Stroke Rehabilitation Reaches a Threshold
Publication Date
August 22, 2008
Journal
PLOS Computational Biology
Authors
Cheol E. Han, Michael A. Arbib & Nicolas Schweighofer
Volume
4
Issue
8
Pages
e1000133
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000133
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18769588
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2527783
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/18769588
Web of Science
000260041300013
Scopus
50949096140
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/stroke-rehabilitation-reaches-threshold
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Stroke rehabilitation reaches a threshold", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Cheol E.", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"56471095400"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael A.", "last_name"=>"Arbib", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006188087"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Schweighofer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701542947"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1553734X", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-50949096140", "sgr"=>"50949096140", "pui"=>"352273815", "isbn"=>"1553-7358 (Electronic)\\n1553-734X (Linking)", "pmid"=>"18769588", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133"}, "id"=>"f46b8b71-214e-3027-9e49-e6aa01772fd6", "abstract"=>"Motor training with the upper limb affected by stroke partially reverses the loss of cortical representation after lesion and has been proposed to increase spontaneous arm use. Moreover, repeated attempts to use the affected hand in daily activities create a form of practice that can potentially lead to further improvement in motor performance. We thus hypothesized that if motor retraining after stroke increases spontaneous arm use sufficiently, then the patient will enter a virtuous circle in which spontaneous arm use and motor performance reinforce each other. In contrast, if the dose of therapy is not sufficient to bring spontaneous use above threshold, then performance will not increase and the patient will further develop compensatory strategies with the less affected hand. To refine this hypothesis, we developed a computational model of bilateral hand use in arm reaching to study the interactions between adaptive decision making and motor relearning after motor cortex lesion. The model contains a left and a right motor cortex, each controlling the opposite arm, and a single action choice module. The action choice module learns, via reinforcement learning, the value of using each arm for reaching in specific directions. Each motor cortex uses a neural population code to specify the initial direction along which the contralateral hand moves towards a target. The motor cortex learns to minimize directional errors and to maximize neuronal activity for each movement. The derived learning rule accounts for the reversal of the loss of cortical representation after rehabilitation and the increase of this loss after stroke with insufficient rehabilitation. Further, our model exhibits nonlinear and bistable behavior: if natural recovery, motor training, or both, brings performance above a certain threshold, then training can be stopped, as the repeated spontaneous arm use provides a form of motor learning that further bootstraps performance and spontaneous use. Below this threshold, motor training is \"in vain\": there is little spontaneous arm use after training, the model exhibits learned nonuse, and compensatory movements with the less affected hand are reinforced. By exploring the nonlinear dynamics of stroke recovery using a biologically plausible neural model that accounts for reversal of the loss of motor cortex representation following rehabilitation or the lack thereof, respectively, we can explain previously hard to reconcile data on spontaneous arm use in stroke recovery. Further, our threshold prediction could be tested with an adaptive train-wait-train paradigm: if spontaneous arm use has increased in the \"wait\" period, then the threshold has been reached, and rehabilitation can be stopped. If spontaneous arm use is still low or has decreased, then another bout of rehabilitation is to be provided.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/stroke-rehabilitation-reaches-threshold", "reader_count"=>197, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>51, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>51, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Computer Science"=>13, "Engineering"=>51, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>10, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>55, "Neuroscience"=>15, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>10, "Social Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>55}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>10}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>51}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>15}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>13}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Uruguay"=>1, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Switzerland"=>3, "Spain"=>1, "India"=>2, "Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Slovenia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>17}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/50949096140"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/50949096140?