Evolutionary Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Therapies Based on Conditionally Replicating Vectors
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Evolutionary Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Therapies Based on Conditionally Replicating Vectors", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ruian", "last_name"=>"Ke", "scopus_author_id"=>"55440985300"}, {"first_name"=>"James O.", "last_name"=>"Lloyd-Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602998795"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868137431", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744", "sgr"=>"84868137431", "pmid"=>"23133349", "issn"=>"1553734X", "pui"=>"365953588"}, "id"=>"d621c93b-a4df-35d2-a377-817f32e0ea39", "abstract"=>"Efforts to reduce the viral load of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during long-term treatment are challenged by the evolution of anti-viral resistance mutants. Recent studies have shown that gene therapy approaches based on conditionally replicating vectors (CRVs) could have many advantages over anti-viral drugs and other approaches to therapy, potentially including the ability to circumvent the problem of evolved resistance. However, research to date has not explored the evolutionary consequences of long-term treatment of HIV-1 infections with conditionally replicating vectors. In this study, we analyze a computational model of the within-host co-evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 and conditionally replicating vectors, using the recently proposed 'therapeutic interfering particle' as an example. The model keeps track of the stochastic process of viral mutation, and the deterministic population dynamics of T cells as well as different strains of CRV and HIV-1 particles. We show that early in the co-infection, mutant HIV-1 genotypes that escape suppression by CRV therapy appear; this is similar to the dynamics observed in drug treatments and other gene therapies. In contrast to other treatments, however, the CRV population is able to evolve and catch up with the dominant HIV-1 escape mutant and persist long-term in most cases. On evolutionary grounds, gene therapies based on CRVs appear to be a promising tool for long-term treatment of HIV-1. Our model allows us to propose design principles to optimize the efficacy of this class of gene therapies. In addition, because of the analogy between CRVs and naturally-occurring defective interfering particles, our results also shed light on the co-evolutionary dynamics of wild-type viruses and their defective interfering particles during natural infections.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evolutionary-analysis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-therapies-based-conditionally-replicating-2", "reader_count"=>17, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84868137431"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84868137431?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84868137431&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84868137431&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84868137431", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84868137431", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84868137431", "dc:title"=>"Evolutionary Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Therapies Based on Conditionally Replicating Vectors", "dc:creator"=>"Ke R.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "prism:issn"=>"1553734X", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537358", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"10", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-10-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"October 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744", "citedby-count"=>"10", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of California, Los Angeles", "affiliation-city"=>"Los Angeles", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23133349", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1002744", "source-id"=>"4000151810", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fploscompbiol%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pcbi.1002744", "share_count"=>1, "like_count"=>1, "comment_count"=>1, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>3}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"643"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"70", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"673"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"379"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"27", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"18", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"19", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"18", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"18", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"14", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"22", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"23", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"17", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"33", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"23", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"17", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"30", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"36", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"21", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"21", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"15", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"20", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"16", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553788"], "description"=>"†<p>Sensitivity analyses were performed on this parameter (<a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744#pcbi.1002744.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S1</a>). Choice of this parameter value does not affect qualitative results in this study.</p>††<p>See <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> section for the derivation of parameter values.