Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)
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{"title"=>"Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zhonghua", "last_name"=>"Xu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55513980900"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott C.", "last_name"=>"Lenaghan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6503971489"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin E.", "last_name"=>"Reese", "scopus_author_id"=>"35110492700"}, {"first_name"=>"Xinghua", "last_name"=>"Jia", "scopus_author_id"=>"36177631400"}, {"first_name"=>"Mingjun", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55572438000"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1553734X", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870653338", "pui"=>"366216183", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792", "isbn"=>"1553-7358 (Electronic)\\r1553-734X (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84870653338", "pmid"=>"23209398"}, "id"=>"9448e1e4-cf58-37cb-adf0-051a62882af0", "abstract"=>"Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/experimental-studies-dynamics-modeling-analysis-swimming-diving-whirligig-beetles-coleoptera-gyrinid", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>5, "Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/533980"], "description"=>"<p>As indicated above each frame, the beating patterns that generated a true linear path were those where the right and left middle legs (<i>m<sub>r</sub></i>+<i>m<sub>l</sub></i>), hind legs (<i>h<sub>r</sub></i>+<i>h<sub>l</sub></i>), and hind followed by middle legs (<i>h<sub>r</sub></i>+<i>h<sub>l</sub></i>, <i>m<sub>r</sub></i>+<i>m<sub>l</sub></i>) beat simultaneously. In these three cases, the total distance traveled was equal to Δy. For the other three cases where the middle right and left legs (<i>m<sub>r</sub></i>, <i>m<sub>l</sub></i>) and the hind right and left legs (<i>h<sub>r</sub></i>, <i>h<sub>l</sub></i>) beat alternately, and the simultaneous beating of the hind legs followed by the beating of a middle leg (<i>h<sub>r</sub></i>+<i>h<sub>l</sub></i>, <i>m<sub>r</sub></i>, <i>h<sub>r</sub></i>+<i>h<sub>l</sub></i>, <i>m<sub>l</sub></i>) the net forward distance traveled was calculated from a line between the start and end point. Numerical analysis of these trajectories is shown in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792#pcbi-1002792-t004\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 4</b></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trajectories"], "article_id"=>204483, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Net_forward_trajectories_from_swimming_simulations_/204483", "title"=>"Net forward trajectories from swimming simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:14:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534420"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis of circling trajectories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["circling"], "article_id"=>204918, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_circling_trajectories_/204918", "title"=>"Analysis of circling trajectories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:21:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534457"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis of forward trajectories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>204958, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_forward_trajectories_/204958", "title"=>"Analysis of forward trajectories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:22:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/533661"], "description"=>"<p>(A) SEM micrograph of the middle leg showing the folded swimming laminae. On the middle leg, the laminae are predominately on the outer surface. (B) SEM micrograph of the hind leg demonstrating the presence of laminae on both the inner and outer surface of the rowing blade. (C) SEM micrograph showing the significantly altered morphology of the foreleg. (D) Image of the point of attachment of a leg. The inset demonstrates the location of the micrograph relative to the beetle's body, with the area analyzed highlighted by the red box. SEM micrographs were used to measure the length (<i>L<sub>laminae</sub></i>) and width (<i>W<sub>laminae</sub></i>) of the laminae for calculation of the effective are of the hind (<i>S<sub>h+</sub></i>) and middle legs (<i>S<sub>m+</sub></i>) with laminae extended. In all micrographs, the scale bar = 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sem", "micrographs", "legs"], "article_id"=>204152, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_SEM_micrographs_of_the_legs_of_Gyrinus_/204152", "title"=>"The SEM micrographs of the legs of <i>Gyrinus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:09:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287705", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287739", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287775", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287829", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288036", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/288115"], "description"=>"<div><p>Whirligig beetles (<em>Coleoptera</em>, <em>Gyrinidae</em>) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "modeling", "diving", "whirligig", "beetles"], "article_id"=>116675, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Experimental_Studies_and_Dynamics_Modeling_Analysis_of_the_Swimming_and_Diving_of_Whirligig_Beetles_Coleoptera_Gyrinidae__/116675", "title"=>"Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (<em>Coleoptera:</em> <em>Gyrinidae</em>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:51:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534196"], "description"=>"<p>Simulation results of diving with different initial conditions. The initial values of forward speed (0.17 m/s), angular velocity of the body (−333°/s), tilt angle of the body (7°), striking speed of the hind legs (0.18 m/s), and striking speed of the middle legs (0.14 m/s), were varied ±30% to determine the effect on the diving trajectory. Each of these terms was varied ±30%, with the other terms held constant, to determine their effects on the overall trajectory. The values generated the closest diving trajectory as observed in the experimental studies was with an initial speed of 0.17 m/s, angular velocity of −333°/s, tilt angle of −7°, hind leg speed of 0.18 m/s, and middle leg speed of 0.14 m/s.