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=50949096140&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=50949096140&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/50949096140", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:50949096140", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-50949096140", "dc:title"=>"Stroke rehabilitation reaches a threshold", "dc:creator"=>"Han C.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "prism:issn"=>"1553734X", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537358", "prism:volume"=>"4", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2008-08-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"August 2008", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133", "citedby-count"=>"87", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Southern California", "affiliation-city"=>"Los Angeles", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"18769588", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1000133", "source-id"=>"4000151810", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fploscompbiol%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pcbi.1000133", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2008", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"254"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2008", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"229"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2008", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2008", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2008", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"377"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"207"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922865"], "description"=>"<p>We plotted the average slope of spontaneous arm use in the 1,000 trials following rehabilitation as a function of the intensity of therapy. Above 420 trials (with the default parameter set), spontaneous arm use increases after therapy. Below this number of trials, it decreases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spontaneous"], "article_id"=>593325, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_spontaneous_use_following_rehabilitation_as_a_function_of_the_number_of_rehabilitation_trials_/593325", "title"=>"Changes in spontaneous use following rehabilitation as a function of the number of rehabilitation trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 00:55:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/923049"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Number of rehabilitation trials required to reach the effective rehabilitation threshold, as a function of lesion sizes. (B) Normalized population vector (PV) as a function of lesion size in the follow-up test after 800 rehabilitation trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurological disorders/movement disorders", "neuroscience/motor systems", "neuroscience/neurobiology of disease and regeneration", "neuroscience/theoretical neuroscience"], "article_id"=>593499, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_stroke_size_/593499", "title"=>"Effect of stroke size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 00:58:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/923127"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Contralateral (affected) arm and (B) ipsilateral (nonaffected) arm. In each panel, the thick solid line corresponds to the changes occurring from just before stroke to the 500th free choice trials following stroke onset. The thin solid line represents additional changes in a no therapy condition (3,000 free choice trials). The dotted line represents additional changes in a therapy condition (1,000 therapy trials followed by 2,000 free choice trials). After stroke, accuracy and variability of the contralateral arm worsened. Following therapy, accuracy improved but with little change in variability. With no therapy, behavioral compensation with the nonaffected arm further developed, resulting in improved accuracy for this arm (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["precision", "deviation", "directional"], "article_id"=>593574, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_reach_precision_standard_deviation_of_directional_error_in_relation_to_changes_in_accuracy_mean_of_directional_error_/593574", "title"=>"Changes in reach precision (standard deviation of directional error) in relation to changes in accuracy (mean of directional error).