Neural Development Features: Spatio-Temporal Development of the Caenorhabditis elegans Neuronal Network
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{"title"=>"Neural development features: Spatio-temporal development of the Caenorhabditis elegans neuronal network", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sreedevi", "last_name"=>"Varier", "scopus_author_id"=>"37662255300"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcus", "last_name"=>"Kaiser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55389821500"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1553734X", "isbn"=>"1553-7358 (Electronic)\\r1553-734X (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21253561", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79551562611", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044", "sgr"=>"79551562611", "pui"=>"361204732", "arxiv"=>"1101.2686"}, "id"=>"7c340537-9f05-3b65-a5e1-b74e5c6c7986", "abstract"=>"The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with information on neural connectivity, three-dimensional position and cell linage, provides a unique system for understanding the development of neural networks. Although C. elegans has been widely studied in the past, we present the first statistical study from a developmental perspective, with findings that raise interesting suggestions on the establishment of long-distance connections and network hubs. Here, we analyze the neuro-development for temporal and spatial features, using birth times of neurons and their three-dimensional positions. Comparisons of growth in C. elegans with random spatial network growth highlight two findings relevant to neural network development. First, most neurons which are linked by long-distance connections are born around the same time and early on, suggesting the possibility of early contact or interaction between connected neurons during development. Second, early-born neurons are more highly connected (tendency to form hubs) than later-born neurons. This indicates that the longer time frame available to them might underlie high connectivity. Both outcomes are not observed for random connection formation. The study finds that around one-third of electrically coupled long-range connections are late forming, raising the question of what mechanisms are involved in ensuring their accuracy, particularly in light of the extremely invariant connectivity observed in C. elegans. In conclusion, the sequence of neural network development highlights the possibility of early contact or interaction in securing long-distance and high-degree connectivity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neural-development-features-spatiotemporal-development-caenorhabditis-elegans-neuronal-network", "reader_count"=>81, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Psychology"=>7, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>10}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/806961"], "description"=>"<p>Orientations are along the Anterior (A)-Posterior (P), and Dorsal (D)-Ventral (V) axes. The horizontal dashed line indicates the approximate time of hatching (840 minutes). For any stage, the dots in grey are the neurons that have already appeared, while the black dots indicate those that appear by the end of that particular stage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neural", "represented", "discrete", "providing", "convenient", "visualization", "neurons", "respective"], "article_id"=>477325, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sreedevi Varier", "Marcus Kaiser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_the_neural_network_represented_in_six_discrete_time_stages_providing_a_convenient_visualization_of_the_various_neurons_appearing_before_gray_and_during_black_the_respective_time_stages_/477325", "title"=>"Growth of the neural network represented in six discrete time stages, providing a convenient visualization of the various neurons appearing before (gray) and during (black) the respective time stages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:02:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403192", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403213", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403222", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403238", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403255", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/403286"], "description"=>"<div><p>The nematode <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em>, with information on neural connectivity, three-dimensional position and cell linage, provides a unique system for understanding the development of neural networks. Although <em>C. elegans</em> has been widely studied in the past, we present the first statistical study from a developmental perspective, with findings that raise interesting suggestions on the establishment of long-distance connections and network hubs. Here, we analyze the neuro-development for temporal and spatial features, using birth times of neurons and their three-dimensional positions. Comparisons of growth in <em>C. elegans</em> with random spatial network growth highlight two findings relevant to neural network development. First, most neurons which are linked by long-distance connections are born around the same time and early on, suggesting the possibility of early contact or interaction between connected neurons during development. Second, early-born neurons are more highly connected (tendency to form hubs) than later-born neurons. This indicates that the longer time frame available to them might underlie high connectivity. Both outcomes are not observed for random connection formation. The study finds that around one-third of electrically coupled long-range connections are late forming, raising the question of what mechanisms are involved in ensuring their accuracy, particularly in light of the extremely invariant connectivity observed in <em>C. elegans</em>. In conclusion, the sequence of neural network development highlights the possibility of early contact or interaction in securing long-distance and high-degree