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diving"], "article_id"=>204692, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_from_the_diving_simulations_/204692", "title"=>"Results from the diving simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:18:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534077"], "description"=>"<p>The circular trajectories obtained from the swimming simulations are illustrated above. Based on the simulations, only three beating patterns stabilized to form a consistent circular trajectory, the middle right leg only (<i>m<sub>r</sub></i>), the middle right followed by the hind right (<i>m<sub>r</sub></i>, <i>h<sub>r</sub></i>), and the middle right followed by the simultaneous beating of the hind legs (<i>m<sub>r</sub></i>, <i>h<sub>r</sub></i>+<i>h<sub>l</sub></i>). The other beating patterns analyzed produced unstable trajectories, resulting in trajectories not observed in nature. Numerical analysis of the circular swimming trajectories is shown in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792#pcbi-1002792-t005\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 5</b></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trajectories"], "article_id"=>204574, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Circling_trajectories_from_swimming_simulations_/204574", "title"=>"Circling trajectories from swimming simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:16:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534394"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters obtained from micrographs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>204886, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_obtained_from_micrographs_/204886", "title"=>"Parameters obtained from micrographs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/533528"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Top-down view of the body showing key parameters for swimming. (B&C) Side view of the body on the surface of water (indicated by blue line) showing both the maximum and minimum position of the legs during a leg beat when diving. In all of the above diagrams, the hind legs are indicated by the subscript <i>h</i>, while the middle legs are indicated by the subscript <i>m</i>. Using this notation, the length of the hind legs is <i>L<sub>h</sub></i>, etc. The direction of motion of the beetle is indicated by an arrow showing the forward velocity (<i>U<sub>y</sub></i>). The dashed line in B&C indicates the submerged portion of the beetle. All other parameters designations are listed in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792#pcbi-1002792-t001\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Tables 1</b></a><b>–</b><a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792#pcbi-1002792-t002\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792#pcbi-1002792-t003\" target=\"_blank\"><b>3</b></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["demonstrating", "parameter", "was"], "article_id"=>204023, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_demonstrating_how_each_parameter_was_calculated_/204023", "title"=>"Diagram demonstrating how each parameter was calculated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:07:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534332"], "description"=>"<p>Diving parameters obtained from high-speed video analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters", "high-speed"], "article_id"=>204824, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diving_parameters_obtained_from_high_speed_video_analysis_/204824", "title"=>"Diving parameters obtained from high-speed video analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:20:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/533779"], "description"=>"<p>In frames 1–5, only the hind leg is visible, with the middle leg emerging in frame 6. In frames 6–10 it is possible to observe the beating of both legs. During the course of one leg stroke, the effective area of the legs decreases in the horizontal plane, indicating that the effective area for forward propelling increases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hind"], "article_id"=>204276, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_sequence_of_one_hind_leg_stroke_/204276", "title"=>"The sequence of one hind leg stroke.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:11:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/533886"], "description"=>"<p>This image shows the complete diving process, from the 83 ms pre-diving to the 89 ms diving process. To illustrate the diving motion, images captured every 17 ms are overlaid onto each other to show the complete diving motion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images", "diving"], "article_id"=>204378, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_lapse_images_of_the_diving_process_/204378", "title"=>"Time-lapse images of the diving process.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:12:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/533431"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Dorsal view of the beetle, demonstrating the overall shape. (B) Ventral view of the beetle showing the fore, middle and hind legs. (C&D) Micrographs of dissected middle right (C) and left (D) legs. (E&F) Micrographs of dissected hind right (E) and left (F) legs. Measurements of leg length (<i>L<sub>h</sub></i> and <i>L<sub>m</sub></i>) and area (<i>S<sub>h−</sub></i> and <i>S<sub>m−</sub></i>) were made from micrographs of dissected legs. The scale bars are 1 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["micrographs", "whirligig"], "article_id"=>203926, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Light_micrographs_of_the_whirligig_beetle_/203926", "title"=>"Light micrographs of the whirligig beetle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:05:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/534367"], "description"=>"<p>Swimming parameters obtained from high-speed video analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters", "high-speed"], "article_id"=>204862, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Zhonghua Xu", "Scott C. Lenaghan", "Benjamin E. Reese", "Xinghua Jia", "Mingjun Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002792.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Swimming_parameters_obtained_from_high_speed_video_analysis_/204862", "title"=>"Swimming parameters obtained from high-speed video analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:21:02"}

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Relative Metric

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