Modelling Reveals Kinetic Advantages of Co-Transcriptional Splicing
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{"title"=>"Modelling reveals kinetic advantages of co-transcriptional splicing", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stuart", "last_name"=>"Aitken", "scopus_author_id"=>"8901741400"}, {"first_name"=>"Ross D.", "last_name"=>"Alexander", "scopus_author_id"=>"24723431100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean D.", "last_name"=>"Beggs", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005036159"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362834463", "sgr"=>"80055073166", "issn"=>"1553734X", "pmid"=>"22022255", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80055073166", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215", "isbn"=>"1553-734X"}, "id"=>"8df0cfdc-9e2b-31ff-9acf-364eb1085bee", "abstract"=>"Messenger RNA splicing is an essential and complex process for the removal of intron sequences. Whereas the composition of the splicing machinery is mostly known, the kinetics of splicing, the catalytic activity of splicing factors and the interdependency of transcription, splicing and mRNA 3' end formation are less well understood. We propose a stochastic model of splicing kinetics that explains data obtained from high-resolution kinetic analyses of transcription, splicing and 3' end formation during induction of an intron-containing reporter gene in budding yeast. Modelling reveals co-transcriptional splicing to be the most probable and most efficient splicing pathway for the reporter transcripts, due in part to a positive feedback mechanism for co-transcriptional second step splicing. Model comparison is used to assess the alternative representations of reactions. Modelling also indicates the functional coupling of transcription and splicing, because both the rate of initiation of transcription and the probability that step one of splicing occurs co-transcriptionally are reduced, when the second step of splicing is abolished in a mutant reporter.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/modelling-reveals-kinetic-advantages-cotranscriptional-splicing-1", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Computer Science"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366493", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366507", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366574"], "description"=>"<div><p>Messenger RNA splicing is an essential and complex process for the removal of intron sequences. Whereas the composition of the splicing machinery is mostly known, the kinetics of splicing, the catalytic activity of splicing factors and the interdependency of transcription, splicing and mRNA 3′ end formation are less well understood. We propose a stochastic model of splicing kinetics that explains data obtained from high-resolution kinetic analyses of transcription, splicing and 3′ end formation during induction of an intron-containing reporter gene in budding yeast. Modelling reveals co-transcriptional splicing to be the most probable and most efficient splicing pathway for the reporter transcripts, due in part to a positive feedback mechanism for co-transcriptional second step splicing. Model comparison is used to assess the alternative representations of reactions. Modelling also indicates the functional coupling of transcription and splicing, because both the rate of initiation of transcription and the probability that step one of splicing occurs co-transcriptionally are reduced, when the second step of splicing is abolished in a mutant reporter.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reveals", "kinetic", "advantages", "co-transcriptional", "splicing"], "article_id"=>132424, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Stuart Aitken", "Ross D. Alexander", "Jean D. Beggs"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Modelling_Reveals_Kinetic_Advantages_of_Co_Transcriptional_Splicing/132424", "title"=>"Modelling Reveals Kinetic Advantages of Co-Transcriptional Splicing", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 00:40:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724588"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic of the promoter, intron and exons of Ribo1. The positions of the RT-qPCR primers are shown by the arrow C1. (B) Induction and splicing of Ribo1 measured by RT-qPCR. (C) Induction and step 1 splicing of 3′SSRibo1. Step two of splicing is blocked and therefore mRNA is not produced. (D) Induction of 5′SSRibo1. Step one of splicing is blocked and therefore neither lariat-exon2 nor mRNA is produced. Points indicate pre-mRNA (blue), lariat-exon2 (green) and mRNA (black) data. Error bars show the standard error of three biological replicates. Solid lines are model predictions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ribo1"], "article_id"=>394950, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Stuart Aitken", "Ross D. Alexander", "Jean D. Beggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Ribo1_reporter_and_its_response_to_doxycycline_/394950", "title"=>"The Ribo1 reporter and its response to doxycycline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:22:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724795"], "description"=>"<p>A- indicates the AIC score for all species in Expt 1 (uncleaved and polyadenylated); U- AIC for uncleaved species in Expt 2; and P- AIC for polyadenylated species in Expt 2. The spectrum red to white reflects the lowest (best) to highest (worst) AIC score calculated for each species using the optimal parameter values for each pathway (rows I-VIII). Each column is normalised to have a minimum value of 0 by subtracting the minimum AIC score in the column from each entry.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aic", "scores", "lariat-exon2"], "article_id"=>395146, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Stuart Aitken", "Ross D. Alexander", "Jean D. Beggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_heat_map_of_AIC_scores_for_pre_mRNA_lariat_exon2_and_mRNA_/395146", "title"=>"A heat map of AIC scores for pre-mRNA, lariat-exon2 and mRNA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:25:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724475"], "description"=>"<p>A) Spliceosome assembly begins with the U1 and U2 snRNPs. On the post-transcriptional splicing pathway, polyadenylated pre-mRNA is spliced (step one) to produce polyadenylated lariat-exon2, from which mature mRNA results on completion of step two. B) Splicing can occur during transcript elongation on the co-transcriptional splicing pathway. The RNA polymerase Pol II (shown in green) transcribes Exon1, the Intron and Exon2 (colours of the RNA indicate the corresponding region of the DNA, and the red oval indicates the cap on the 5′ end of the RNA). Splicing can occur after the transcription of specific sequences that trigger the assembly and activation of the spliceosome on the RNA. C) The transcription and splicing pathway. A polymerase proceeds from the active promoter complex (APC) through 15 irreversible steps that represent the transcription of nucleotides in Exon 1 and the Intron up until the branchsite. From the branchsite () until the end of Exon 2, a transition can be made to the co-transcriptional splicing path as the first step of splicing can occur. The characteristics of post-transcriptional splicing steps one and two ( and ), and co-transcriptional splicing step two () are determined by model comparison.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["co-transcriptional"], "article_id"=>394838, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Stuart Aitken", "Ross D. Alexander", "Jean D. Beggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Post_transcriptional_and_co_transcriptional_splicing_/394838", "title"=>"Post-transcriptional and co-transcriptional splicing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724913"], "description"=>"<p>The alternative pathways are distinguished by the representation of co-transcriptional splicing step 2 (column Co) as a reaction that involves feedback (F), multiple steps (M) or a single step (S); the representation of post-transcriptional splicing steps 1 and 2 (column Po) as a F, M or S reaction; and their representation of elongation (column El) as a M or S process. Total AIC is calculated from all pathway model residuals in all species, and normalised by subtracting the AIC for pathway I. Akaike weights are calculated from total AIC and represent the normalised likelihood of each of the eight pathways (see <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>, and <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215#pcbi-1002215-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215#pcbi.1002215.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a> for parameter values).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathways", "i-viii", "optimal", "parameters"], "article_id"=>395268, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Stuart Aitken", "Ross D. Alexander", "Jean D. Beggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_pathways_I_VIII_using_optimal_parameters_by_AIC_/395268", "title"=>"Comparison of pathways I-VIII using optimal parameters by AIC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:27:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724703"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic of the Ribo1 gene. The positions of the alternative cDNA primers for uncleaved and cleaved/polyadenylated transcripts are shown by the C2 and oligo (dT) arrows respectively. (B) Points indicate uncleaved pre-mRNA (U-pre-mRNA), polyadenylated pre-mRNA (P-pre-mRNA) and polyadenylated lariat-exon2 (P-lariat-exon2) data. (C) Points indicate 3′ uncleaved lariat-exon2 (U-lariat-exon2), uncleaved mRNA (U-mRNA) and polyadenylated mRNA (P-mRNA) data. Error bars show the standard error of three biological replicates. Solid lines are model predictions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cleavage", "polyadenylation", "ribo1"], "article_id"=>395062, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Stuart Aitken", "Ross D. Alexander", "Jean D. Beggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002215.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_3_8242_cleavage_and_polyadenylation_of_Ribo1_measured_by_RT_qPCR_/395062", "title"=>"The 3′ cleavage and polyadenylation of Ribo1 measured by RT-qPCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:24:22"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"11", "unique-ip"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"15", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"21", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"6", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 568, 702, 818, 927, 1027, 1118, 1206, 1285, 1357, 1427, 1500, 1564, 1636, 1705, 1773, 1840, 1909, 1974, 2039, 2106, 2170, 2234, 2296, 2358, 2423, 2484, 2546, 2606, 2673, 2734, 2795, 2857, 2921, 2984, 3046, 3100]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[355, 609, 735, 840, 944, 1029, 1109, 1193, 1255, 1320, 1391, 1469, 1540, 1608, 1683, 1753, 1824, 1905, 1967, 2042, 2117, 2189, 2240, 2300, 2392, 2452, 2509, 2569, 2635, 2710, 2772, 2846, 2882, 2956, 3014, 3086, 3139]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Information technology", "average_usage"=>[285, 614, 715, 811, 935, 1030, 1122, 1184, 1247, 1336, 1409, 1489, 1554, 1612, 1666, 1720, 1780, 1836, 1878, 1921, 1968, 2013, 2066, 2125, 2196, 2252, 2312, 2369, 2418, 2474, 2571, 2642, 2723, 2802, 2871, 2948, 3011]}]}
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