Differentiating Protein-Coding and Noncoding RNA: Challenges and Ambiguities
Publication Date
November 28, 2008
Journal
PLOS Computational Biology
Authors
Marcel E. Dinger, Ken C. Pang, Tim R. Mercer & John S. Mattick
Volume
4
Issue
11
Pages
e1000176
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000176
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000176
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19043537
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518207
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19043537
Web of Science
000261480800001
Scopus
57149107578
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/differentiating-proteincoding-noncoding-rna-challenges-ambiguities
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Until recently, discrimination between these two categories was relatively straightforward: most transcripts were clearly identifiable as protein-coding messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and readily distinguished from the small number of well-characterized non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as transfer, ribosomal, and spliceosomal RNAs. Recent genome-wide studies have revealed the existence of thousands of noncoding transcripts, whose function and significance are unclear. The discovery of this hidden transcriptome and the implicit challenge it presents to our understanding of the expression and regulation of genetic information has made the need to distinguish between mRNAs and ncRNAs both more pressing and more complicated. In this Review, we consider the diverse strategies employed to discriminate between protein-coding and noncoding transcripts and the fundamental difficulties that are inherent in what may superficially appear to be a simple problem. Misannotations can also run in both directions: some ncRNAs may actually encode peptides, and some of those currently thought to do so may not. Moreover, recent studies have shown that some RNAs can function both as mRNAs and intrinsically as functional ncRNAs, which may be a relatively widespread phenomenon. We conclude that it is difficult to annotate an RNA unequivocally as protein-coding or noncoding, with overlapping protein-coding and noncoding transcripts further confounding this distinction. In addition, the finding that some transcripts can function both intrinsically at the RNA level and to encode proteins suggests a false dichotomy between mRNAs and ncRNAs. Therefore, the functionality of any transcript at the RNA level should not be discounted.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/differentiating-proteincoding-noncoding-rna-challenges-ambiguities", "reader_count"=>427, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>21, "Researcher"=>107, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>130, "Student > Postgraduate"=>17, "Student > Master"=>62, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>37, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>21, "Researcher"=>107, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/914192"], "description"=>"<p>Twenty thousand transcripts of varying length and random nucleotide\n composition were computationally generated and scanned for ORFs. The\n maximum ORF and transcript lengths were plotted and fitted to a\n logarithmic curve. The shaded regions represent incidences of\n randomly occurring ORFs at 1, 2, or 3 standard deviations from the\n mean. The red line indicates the 300 nt ORF threshold that is\n commonly used to distinguish protein-coding genes in transcript\n classification pipelines. Therefore, this plot illustrates that for\n transcripts longer than ∼1000 bp, such a threshold may\n define transcripts as protein-coding that would be expected to occur\n by chance. The function\n y = 91.Ln(x)−330, which\n approximates random ORF incidence according to transcript length at\n two standard deviations above the mean (i.e., 95%\n confidence interval, indicated in green), could be used to\n discriminate noncoding from protein-coding transcripts in a\n transcript-length–dependent manner.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frames", "randomly", "generated", "transcripts"], "article_id"=>584640, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Marcel E. Dinger", "Ken C. Pang", "Tim R. Mercer", "John S. Mattick"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000176.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incidence_of_open_reading_frames_ORFs_in_randomly_generated_____transcripts_of_increasing_length_/584640", "title"=>"Incidence of open reading frames (ORFs) in randomly generated\n transcripts of increasing length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:25:48"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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