reduced the reversing rate of mec-4(u253) mutants towards wild type levels 2 hours later (2-way ANOVA interaction <i>p</i> = 0.014). N2 is the wild type strain. Sample size indicated in each panel; Error bars represent standard errors of the mean (SEMs); *<i>p</i> < 0.05, **<i>p</i> < 0.01, ***<i>p</i> < 0.001 <i>t</i> test with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons where relevant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1634991, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loss_of_body_touch_response_results_in_activity_dependent_changes_in_locomotion_and_chemotaxis_/1634991", "title"=>"Loss of body touch response results in activity-dependent changes in locomotion and chemotaxis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:40:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623834"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Principal neurons comprising the body touch mechanosensory circuit (left) and Bz-sensing olfactory circuit (right). Indicated are synapse types and synaptic receptors in AIB and AIY. (B) Averaged trace (left), amplitude (middle), and frequency (right) of spontaneous calcium transients recorded in AVA/E. (C–E) Averaged trace (left) and mean ratio (C and E) or fluorescence (D) change (middle and right) before and after 1:10,000 Bz removal (dotted line) recorded in AWC (C), AIB (D), and AIY (E) neurons in wild-type (N2) and <i>mec-4(u253)</i> mutants. AWC (C) was also tested with a lower concentration of Bz (1:10,000,000; ratio change—right). T0, T1, and T2 in D indicate the averaging windows for computing fluorescence: F0 and R0 are fluorescence, and ratio change averaged over T0. F1 and R1 are averages over T1. F2 is the average over T2. The AIB response to Bz removal was attenuated (D). The AIY response to Bz removal was augmented (E). Sample size is indicated in each panel; Error bars represent SEMs; *<i>p</i> < 0.05, **<i>p</i> < 0.01 <i>t</i> test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1634993, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loss_of_body_touch_results_in_increased_inhibitory_transmission_between_AWC_and_AIY_/1634993", "title"=>"Loss of body touch results in increased inhibitory transmission between AWC and AIY.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623835"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Overexpression of glutamate receptor GLC-3 in AIY increases off-food reversing rate, but is not additive with the effects of loss of body touch. (B) In <i>glc-3</i> mutants, loss of touch responsiveness does not increase reversing rate. (C) Optogenetic TRN stimulation of <i>glc-3; mec-4</i> double mutants does not alter their reversing frequency off-food compared to naïve controls (2-way ANOVA interaction <i>p</i> = 0.014). (D) Inserting an engineered electrical synapse between AWC and AIY attenuates AWC→AIY inhibitory transmission, since it offsets the AWC to AIY inhibitory negative signal (↓) with a positive signal (↑) and at the same time also feeds back a negative signal (↓) into AWC. (E) An engineered electrical synapse inserted between AWC and AIY reduces reversing frequency in wild type. (F) An engineered electrical synapse inserted between AWC and AIY counteracts the increased reversing rate of Mec mutants. Sample size indicated in each panel; Error bars represent SEMs; *<i>p</i> < 0.05, **<i>p</i> < 0.01, ***<i>p</i> < 0.001 <i>t</i> test with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons where relevant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1634994, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AWC_8594_AIY_transmission_underlies_TRN_activity_dependent_modulation_of_locomotion_/1634994", "title"=>"AWC→AIY transmission underlies TRN activity-dependent modulation of locomotion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623836"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Off-food reversing rate increases following TRN-specific RNAi silencing of MEC-4 and EGL-3. (B) Percent of withdrawal responses out of five anterior body gentle stimulations of wild type, <i>mec-4</i> and <i>egl-3</i> mutants. <i>egl-3</i> mutants respond similarly to wild type. (C) Suppression of <i>mec-4</i> off-food elevated reversing rate following TRN optogenetic stimulation is diminished by TRN-specific silencing of EGL-21. (D) Coelomocyte fluorescence of mCherry-tagged insulin-like peptide transgene (INS-1) specifically expressed in the TRNs is decreased in <i>mec-4</i> mutants. Sample size indicated in each panel; Error bars represent SEMs; *<i>p</i> < 0.05, ***<i>p</i> < 0.001 <i>t</i> test with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons where relevant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1634995, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TRN_neuropeptide_signaling_alters_the_reversing_rate_of_Mec_mutants_/1634995", "title"=>"TRN neuropeptide signaling alters the reversing rate of Mec mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:12:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623837"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>flp-20</i> mutants have an increased off-food reversing rate that is smaller than the <i>mec-4</i> increase. <i>flp-20; mec-4</i> double mutants exhibit a similar increase in off-food reversing rate as <i>mec-4</i> single mutants. (B) An additional <i>flp-20</i> allele displays a similar increase in reversing frequency. (C) TRN-specific expression of FLP-20 cDNA restores <i>flp-20</i> reversing rate off-food. (D) TRN-specific expression of FLP-20 cDNA reduces <i>flp-20</i> reversing rate off-food, but not on-food (2-way ANOVA interaction <i>p</i> = 0.0005). (E) Eliminating functional FLP-20 sequence exclusively in the TRNs is sufficient for increasing reversing rate. (F) Overexpression of FLP-20 in the TRNs of <i>mec-4(253)</i> mutants decreases their reversing rate. (G) TRN photo-stimulation has a weakened suppressive effect on the reversing rate of Mec-deficient worms lacking functional FLP-20. (H) Pflp-20::GFP fluorescence intensity, indicating FLP-20 transcription, in <i>mec-4(u253)</i> mutants and following disruption of exocytosis in the TRNs is reduced in ALM, does not substantially vary in PVC, and is also reduced in the ASE neurons (2-way ANOVA interaction <i>p</i> < 0.0001). Sample size indicated in each panel; Error bars represent SEMs; *<i>p</i> < 0.05, **<i>p</i> < 0.01, ***<i>p</i> < 0.001, ****<i>p</i> < 0.0001 <i>t</i> test with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons where relevant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1634996, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FLP_20_is_involved_in_TRN_neuropeptide_signaling_modulating_locomotion_/1634996", "title"=>"FLP-20 is involved in TRN neuropeptide signaling modulating locomotion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623842"], "description"=>"<p>(A,B) Averaged trace (left) and mean ratio change (right) before and after Bz removal (dotted line) recorded in AWC (A) and AIY (B) neurons in wild type and <i>flp-20</i> mutants. The unchanged AWC response and the enhanced AIY response are similar to those of <i>mec-4</i> (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348#pbio.1002348.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2C and 2E</a>). (C) An engineered electrical synapse inserted between AWC and AIY counteracts the increased reversing rate of <i>flp-20</i> mutants. (D) Chemotaxis to 1:10,000 Bz is enhanced in the absence of functional FLP-20. Sample size indicated in each panel; Error bars represent SEMs; *<i>p</i> < 0.05 <i>t</i> test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1634998, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FLP_20_modifies_AWC_8594_AIY_transmission_regulating_Bz_chemotaxis_/1634998", "title"=>"FLP-20 modifies AWC→AIY transmission regulating Bz chemotaxis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623843"], "description"=>"<p>Calcium responses measured in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with an empty pcDNA3.1 vector or with a pcDNA3.1::receptor construct. Calcium responses after the administration of FLP-20 peptides are plotted as a ratio to the total calcium response (peptide-evoked + Triton-X-100- evoked responses). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) medium, containing no peptides, was used as a negative control. ATP, which activates an endogenous CHO receptor, was used as a positive control. BSA and ATP responses are averaged for all transfected constructs. Error bars indicate SEM (<i>n</i> ≥ 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1634999, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Screen_for_a_FLP_20_AIY_expressed_receptor_/1634999", "title"=>"Screen for a FLP-20 AIY expressed receptor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623844"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Loss of body touch in <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> results in reduced neuropeptide secretion from the TRNs, leading to the release from suppression, i.e., strengthening, of the inhibitory glutamatergic synaptic connection between AWC chemosensory neurons and AIY interneurons and thus enhancing the output of the olfactory circuit. Optogenetic activation of the TRNs (red lightning bolt) or insertion of an engineered electrical synapse between AWC and