Do Ants Need to Estimate the Geometrical Properties of Trail Bifurcations to Find an Efficient Route? A Swarm Robotics Test Bed
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{"title"=>"Do Ants Need to Estimate the Geometrical Properties of Trail Bifurcations to Find an Efficient Route? A Swarm Robotics Test Bed", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Garnier", "scopus_author_id"=>"13006090300"}, {"first_name"=>"Maud", "last_name"=>"Combe", "scopus_author_id"=>"23388516900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian", "last_name"=>"Jost", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005169161"}, {"first_name"=>"Guy", "last_name"=>"Theraulaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004591018"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368694285", "sgr"=>"84875968929", "pmid"=>"23555202", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875968929", "isbn"=>"1553-7358 (Electronic)\\r1553-734X (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903", "issn"=>"1553734X"}, "id"=>"7b0ddc63-5aab-3bb3-8eeb-3721549ab23c", "abstract"=>"Interactions between individuals and the structure of their environment play a crucial role in shaping self-organized collective behaviors. 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We programmed them only to lay down and follow light trails, avoid obstacles and move according to a correlated random walk, but not to use more sophisticated orientation methods. We recorded the behavior of the robots in networks of galleries presenting either only symmetrical bifurcations or a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical bifurcations. Individual robots displayed the same pattern of branch choice as individual ants when crossing a bifurcation, suggesting that ants do not actually measure the geometry of the bifurcations when travelling along a pheromone trail. Finally at the collective level, the group of robots was more likely to select one of the possible shorter paths between two designated areas when moving in an asymmetrical network, as observed in ants. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1000903"], "description"=>"<div><p>Interactions between individuals and the structure of their environment play a crucial role in shaping self-organized collective behaviors. Recent studies have shown that ants crossing asymmetrical bifurcations in a network of galleries tend to follow the branch that deviates the least from their incoming direction. At the collective level, the combination of this tendency and the pheromone-based recruitment results in a greater likelihood of selecting the shortest path between the colony's nest and a food source in a network containing asymmetrical bifurcations. It was not clear however what the origin of this behavioral bias is. Here we propose that it results from a simple interaction between the behavior of the ants and the geometry of the network, and that it does not require the ability to measure the angle of the bifurcation. We tested this hypothesis using groups of ant-like robots whose perceptual and cognitive abilities can be fully specified. We programmed them only to lay down and follow light trails, avoid obstacles and move according to a correlated random walk, but not to use more sophisticated orientation methods. We recorded the behavior of the robots in networks of galleries presenting either only symmetrical bifurcations or a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical bifurcations. Individual robots displayed the same pattern of branch choice as individual ants when crossing a bifurcation, suggesting that ants do not actually measure the geometry of the bifurcations when travelling along a pheromone trail. Finally at the collective level, the group of robots was more likely to select one of the possible shorter paths between two designated areas when moving in an asymmetrical network, as observed in ants. This study reveals the importance of the shape of trail networks for foraging in ants and emphasizes the underestimated role of the geometrical properties of transportation networks in general.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ants", "geometrical", "bifurcations", "swarm", "robotics"], "article_id"=>662412, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Simon Garnier", "Maud Combe", "Christian Jost", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>206, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Do_Ants_Need_to_Estimate_the_Geometrical_Properties_of_Trail_Bifurcations_to_Find_an_Efficient_Route_A_Swarm_Robotics_Test_Bed_/662412", "title"=>"Do Ants Need to Estimate the Geometrical Properties of Trail Bifurcations to Find an Efficient Route? A Swarm Robotics Test Bed", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 13:29:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1000900"], "description"=>"<p>The foraging efficiency is measured as the number of successful trips, i.e. the number of times a robot has returned to the starting area after visiting the target area. Each boxplot represents the values for 1000 simulation runs. The black horizontal bar in each boxplot represents the median; the notches around the median represent the confidence interval of the median. The four tested conditions were: configuration S without pheromone deposition (S-P); configuration A without pheromone deposition (A-P); configuration S with pheromone deposition (S+P); configuration A with pheromone deposition (A+P).