Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal
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{"title"=>"Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ken", "last_name"=>"Tan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404000138"}, {"first_name"=>"Shihao", "last_name"=>"Dong", "scopus_author_id"=>"56269947900"}, {"first_name"=>"Xinyu", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188669844"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiwen", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56269998300"}, {"first_name"=>"Chao", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56955996500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jianjun", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56377383100"}, {"first_name"=>"James C.", "last_name"=>"Nieh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003645136"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"609389396", "pmid"=>"27014876", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423", "issn"=>"15457885", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962167873", "sgr"=>"84962167873"}, "id"=>"c3d51188-824f-31ef-b0cc-9658b9d18cc5", "abstract"=>"Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational \"stop signal,\" which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at the colony level, large hornets elicited more stop signals than small hornets. Unexpectedly, stop signals elicited by large hornets (SS large hornet) had a significantly higher vibrational fundamental frequency than those elicited by small hornets (SS small hornet) and were more effective at inhibiting waggle dancing. Stop signals resulting from attacks upon the nest entrance (SS nest) were produced by foragers and guards and were significantly longer in pulse duration than stop signals elicited by attacks upon foragers (SS forager). Unlike SS forager, SS nest were targeted at dancing and non-dancing foragers and had the common effect, tuned to hornet threat level, of inhibiting bee departures from the safe interior of the nest. Meanwhile, nest defenders were triggered by the bee alarm pheromone and live hornet presence to heat-ball the hornet. In A. cerana, sophisticated recruitment communication that encodes food location, the waggle dance, is therefore matched with an inhibitory/alarm signal that encodes information about the context of danger and its threat level.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/honey-bee-inhibitory-signaling-tuned-threat-severity-act-colony-alarm-signal", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4869349"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of naturally elicited stop signals was observed with bees waggle dancing for natural food sources. All other dances were from bees trained to a feeder, none of which directly experienced the predator. If stop signals had no effect upon waggle dancing, they would be uniformly distributed (shown by a dashed line). However, all distributions are significantly different from a uniform distribution (<i>p</i> << 0.00001). As the efficacy of the inhibitory signal increases, the distributions should become more negatively skewed. A stop signal that always immediately stops waggle dancing would have only a single bar at the tenth decile. Stop signals produced by foragers attacked by the large hornet (SS <sub>large hornet forager</sub>) were significantly more inhibitory (<i>p</i> << 0.00001) than those elicited by the small hornet (SS <sub>small hornet forager</sub>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Large hornet attacks", "honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling", "signal", "SS nest", "bee alarm pheromone", "encodes food location", "SS forager", "Asian honey bee", "waggle dancing", "colony nest entrances", "hornet threat level", "Colony Alarm Signal Alarm communication"], "article_id"=>3130018, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ken Tan", "Shihao Dong", "Xinyu Li", "Xiwen Liu", "Chao Wang", "Jianjun Li", "James C. Nieh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effect_of_stop_signals_SS_elicited_by_unknown_natural_causes_the_small_hornet_and_the_large_hornet_upon_waggle_dancing_dances_performed_by_51_58_and_51_different_bees_from_three_colonies_the_number_of_stop_signals_is_shown_in_each_plot_/3130018", "title"=>"Effect of stop signals (SS) elicited by unknown natural causes, the small hornet, and the large hornet upon waggle dancing (dances performed by 51, 58, and 51 different bees from three colonies; the number of stop signals is shown in each plot).", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-25 05:41:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4869328"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of hornet attacks upon (A) foragers (49 trials: 17, 16, and 16 from colonies 1, 2, and 3, respectively) and (B) at the nest entrance upon stop signaling and waggle dancing (60 trials: 20, 22, and 18 from colonies 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The colony schematic shows the location of the nest entrance (Ent) and the two comb zones (Z1 = dance floor) and (Z2). Graphs show the mean ± 1 standard error. Different letters indicate significant differences (Tukey’s HSD test, <i>p</i> < 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Large hornet attacks", "honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling", "signal", "SS nest", "bee alarm pheromone", "encodes food location", "SS forager", "Asian honey bee", "waggle dancing", "colony nest entrances", "hornet threat level", "Colony Alarm Signal Alarm communication"], "article_id"=>3130003, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ken Tan", "Shihao Dong", "Xinyu Li", "Xiwen Liu", "Chao Wang", "Jianjun Li", "James C. Nieh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Honey_Bee_Inhibitory_Signaling_Is_Tuned_to_Threat_Severity_and_Can_Act_as_a_Colony_Alarm_Signal_Fig_3/3130003", "title"=>"Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal - Fig 3", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-25 05:41:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4869271"], "description"=>"<p>Standard error bars are shown. Different letters indicate significant differences (Tukey’s HSD test, <i>p</i> < 0.05). Photo shows <i>V</i>. <i>velutina</i> (small hornet) killing an <i>A</i>. <i>cerana</i> forager on a <i>Cassia surattensis</i> inflorescence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Large hornet attacks", "honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling", "signal", "SS nest", "bee alarm pheromone", "encodes food location", "SS forager", "Asian honey bee", "waggle dancing", "colony nest entrances", "hornet threat level", "Colony Alarm Signal Alarm communication"], "article_id"=>3129988, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ken Tan", "Shihao Dong", "Xinyu Li", "Xiwen Liu", "Chao Wang", "Jianjun Li", "James C. Nieh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effect_of_small_and_large_hornet_attacks_at_the_food_source_on_the_individual_behavior_of_foragers_in_the_nest_from_three_bee_colonies_56_bees_attacked_by_small_hornet_and_72_bees_attacked_by_large_hornet_/3129988", "title"=>"Effect of small and large hornet attacks at the food source on the individual behavior of foragers in the nest (from three bee colonies, 56 bees attacked by small hornet and 72 bees attacked by large hornet).", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-25 05:41:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4869223"], "description"=>"<p>In both contexts, larger hornets were more dangerous. (A) The large hornet elicited the greatest colony foraging aversion (six trials/treatment/colony for a total of 54 trials). Scale bar is 1 cm. Different letters indicate significant differences (Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference [HSD] test, <i>p</i> < 0.05). (B) When it attacked the colony, the large hornet was balled by 6-fold more bees, and 13-fold more of these bees died (percentage dead also shown, three trials/treatment/colony for a total of 18 trials). An image of bees balling the small hornet is shown. Different letters indicate significant differences. Graphs show the mean ± 1 standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Large hornet attacks", "honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling", "signal", "SS nest", "bee alarm pheromone", "encodes food location", "SS forager", "Asian honey bee", "waggle dancing", "colony nest entrances", "hornet threat level", "Colony Alarm Signal Alarm communication"], "article_id"=>3129973, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ken Tan", "Shihao Dong", "Xinyu Li", "Xiwen Liu", "Chao Wang", "Jianjun Li", "James C. Nieh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effects_of_hornet_attacks_upon_colony_foraging_allocation_and_defense_/3129973", "title"=>"Effects of hornet attacks upon colony foraging allocation and defense.", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-25 05:41:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4869478"], "description"=>"<p>Stimuli that elicit (A) approaches to and (B) heat-balling of the small hornet (<i>V</i>. <i>velutina</i>). The alarm pheromone (one bee sting equivalent) was presented at the beginning of each trial (ten trials/colony for 30 total trials). Graphs show the mean ± 1 standard error: 100% of live hornets presented with honey bee sting alarm pheromone were heat-balled (0 standard error for this treatment). Different letters indicate significant differences (Tukey’s HSD test, <i>p</i> < 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Large hornet attacks", "honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling", "signal", "SS nest", "bee alarm pheromone", "encodes food location", "SS forager", "Asian honey bee", "waggle dancing", "colony nest entrances", "hornet threat level", "Colony Alarm Signal Alarm communication"], "article_id"=>3130090, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ken Tan", "Shihao Dong", "Xinyu Li", "Xiwen Liu", "Chao Wang", "Jianjun Li", "James C. Nieh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Honey_Bee_Inhibitory_Signaling_Is_Tuned_to_Threat_Severity_and_Can_Act_as_a_Colony_Alarm_Signal_Fig_7/3130090", "title"=>"Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal - Fig 7", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-25 05:41:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4869385"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Large hornets elicited stop signals with a consistently higher fundamental frequency. The spectrogram shows a typical stop signal produced by a forager attacked by the large hornet. (B) Nest attacks elicited signals with a consistently longer pulse duration. The oscillogram shows a typical stop signal produced by a worker attacked by the hornet at the nest entrance. Graphs show the mean ± 1 standard error. Different letters indicate significant differences (Tukey’s HSD test, <i>p</i> < 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Large hornet attacks", "honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling", "signal", "SS nest", "bee alarm pheromone", "encodes food location", "SS forager", "Asian honey bee", "waggle dancing", "colony nest entrances", "hornet threat level", "Colony Alarm Signal Alarm communication"], "article_id"=>3130042, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ken Tan", "Shihao Dong", "Xinyu Li", "Xiwen Liu", "Chao Wang", "Jianjun Li", "James C. Nieh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effect_of_predator_type_upon_stop_signal_vibrational_characteristics_i_n_i_282_bees_from_three_colonies_analysis_based_upon_the_mean_stop_signal_frequency_and_pulse_duration_per_bee_/3130042", "title"=>"Effect of predator type upon stop signal vibrational characteristics (<i>n</i> = 282 bees from three colonies, analysis based upon the mean stop signal frequency and pulse duration per bee).", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-25 05:41:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4869418"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of nest attacks upon (A) stop signal (SS <sub>nest</sub>) production by foragers and guards. (B) Receivers of SS <sub>nest</sub> increasingly remained inside the nest according to the type of predator eliciting the signal. Graphs show the mean ± 1 standard error. Different letters indicate significant differences (Tukey’s HSD test, <i>p</i> < 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Large hornet attacks", "honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling", "signal", "SS nest", "bee alarm pheromone", "encodes food location", "SS forager", "Asian honey bee", "waggle dancing", "colony nest entrances", "hornet threat level", "Colony Alarm Signal Alarm communication"], "article_id"=>3130063, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ken Tan", "Shihao Dong", "Xinyu Li", "Xiwen Liu", "Chao Wang", "Jianjun Li", "James C. Nieh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002423.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Honey_Bee_Inhibitory_Signaling_Is_Tuned_to_Threat_Severity_and_Can_Act_as_a_Colony_Alarm_Signal_Fig_6/3130063", "title"=>"Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal - Fig 6", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-25 05:41:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}

F1000Prime | Further Information

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