</p>†††<p>Parameters that can be genetically designed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters"], "article_id"=>224288, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_parameters_used_in_the_model_/224288", "title"=>"Description of parameters used in the model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:11:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/294751", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/294807", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/294865", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/294903", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/294946"], "description"=>"<div><p>Efforts to reduce the viral load of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during long-term treatment are challenged by the evolution of anti-viral resistance mutants. Recent studies have shown that gene therapy approaches based on conditionally replicating vectors (CRVs) could have many advantages over anti-viral drugs and other approaches to therapy, potentially including the ability to circumvent the problem of evolved resistance. However, research to date has not explored the evolutionary consequences of long-term treatment of HIV-1 infections with conditionally replicating vectors. In this study, we analyze a computational model of the within-host co-evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 and conditionally replicating vectors, using the recently proposed ‘therapeutic interfering particle’ as an example. The model keeps track of the stochastic process of viral mutation, and the deterministic population dynamics of T cells as well as different strains of CRV and HIV-1 particles. We show that early in the co-infection, mutant HIV-1 genotypes that escape suppression by CRV therapy appear; this is similar to the dynamics observed in drug treatments and other gene therapies. In contrast to other treatments, however, the CRV population is able to evolve and catch up with the dominant HIV-1 escape mutant and persist long-term in most cases. On evolutionary grounds, gene therapies based on CRVs appear to be a promising tool for long-term treatment of HIV-1. Our model allows us to propose design principles to optimize the efficacy of this class of gene therapies. In addition, because of the analogy between CRVs and naturally-occurring defective interfering particles, our results also shed light on the co-evolutionary dynamics of wild-type viruses and their defective interfering particles during natural infections.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evolutionary", "immunodeficiency", "therapies", "based", "conditionally", "replicating", "vectors"], "article_id"=>118043, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evolutionary_Analysis_of_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus_Type_1_Therapies_Based_on_Conditionally_Replicating_Vectors__/118043", "title"=>"Evolutionary Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Therapies Based on Conditionally Replicating Vectors", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 02:14:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553759"], "description"=>"<p>Optimal parameter values for HIV-1 fitness and TIP fitness, respectively, in the mutant invasibility models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameter", "hiv-1", "mutant", "invasibility"], "article_id"=>224257, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Optimal_parameter_values_for_HIV_1_fitness_and_TIP_fitness_respectively_in_the_mutant_invasibility_models_/224257", "title"=>"Optimal parameter values for HIV-1 fitness and TIP fitness, respectively, in the mutant invasibility models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:10:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553497"], "description"=>"<p>We tested model sensitivity to the dimension of genome space (i.e. the number of values each genome site could have; denoted dimG) and the genome length (i.e. the number of sites corresponding to each parameter. The co-evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 and TIP were characterized by 7 attributes: the mean HIV-1 and TIP viral loads (panel (A) and (B)) over the whole simulation (3000 days), the lengths of the PR phase and the ES phase (panel (C) and (D)), and the time-average mean values of <i>P</i>, <i>A</i> and <i>D</i> of the population of dually infected cells (panel (E), (F) and (G)) during the ‘set-point’ phase. Data points and error bars correspond to the mean and standard deviation of 100 realizations of the model for those parameter values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["co-evolutionary", "qualitatively", "robust", "genome"], "article_id"=>223996, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_co_evolutionary_dynamics_are_qualitatively_robust_to_variation_in_genome_size_and_dimension_/223996", "title"=>"The co-evolutionary dynamics are qualitatively robust to variation in genome size and dimension.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:06:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553599"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Different assumptions of genotype-phenotype mapping, showing how the production ratio parameter <i>P</i> depends on the proportion of sites that match on the relevant genome regions G<sub>HP</sub> and G<sub>TP</sub>. The function form is . The values of the exponential constant are: <i>h = 0.5</i> for the concave-down curve in blue, <i>h = 1</i> for the straight line in red, <i>h = 2</i> for the concave-up curve in green. The black dotted line shows the minimum <i>P</i> value required for mutant TIP to invade the system (invasion threshold, <i>P</i><sub>threshold</sub>). (<b>B</b>) The probability that TIP population was eliminated, under different assumptions of genotype-phenotype mapping (color-coding is same with (A)) for different lengths of the representative genome for parameter <i>P</i>. Each bar reflects the outcome of 100 runs of the multi-strain model. (<b>C</b>) A representative model realization showing the elimination of TIP. In this model, only variations in <i>P</i> are considered with parameters <i>A = 1</i> and <i>D = 0</i> fixed for all cells, and the length of representative genome is 4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genotype-phenotype"], "article_id"=>224106, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_alternative_genotype_phenotype_mappings_/224106", "title"=>"Effects of alternative genotype-phenotype mappings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:08:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553273"], "description"=>"<p>At the within-host level, the uninfected CD4<sup>+</sup> T cell (‘U’) can be infected by one of <i>m</i> HIV-1 strains or one of <i>n</i> TIP strains, becoming an HIV-1 infected cell (‘H<sub>i</sub>’, <i>i = 0,1,..m</i>) or a TIP infected cell (‘T<sub>j</sub>’, <i>j = 0,1,…n</i>), respectively. A TIP infected cell can be further infected by one of <i>m</i> HIV-1 strains, resulting in <i>m*n</i> different types of dually infected T cells (‘M<sub>ij</sub>’).