AIY (red dashed line) can counteract these effects. (B) Visual deprivation in rats results in increased serotonin signaling, possibly from the raphe nucleus, increasing extracellular serotonin abundance in layer 2/3 of the barrel cortex, which in turn strengthens the excitatory glutamatergic synaptic connections between the sensory input layer 4 and the cortical output layer 2/3, thus enhancing somatosensory output [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348#pbio.1002348.ref011\" target=\"_blank\">11</a>]. (C) Visual or whisker deprivation in mice results in reduced oxytocin secretion from the hypothalamus, which leads to reduced synaptic transmission to somatosensory or visual cortical output layer 2/3, reducing the output [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348#pbio.1002348.ref013\" target=\"_blank\">13</a>]. Rectangles represent sensory or sensory input neurons and ovals represent downstream output neurons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1635000, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Molecular_cellular_mechanisms_for_cross_modal_plasticity_following_sensory_loss_/1635000", "title"=>"Molecular/cellular mechanisms for cross-modal plasticity following sensory loss.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623846", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2623847"], "description"=>"<div><p>Sensory loss induces cross-modal plasticity, often resulting in altered performance in remaining sensory modalities. Whereas much is known about the macroscopic mechanisms underlying cross-modal plasticity, only scant information exists about its cellular and molecular underpinnings. We found that <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> nematodes deprived of a sense of body touch exhibit various changes in behavior, associated with other unimpaired senses. We focused on one such behavioral alteration, enhanced odor sensation, and sought to reveal the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that translate mechanosensory loss into improved olfactory acuity. To this end, we analyzed in mechanosensory mutants food-dependent locomotion patterns that are associated with olfactory responses and found changes that are consistent with enhanced olfaction. The altered locomotion could be reversed in adults by optogenetic stimulation of the touch receptor (mechanosensory) neurons. Furthermore, we revealed that the enhanced odor response is related to a strengthening of inhibitory AWC→AIY synaptic transmission in the olfactory circuit. Consistently, inserting in this circuit an engineered electrical synapse that diminishes AWC inhibition of AIY counteracted the locomotion changes in touch-deficient mutants. We found that this cross-modal signaling between the mechanosensory and olfactory circuits is mediated by neuropeptides, one of which we identified as FLP-20. Our results indicate that under normal function, ongoing touch receptor neuron activation evokes FLP-20 release, suppressing synaptic communication and thus dampening odor sensation. In contrast, in the absence of mechanosensory input, FLP-20 signaling is reduced, synaptic suppression is released, and this enables enhanced olfactory acuity; these changes are long lasting and do not represent ongoing modulation, as revealed by optogenetic experiments. Our work adds to a growing literature on the roles of neuropeptides in cross-modal signaling, by showing how activity-dependent neuropeptide signaling leads to specific cross-modal plastic changes in neural circuit connectivity, enhancing sensory performance.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["touch receptor neuron activation", "Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes", "awc", "odor sensation", "synaptic", "flp", "Caenorhabditis elegans Sensory loss", "plasticity", "mechanosensory", "optogenetic", "circuit", "locomotion", "body touch exhibit", "acuity", "neuropeptide", "mutant", "aiy", "mechanism", "performance", "response"], "article_id"=>1635002, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ithai Rabinowitch", "Patrick Laurent", "Buyun Zhao", "Denise Walker", "Isabel Beets", "Liliane Schoofs", "Jihong Bai", "William R. Schafer", "Millet Treinin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002348.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Neuropeptide_Driven_Cross_Modal_Plasticity_following_Sensory_Loss_in_Caenorhabditis_elegans_/1635002", "title"=>"Neuropeptide-Driven Cross-Modal Plasticity following Sensory Loss in <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:12:02"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}

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