connectivity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neural", "spatio-temporal", "neuronal"], "article_id"=>139656, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sreedevi Varier", "Marcus Kaiser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Neural_Development_Features_Spatio_Temporal_Development_of_the_Caenorhabditis_elegans_Neuronal_Network/139656", "title"=>"Neural Development Features: Spatio-Temporal Development of the <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em> Neuronal Network", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:40:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807051"], "description"=>"<p>Most connected neurons are born temporally close to each other with approximately half of them appearing within 50 minutes of each other. Comparison shows that similar findings cannot be expected from random growth. (A) Mean of birth-time-differences of all pairs of connected neurons plotted against the frequency within each time interval. Mean of time-differences refers to the mean of the time differences within each bin. Curves show the actual network compared to average values and standard deviations from twenty random networks. (B) The actual distribution of the birth-time-differences within the first ten bins giving a more detailed picture of the most prevalent birth-time-differences between connected neurons. The first 50 minutes bin has the highest frequency at approximately 1400. Thus around 1400 connected neurons (∼half of all connection-pairs) form within 50 minutes of each other.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["births", "connected"], "article_id"=>477422, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sreedevi Varier", "Marcus Kaiser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_difference_in_births_of_connected_neurons_/477422", "title"=>"Time difference in births of connected neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:03:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807104"], "description"=>"<p>Note that all nodes with more than 33 edges originate early during development. As would be expected the highest connectivity neurons are in the head. The dashed line represents the regression for a linear fit to the data. (Pearson's correlation coefficient R = −0.24).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["connections", "nematode"], "article_id"=>477483, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sreedevi Varier", "Marcus Kaiser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Node_degree_the_number_of_connections_of_a_neuron_in_relation_to_its_time_of_origin_and_position_in_the_nematode_body_namely_Head_Body_or_Tail_/477483", "title"=>"Node degree, the number of connections of a neuron, in relation to its time of origin and position in the nematode body, namely, Head, Body or Tail.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:04:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807157"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Percentage of each type of connection-pairs appearing during development. Percentage is with respect to the total number of connections of that type (short, medium or long) in the adult. The black vertical dashed line represents the time of hatching. (B) Comparison with random networks, of the percentage of each category of connection-pairs appearing before hatching.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["long-range", "connection-pairs", "compared", "networks"], "article_id"=>477523, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sreedevi Varier", "Marcus Kaiser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_in_the_growth_of_short_medium_and_long_range_connection_pairs_during_development_compared_against_random_networks_discrete_time_steps_/477523", "title"=>"Variation in the growth of short, medium and long-range connection-pairs during development, compared against random networks (discrete time steps).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:05:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807295"], "description"=>"<p>Time along x-axis is represented in discrete time steps. The circuits associated with sensory feedback and survival appear sooner. Note that appearance is with respect to both neurons that are connected in the adult being born at that time, actual synaptogenesis may occur at a later time. The dashed line represents the time of hatching. (NR – Nerve Ring and VNC – Ventral Nerve Cord)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["belonging", "circuits"], "article_id"=>477668, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sreedevi Varier", "Marcus Kaiser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_progressive_appearance_of_8216_connection_pairs_8217_belonging_to_the_various_circuits_during_development_/477668", "title"=>"The progressive appearance of ‘connection-pairs’ belonging to the various circuits during development.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:07:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807224"], "description"=>"<p>Approximately a quarter of long-distance and a third of short-distance connections are coupled by gap junctions (including combination junctions). Of these around 70% appear before hatching. (A) Prevalence of gap junctions, chemical synapses and combinations of the two, in short and long distance connections. Appearance of connection-pairs linked by gap junctions and chemical synapses, for short (B) and long-length connections (C). Early and late respectively refer to time periods before and after hatching. (GJ: Gap Junction and Chemical: Chemical synapse)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junctions", "synapses"], "article_id"=>477599, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sreedevi Varier", "Marcus Kaiser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001044.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_gap_junctions_and_chemical_synapses_in_short_and_long_range_connections_/477599", "title"=>"Analysis of gap junctions and chemical synapses in short and long range connections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:06:39"}

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