Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature
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{"title"=>"Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Denes", "last_name"=>"Szucs", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603427417"}, {"first_name"=>"John P.A.", "last_name"=>"Ioannidis", "scopus_author_id"=>"35377033000"}], "year"=>2017, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"arxiv"=>"arXiv:1011.1669v3", "sgr"=>"85016955111", "pmid"=>"25246403", "pui"=>"615124729", "issn"=>"15457885", "isbn"=>"9788578110796", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85016955111", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.2000797"}, "id"=>"bd2995e5-8548-3f39-97fc-e4ae8da15be6", "abstract"=>"We have empirically assessed the distribution of published effect sizes and estimated power by extracting more than 100,000 statistical records from about 10,000 cognitive neuroscience and psychology papers published during the past 5 years. The reported median effect size was d=0.93 (inter-quartile range: 0.64-1.46) for nominally statistically significant results and d=0.24 (0.11-0.42) for non-significant results. Median power to detect small, medium and large effects was 0.12, 0.44 and 0.73, reflecting no improvement through the past half-century. Power was lowest for cognitive neuroscience journals. 14% of papers reported some statistically significant results, although the respective F statistic and degrees of freedom proved that these were non-significant; p value errors positively correlated with journal impact factors. False report probability is likely to exceed 50% for the whole literature. In light of our findings the recently reported low replication success in psychology is realistic and worse performance may be expected for cognitive neuroscience.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/empirical-assessment-published-effect-sizes-power-recent-cognitive-neuroscience-psychology-literatur", "reader_count"=>327, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>20, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>18, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>68, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>70, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Other"=>17, "Student > Master"=>41, "Student > Bachelor"=>38, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>20, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>18, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>68, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>70, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Other"=>17, "Student > Master"=>41, "Student > Bachelor"=>38, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>37, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>10, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>29, "Neuroscience"=>41, "Sports and Recreations"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>121, "Social Sciences"=>12, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>29}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>121}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>37}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>41}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>10}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>9, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Spain"=>3, "Greece"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>3, "Norway"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>4}, "group_count"=>12}

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