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["schematic", "multi-strain", "hiv-1", "within-host"], "article_id"=>223767, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_schematic_of_the_multi_strain_HIV_1_and_TIP_system_at_the_within_host_level_/223767", "title"=>"A schematic of the multi-strain HIV-1 and TIP system at the within-host level.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:02:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553702"], "description"=>"<p>The surface shows the value of the effective reproductive number for an HIV-1 mutant with the given parameters invading a system with wild-type HIV-1 and TIP at equilibrium. The white line shows the combinations of parameters that give R<sub>eff,H</sub> = 1. The shaded area shows parameter regions where the mutant HIV-1 has a higher fitness than the wild-type HIV-1 (R<sub>eff,H</sub>>1). Routes 1 and 2 (blue and red, respectively) show two different mutational trajectories by which the ‘full-escape’ mutant could be generated; route 2 is much less likely to be completed because it includes a fitness valley with lower fitness than the wild-type strain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trade-off", "hiv-1", "decreasing", "leads", "viral"], "article_id"=>224196, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fitness_trade_off_for_HIV_1_if_decreasing_the_production_ratio_P_leads_to_reduction_in_viral_infectivity_/224196", "title"=>"The fitness trade-off for HIV-1 if decreasing the production ratio, <i>P</i>, leads to reduction in viral infectivity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553394"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) A schematic for the genotype-phenotype mapping in a dually infected T cell. The values of parameters <i>P</i> and <i>D</i> are calculated by comparing the appropriate genome regions of HIV-1 (G<sub>H,P</sub> and G<sub>H,D</sub>, respectively) with the corresponding genome regions of TIP (G<sub>T,P</sub> and G<sub>T,D</sub>, respectively). The parameter <i>A</i> is calculated by comparing the appropriate genome region of HIV-1 (G<sub>H,A</sub>) to a genome sequence that allows HIV-1 gRNA to replicate at the maximal rate (G<sub>Max</sub>). (<b>B</b>) A typical realization of the co-evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 and TIP. The dynamics can be broken into three phases depending on the dominant HIV-1 strain: the ‘preliminary’ phase (PR) dominated by the wild-type HIV-1 strain, the ‘escape’ phase (ES) dominated by the full-escape mutant, and the ‘set-point’ phase (SP) dominated by the match-escape pairs described in the text. The top two panels show the viral loads per µL (in log scale) for each HIV-1 strain and each TIP strain, respectively. The curve for each strain is color-coded according to their genetic distance to the wild-type strain: Blue, cyan, red, green, black denote the wild-type and the mutants with one-, two-, three-point mutations and the full-escape mutants, respectively. The bottom three panels show the mean values of parameter <i>P</i>, <i>A</i> and <i>D</i> across the population of dually infected cells at each point in time. For these simulations, the genome was modeled as a binary string, and the length of the genome region corresponding to each parameter was 4 sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv-1"], "article_id"=>223905, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Co_evolutionary_dynamics_of_HIV_1_and_TIP_/223905", "title"=>"Co-evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1 and TIP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553335"], "description"=>"<p>The fitness was calculated as the effective reproduction number of the mutant when it is introduced into a host with the wild-type HIV-1 and the wild-type TIP at equilibrium. (<b>A</b>) The invasion fitness of HIV-1 mutants (R<sub>eff,H</sub>) with different values of the HIV-1 replication coefficient, <i>A</i>, and the fraction of inhibition, <i>D</i>. Positive values of <i>D</i> correspond to inhibition of HIV-1 gRNA production, while negative values correspond to upregulation. (<b>B</b>) The invasion fitness of HIV-1 mutants (R<sub>eff,H</sub>) with different values of the fraction of inhibition, <i>D</i>, and production ratio, <i>P</i>. (<b>C</b>) The invasion fitness of TIP mutants (R<sub>eff,T</sub>) with different values of the fraction of inhibition, <i>D</i>, and production ratio, <i>P</i>. In all three plots, two parameter values were varied while keeping the third one fixed; baseline values are <i>P</i> = 30, <i>D</i> = 0, <i>A</i> = 1. Lines of white stars in the plots show the maximal fitness for one parameter while other parameter values are fixed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landscapes", "hiv-1", "mutants", "3-strain"], "article_id"=>223826, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Ruian Ke", "James O. Lloyd-Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002744.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fitness_landscapes_for_HIV_1_and_TIP_mutants_in_the_3_strain_8216_mutant_invasion_8217_models_/223826", "title"=>"The fitness landscapes for HIV-1 and TIP mutants in the 3-strain ‘mutant invasion’ models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:03:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[366, 574, 695, 795, 885, 973, 1063, 1148, 1233, 1319, 1389, 1459, 1533, 1611, 1685, 1754, 1820, 1882, 1937, 2001, 2071, 2129, 2219, 2273, 2335]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[333, 576, 707, 814, 908, 1004, 1104, 1197, 1280, 1370, 1449, 1531, 1603, 1673, 1742, 1817, 1886, 1954, 2025, 2098, 2171, 2234, 2304, 2365, 2431]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Clinical genetics", "average_usage"=>[331, 568, 699, 797, 892, 980, 1075, 1204, 1300, 1387, 1461, 1523, 1582, 1621, 1701, 1783, 1848, 1918, 1988, 2031, 2112, 2216, 2297, 2354, 2418]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[321, 553, 683, 785, 880, 973, 1072, 1162, 1249, 1336, 1425, 1504, 1574, 1642, 1711, 1785, 1852, 1923, 1987, 2050, 2129, 2192, 2259, 2325, 2393]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts