Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species
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{"title"=>"Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John J.", "last_name"=>"Wiens", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007159965"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85000423072", "sgr"=>"85000423072", "issn"=>"15457885", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.2001104", "pmid"=>"27930674", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)", "pui"=>"613986997"}, "id"=>"6f605074-ffc0-341e-a2be-66874200c2f7", "abstract"=>"Current climate change may be a major threat to global biodiversity, but the extent of spe-cies loss will depend on the details of how species respond to changing climates. For exam-ple, if most species can undergo rapid change in their climatic niches, then extinctions may be limited. Numerous studies have now documented shifts in the geographic ranges of spe-cies that were inferred to be related to climate change, especially shifts towards higher mean elevations and latitudes. Many of these studies contain valuable data on extinctions of local populations that have not yet been thoroughly explored. Specifically, overall range shifts can include range contractions at the \" warm edges \" of species' ranges (i.e., lower lati-tudes and elevations), contractions which occur through local extinctions. Here, data on cli-mate-related range shifts were used to test the frequency of local extinctions related to recent climate change. The results show that climate-related local extinctions have already occurred in hundreds of species, including 47% of the 976 species surveyed. This frequency of local extinctions was broadly similar across climatic zones, clades, and habitats but was significantly higher in tropical species than in temperate species (55% versus 39%), in ani-mals than in plants (50% versus 39%), and in freshwater habitats relative to terrestrial and marine habitats (74% versus 46% versus 51%). Overall, these results suggest that local extinctions related to climate change are already widespread, even though levels of climate change so far are modest relative to those predicted in the next 100 years. These extinctions will presumably become much more prevalent as global warming increases further by roughly 2-fold to 5-fold over the coming decades.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/climaterelated-local-extinctions-already-widespread-among-plant-animal-species", "reader_count"=>236, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Researcher"=>59, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>53, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>14, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Researcher"=>59, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>53, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>14, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>57, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>145, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9, "Energy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>145}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>57}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>8, "Japan"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Latvia"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "China"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>13}

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