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["robots", "simulations"], "article_id"=>662409, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Simon Garnier", "Maud Combe", "Christian Jost", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Foraging_efficiency_of_the_robots_as_given_by_simulations_of_our_model_/662409", "title"=>"Foraging efficiency of the robots as given by simulations of our model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 13:27:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1000885"], "description"=>"<p>The left column corresponds to three-loop networks used in our robotic experiments, the right column to four-loop networks used in ant experiments in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903#pcbi.1002903-Garnier1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>. The top row corresponds to the symmetrical (S) configuration of each network, the bottom row to their asymmetrical (A) configuration. S marks the starting area, T the target area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>662394, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Simon Garnier", "Maud Combe", "Christian Jost", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_description_of_the_experimental_networks_/662394", "title"=>"Schematic description of the experimental networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 13:24:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1000897"], "description"=>"<p>The top row (a–c) corresponds to the robotics experiments (15 experimental replicates with each network configuration) with a three-loop network presented in this article. The bottom row (d–f) corresponds to the experiments (10 experimental replicates with each network configuration) performed with ant colonies in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903#pcbi.1002903-Garnier1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a> with a four-loop network and is reproduced here for purpose of qualitative comparison. (a & d) Number of network segments used by robots/ants as a function of time. The black line represents the mean value with its standard error area band (light gray for configuration S, dark gray for configuration A). Note the different time scales between robot and ant experiments. (b & e) Number of selection events observed over the course of the experiments. Each bar represents the boxplot for each network configuration. (c & f) Duration of selection events by path category and by network configuration. The dashed line represents mean values (+/− sem) obtained with the network in configuration S, the continuous line represents mean values (+/− sem) obtained with the network in configuration A. On the x axis, numbers represent the length of the selected path.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["three-loop"], "article_id"=>662406, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Simon Garnier", "Maud Combe", "Christian Jost", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Collective_path_selection_results_for_the_three_loop_networks_/662406", "title"=>"Collective path selection results for the three-loop networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 13:27:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1000894"], "description"=>"<p>In white, proportion of robots (with confidence intervals) selecting the most direct branch when reaching an asymmetrical bifurcation. In gray, proportion of ants selecting the most direct branch (data from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903#pcbi.1002903-Garnier1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>662403, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Simon Garnier", "Maud Combe", "Christian Jost", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_with_the_behavior_of_ants_/662403", "title"=>"Comparison with the behavior of ants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 13:26:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1000887"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Two Alice robots facing each other, with (left) and without (right) the additional module for light detection. (b) Three Alice robots pursuing a light trail. (c) Typical time course of an experiment with three loops (access to a fourth loop that is visible had been blocked) and symmetrical bifurcations. The letter S indicates the starting area of the network where the robots are placed at the beginning of the experiment. The letter T indicates the target area. The top three pictures represent 3 snapshots of an experiment where a group of 10 robots selects the shortest path.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>662396, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Simon Garnier", "Maud Combe", "Christian Jost", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pictures_of_the_experimental_setup_/662396", "title"=>"Pictures of the experimental setup.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 13:24:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1000890"], "description"=>"<p>The x-axis represents the time from the beginning of the experiment. The y-axis represents the length of the path most used by the robots at a given time during the experiment. It is of 4, 6, 8 or 10 segments when the path is connected to the starting and the target areas; L when the path is connected to the starting or the target area only and forms a loop; N when the path is only connected to the starting or the target area and does not form a loop. In this example, there was no path selected during the first 60 seconds of the experiment (event 1), and then the group used a path with 8 segments until about 200 seconds (event 2), etc.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biotechnology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>662399, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Simon Garnier", "Maud Combe", "Christian Jost", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002903.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_a_time_sequence_showing_6_different_path_selection_events_numbered_1_to_6_at_the_beginning_of_an_experiment_/662399", "title"=>"Example of a time sequence showing 6 different path selection events (numbered 1 to 6) at the beginning of an experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-29 13:25:42"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}]}
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