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 00:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/923247"], "description"=>"<p>Reorganization of the affected (left) hemisphere (A) and nonaffected (right) hemisphere (B) after stroke followed by therapy or no therapy. In each panel, histograms of the cells' preferred directions are shown (1) before stroke, (2) after stroke with 500 free choice trials, and (3) after 3,000 free choice trials or (4) after 1,000 forced used training trials and subsequent 2,000 free choice trials. The gray area in (A.2) shows the lesion site. Before the lesion, the left hemisphere contains more neurons with preferred directions in the right workspace, and the right hemisphere contains more neurons for the left workspace because of the bias for workspace preference. Just after lesion, the left hemisphere is affected. If no therapy follows, the size of the affected range increases, and the number of neurons for the fourth quadrant increases in the affected hemisphere (maladaptation) and in the first quadrant in the nonaffected hemispheres (A.3). On the contrary, the number of neurons for the first quadrant in the right hemisphere increases due to compensation. After therapy (1,000 forced use trials followed by 2,000 free choice trials), however, the distributions of directions are similar to the prelesion distribution in both hemispheres.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reorganization"], "article_id"=>593699, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cortical_reorganization_following_stroke_/593699", "title"=>"Cortical reorganization following stroke.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 01:01:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/923452"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of the supervised learning rate (A), the unsupervised learning rate (B), and the reinforcement learning rate (C) on directional error after different durations of therapy (200, 400, and 800 therapy trials) followed by 3,000 free choice condition. The default parameters used in simulations are shown with the gray vertical lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates"], "article_id"=>593908, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Learning_rates_sensitivity_analysis_/593908", "title"=>"Learning rates sensitivity analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 01:05:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922657"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Neuronal population coding. (B) spontaneous use (B). For (A) and (B): (1) Before stroke, (2) after stroke, (3) after 3,000 free choice trials, and (4) after 1,000 forced used trials followed by 2,000 free choice trials. In (A), each population vector figure shows the desired reach directions (thin black arrows), the neuron activation levels along their preferred directions (thin gray lines), and the resulting population vector (thick black arrows). Note that there are no “votes” for directions corresponding to the lesioned directions in (A.2) and (A.3) but that in (A.4), many neurons have become retuned to yield votes in the lesioned directions. In (B), the pie plots show the probability of using the unaffected right arm to reach to targets arrayed on a circle around the central position. In (B.2) and (B.3), the less affected arm reaches into the lesioned quadrant, but this effect is reversed with therapy (B.4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coding", "spontaneous", "workspace", "affected"], "article_id"=>593115, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neuronal_population_coding_and_spontaneous_use_over_the_workspace_for_the_affected_arm_/593115", "title"=>"Neuronal population coding and spontaneous use over the workspace for the affected arm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 00:51:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922980"], "description"=>"<p>Directional error (A), normalized population vector (PV) (B), and spontaneous arm use (C) in the immediate and follow-up tests. The directional error performance following few rehabilitation trials worsens after therapy. On the contrary, the directional error performance after sufficient rehabilitation trials improves even after therapy. Similar bistable patterns are shown for the normalized population vector and spontaneous use shown in (B) and (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trials", "follow-up"], "article_id"=>593437, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_the_number_of_rehabilitation_trials_in_immediate_and_follow_up_tests_/593437", "title"=>"Effect of the number of rehabilitation trials in immediate and follow-up tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 00:57:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922759"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Directional error, (B) normalized population vector (PV), and (C) spontaneous arm choice. Five different durations of therapy were used (0, 200, 400, 800, or 3,000 trials). The spontaneous arm use is an average selection probability from 10 uniformly distributed desired directions on the affected range. The threshold of effective rehabilitation for this stroke size is shown in the horizontal dotted line of (C). If the rehabilitation leads to performance above this threshold, then a virtuous circle between spontaneous arm use and performance will take place and performances will continue to improve without the need for further rehabilitation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spontaneous", "affected"], "article_id"=>593211, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_of_behavioral_performance_and_spontaneous_use_in_the_affected_range_just_before_stroke_following_stroke_8220_acute_stroke_8221_during_rehabilitation_and_after_rehabilitation_8220_chronic_stroke_8221_/593211", "title"=>"Time course of behavioral performance and spontaneous use in the affected range just before stroke, following stroke (“acute stroke”), during rehabilitation, and after rehabilitation (“chronic stroke”).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 00:53:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/455313", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/455437", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/455478", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/455515"], "description"=>"<div><p>Motor training with the upper limb affected by stroke partially reverses the loss of cortical representation after lesion and has been proposed to increase spontaneous arm use. Moreover, repeated attempts to use the affected hand in daily activities create a form of practice that can potentially lead to further improvement in motor performance. We thus hypothesized that if motor retraining after stroke increases spontaneous arm use sufficiently, then the patient will enter a virtuous circle in which spontaneous arm use and motor performance reinforce each other. In contrast, if the dose of therapy is not sufficient to bring spontaneous use above threshold, then performance will not increase and the patient will further develop compensatory strategies with the less affected hand. To refine this hypothesis, we developed a computational model of bilateral hand use in arm reaching to study the interactions between adaptive decision making and motor relearning after motor cortex lesion. The model contains a left and a right motor cortex, each controlling the opposite arm, and a single action choice module. The action choice module learns, via reinforcement learning, the value of using each arm for reaching in specific directions. Each motor cortex uses a neural population code to specify the initial direction along which the contralateral hand moves towards a target. The motor cortex learns to minimize directional errors and to maximize neuronal activity for each movement. The derived learning rule accounts for the reversal of the loss of cortical representation after rehabilitation and the increase of this loss after stroke with insufficient rehabilitation. Further, our model exhibits nonlinear and bistable behavior: if natural recovery, motor training, or both, brings performance above a certain threshold, then training can be stopped, as the repeated spontaneous arm use provides a form of motor learning that further bootstraps performance and spontaneous use. Below this threshold, motor training is “in vain”: there is little spontaneous arm use after training, the model exhibits learned nonuse, and compensatory movements with the less affected hand are reinforced. By exploring the nonlinear dynamics of stroke recovery using a biologically plausible neural model that accounts for reversal of the loss of motor cortex representation following rehabilitation or the lack thereof, respectively, we can explain previously hard to reconcile data on spontaneous arm use in stroke recovery. Further, our threshold prediction could be tested with an adaptive train–wait–train paradigm: if spontaneous arm use has increased in the “wait” period, then the threshold has been reached, and rehabilitation can be stopped. If spontaneous arm use is still low or has decreased, then another bout of rehabilitation is to be provided.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reaches"], "article_id"=>149689, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Stroke_Rehabilitation_Reaches_a_Threshold/149689", "title"=>"Stroke Rehabilitation Reaches a Threshold", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 02:41:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922549"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Experimental setup. (B) Model structure. Solid line: information signal; dashed line: activation signal; dotted line: reward-based (reinforcement) learning; double dotted line: error-based (supervised) learning.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["setup"], "article_id"=>593002, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_setup_and_model_structure_/593002", "title"=>"Experimental setup and model structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 00:50:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/923362"], "description"=>"<p>Reorganization of the affected (left) hemisphere (A) and nonaffected (right) hemisphere (B) after stroke followed by therapy or no therapy. In each panel, histograms of the cells' preferred directions are shown (1) before stroke, (2) after stroke with 500 free choice trials, and (3) after 3,000 free choice trials or (4) after 1,000 forced used training trials and subsequent 2,000 free choice trials. The gray area in (A.2) shows the lesion site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reorganization", "unsupervised"], "article_id"=>593823, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Cheol E. Han", "Michael A. Arbib", "Nicolas Schweighofer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000133.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cortical_reorganization_without_unsupervised_learning_/593823", "title"=>"Cortical reorganization without unsupervised learning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-08-22 01:03:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"9", "full-text"=>"64", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"82", "unique-ip"=>"85", "figure"=>"24", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"16", "full-text"=>"55", "unique-ip"=>"78", "pdf"=>"39", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"16", "full-text"=>"76", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"56", "unique-ip"=>"96", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"31", "full-text"=>"95", "unique-ip"=>"122", "pdf"=>"68", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"11", "full-text"=>"75", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"76", "unique-ip"=>"95", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"9", "full-text"=>"46", "unique-ip"=>"63", "pdf"=>"35", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"36", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"33", "unique-ip"=>"45", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"9", "full-text"=>"43", "unique-ip"=>"50", "pdf"=>"33", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"10", "full-text"=>"38", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"37", "unique-ip"=>"54", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"7", "full-text"=>"51", "unique-ip"=>"63", "pdf"=>"45", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"12", "full-text"=>"73", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"31", "unique-ip"=>"75", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"8", "full-text"=>"40", "unique-ip"=>"55", "pdf"=>"47", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"8", "full-text"=>"52", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"22", "unique-ip"=>"61", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"58", "unique-ip"=>"60", "pdf"=>"29", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"14", "full-text"=>"58", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"37", "unique-ip"=>"68", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"11", "full-text"=>"40", "unique-ip"=>"53", "pdf"=>"26", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"58", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"53", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"34", "unique-ip"=>"31", "pdf"=>"26", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"37", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"39", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"47", "unique-ip"=>"42", "pdf"=>"14", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"59", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"48", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"54", "unique-ip"=>"53", "pdf"=>"23", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"68", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"32", "unique-ip"=>"52", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"46", "unique-ip"=>"48", "pdf"=>"18", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"45", "unique-ip"=>"42", "pdf"=>"15", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"44", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"35", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"7", "full-text"=>"55", "unique-ip"=>"67", "pdf"=>"32", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"35", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"37", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"87", "unique-ip"=>"81", "pdf"=>"20", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"90", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"19", "year"=>"2008", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"11", "figure"=>"271", "scanned-summary"=>"149", "supp-data"=>"148"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"14", "full-text"=>"119", "unique-ip"=>"131", "pdf"=>"79", "year"=>"2008", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"15", "full-text"=>"114", "year"=>"2008", "pdf"=>"71", "unique-ip"=>"109", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"9", "full-text"=>"80", "unique-ip"=>"98", "pdf"=>"72", "year"=>"2008", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"32", "full-text"=>"145", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"86", "unique-ip"=>"146", "figure"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"26", "full-text"=>"115", "unique-ip"=>"154", "pdf"=>"90", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"47", "full-text"=>"142", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"117", "unique-ip"=>"190", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"12", "full-text"=>"112", "unique-ip"=>"134", "pdf"=>"94", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"17", "full-text"=>"132", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"91", "unique-ip"=>"140", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"17", "full-text"=>"106", "unique-ip"=>"99", "pdf"=>"58", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"10", "full-text"=>"68", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"49", "unique-ip"=>"74", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"10", "full-text"=>"62", "unique-ip"=>"79", "pdf"=>"57", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"18", "full-text"=>"84", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"60", "unique-ip"=>"104", "figure"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"38", "unique-ip"=>"48", "pdf"=>"29", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"22", "full-text"=>"76", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"57", "unique-ip"=>"105", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"19", "full-text"=>"71", "unique-ip"=>"97", "pdf"=>"75", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"49", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"45", "figure"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"30", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2008-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2008-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[324, 674, 863, 1015, 1146, 1259, 1360, 1452, 1540, 1621, 1704, 1776, 1843, 1905, 1968, 2029, 2097, 2162, 2233, 2289, 2352, 2412, 2476, 2538, 2601, 2655, 2714, 2777, 2841, 2894, 2946, 2998, 3047, 3103, 3151, 3201, 3258, 3317, 3369, 3424, 3471, 3521, 3583, 3625, 3687, 3743, 3788, 3838, 3896, 3953, 4015, 4075, 4148, 4201, 4275, 4347, 4420, 4486, 4535, 4592, 4660, 4731, 4792, 4845, 4901, 4971, 5027, 5089, 5148, 5200, 5261, 5318, 5374]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[299, 613, 807, 949, 1085, 1204, 1310, 1401, 1482, 1554, 1639, 1709, 1763, 1839, 1896, 1955, 2020, 2091, 2165, 2225, 2278, 2349, 2412, 2474, 2540, 2598, 2653, 2700, 2742, 2809, 2863, 2926, 2979, 3040, 3085, 3118, 3167, 3215, 3279, 3336, 3383, 3433, 3498, 3546, 3602, 3660, 3718, 3779, 3838, 3893, 3938, 4000, 4073, 4168, 4221, 4263, 4319, 4371, 4437, 4488, 4526, 4571, 4645, 4704, 4744, 4805, 4868, 4943, 5031, 5081, 5140, 5216, 5260]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[294, 613, 788, 935, 1068, 1180, 1288, 1374, 1452, 1530, 1605, 1671, 1725, 1803, 1863, 1916, 1978, 2040, 2104, 2158, 2215, 2273, 2326, 2390, 2445, 2499, 2554, 2615, 2667, 2725, 2775, 2821, 2865, 2912, 2953, 2994, 3050, 3101, 3144, 3204, 3258, 3308, 3371, 3419, 3475, 3514, 3560, 3613, 3688, 3733, 3788, 3859, 3922, 3975, 4033, 4097, 4151, 4186, 4226, 4287]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[338, 679, 872, 1005, 1108, 1244, 1356, 1421, 1484, 1546, 1628, 1707, 1775, 1859, 1916, 1976, 2044, 2114, 2190, 2253, 2325, 2374, 2408, 2458, 2513, 2573, 2623, 2682, 2718, 2777, 2837, 2876, 2922, 2968, 3010, 3058, 3099, 3147, 3181, 3235, 3333, 3392, 3454, 3507, 3559, 3616, 3668, 3724, 3787, 3845, 3883, 3933, 3989, 4046, 4100, 4161, 4251, 4285, 4355, 4437, 4483, 4538, 4572, 4632, 4687, 4738, 4785, 4834, 4905, 4967, 5035, 5102, 5163, 5198]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[300, 668, 856, 1029, 1149, 1267, 1378, 1465, 1567, 1675, 1742, 1802, 1846, 1918, 1996, 2068, 2152, 2228, 2308, 2373, 2431, 2522, 2590, 2666, 2736, 2790, 2837, 2887, 2941, 3002, 3066, 3116, 3181, 3233, 3277, 3301, 3330, 3369, 3411, 3456, 3501, 3534, 3628, 3702, 3741, 3783, 3848, 3903, 3958, 4010, 4067, 4133, 4174, 4209, 4245, 4295, 4375, 4422, 4554, 4596, 4633, 4675, 4732, 4801, 4851, 4912, 4958, 5042, 5091, 5138, 5190, 5262, 5346]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 661, 845, 1003, 1135, 1248, 1352, 1439, 1532, 1618, 1691, 1765, 1831, 1902, 1969, 2028, 2098, 2159, 2234, 2294, 2356, 2423, 2483, 2548, 2615, 2682, 2743, 2796, 2853, 2907, 2970, 3025, 3078, 3138, 3197, 3243, 3307, 3351, 3420, 3468, 3519, 3569, 3625, 3688, 3739, 3799, 3850, 3911, 3961, 4009, 4075, 4137, 4194, 4263, 4329, 4393, 4449, 4501, 4566, 4638, 4706, 4761, 4828, 4898, 4948, 4999, 5040, 5107, 5170, 5226, 5292, 5352, 5434]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[315, 639, 821, 971, 1112, 1232, 1325, 1418, 1500, 1571, 1652, 1728, 1800, 1864, 1925, 1992, 2063, 2124, 2180, 2234, 2291, 2353, 2413, 2475, 2532, 2583, 2648, 2702, 2750, 2813, 2864, 2932, 2977, 3033, 3086, 3130, 3178, 3243, 3295, 3356, 3417, 3461, 3517, 3571, 3620, 3678, 3726, 3786, 3854, 3924, 3994, 4069, 4123, 4183, 4261, 4330, 4424, 4484, 4533, 4578, 4631, 4687, 4742, 4811, 4883, 4955, 5019, 5095, 5157, 5211, 5270, 5324, 5379]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Vascular medicine", "average_usage"=>[198, 615, 859, 1044, 1207, 1359, 1474, 1594, 1675, 1764, 1851, 1933, 2012, 2100, 2185, 2248, 2313, 2398, 2473, 2569, 2661, 2727, 2822, 2897, 2971, 3045, 3110, 3173, 3237, 3313, 3380, 3447, 3482, 3531, 3580, 3638, 3702, 3782, 3873, 3948, 4012, 4075, 4129, 4176, 4239, 4311, 4386, 4441, 4524, 4576, 4636, 4702, 4774, 4844, 4900, 4952, 5010, 5063, 5096, 5133, 5166, 5207, 5233, 5286, 5311, 5335, 5359, 5401, 5455, 5482, 5508, 5544, 5564, 5600]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[340, 737, 959, 1129, 1262, 1394, 1513, 1582, 1669, 1714, 1825, 1880, 1942, 2002, 2072, 2191, 2264, 2326, 2393, 2427, 2506, 2596, 2666, 2738, 2817, 2889, 2943, 2989, 3036, 3107, 3159, 3194, 3240, 3284, 3322, 3378, 3405, 3458, 3507, 3537, 3574, 3625, 3685, 3755, 3819, 3872, 3941, 3988, 4042, 4100, 4149, 4244, 4300, 4349, 4397, 4460, 4542, 4617, 4680, 4742, 4807, 4864, 4924, 4974, 5030, 5069, 5113, 5136, 5168, 5241, 5292, 5335, 5399]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[300, 668, 856, 1029, 1149, 1267, 1378, 1465, 1567, 1675, 1742, 1802, 1846, 1918, 1996, 2068, 2152, 2228, 2308, 2373, 2431, 2522, 2590, 2666, 2736, 2790, 2837, 2887, 2941, 3002, 3066, 3116, 3181, 3233, 3277, 3301, 3330, 3369, 3411, 3456, 3501, 3534, 3628, 3702, 3741, 3783, 3848, 3903, 3958, 4010, 4067, 4133, 4174, 4209, 4245, 4295, 4375, 4422, 4554, 4596, 4633, 4675, 4732, 4801, 4851, 4912, 4958, 5042, 5091, 5138, 5190, 5262, 5346]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts