A Simple Rule for Dendritic Spine and Axonal Bouton Formation Can Account for Cortical Reorganization after Focal Retinal Lesions
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A Simple Rule for Dendritic Spine and Axonal Bouton Formation Can Account for Cortical Reorganization after Focal Retinal Lesions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Markus", "last_name"=>"Butz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003506368"}, {"first_name"=>"Arjen", "last_name"=>"van Ooyen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56207446800"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1553734X", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84887274296", "pui"=>"370217845", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259", "isbn"=>"1553-7358 (Electronic)\\r1553-734X (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84887274296", "pmid"=>"24130472"}, "id"=>"c31bbec5-0ad7-3f94-a01e-33c0452256dd", "abstract"=>"Lasting alterations in sensory input trigger massive structural and functional adaptations in cortical networks. The principles governing these experience-dependent changes are, however, poorly understood. Here, we examine whether a simple rule based on the neurons' need for homeostasis in electrical activity may serve as driving force for cortical reorganization. According to this rule, a neuron creates new spines and boutons when its level of electrical activity is below a homeostatic set-point and decreases the number of spines and boutons when its activity exceeds this set-point. In addition, neurons need a minimum level of activity to form spines and boutons. Spine and bouton formation depends solely on the neuron's own activity level, and synapses are formed by merging spines and boutons independently of activity. Using a novel computational model, we show that this simple growth rule produces neuron and network changes as observed in the visual cortex after focal retinal lesions. In the model, as in the cortex, the turnover of dendritic spines was increased strongest in the center of the lesion projection zone, while axonal boutons displayed a marked overshoot followed by pruning. Moreover, the decrease in external input was compensated for by the formation of new horizontal connections, which caused a retinotopic remapping. Homeostatic regulation may provide a unifying framework for understanding cortical reorganization, including network repair in degenerative diseases or following focal stroke.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/simple-rule-dendritic-spine-axonal-bouton-formation-account-cortical-reorganization-after-focal-reti", "reader_count"=>102, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>12, "Engineering"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>17, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>9, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>9}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>17}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>12}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "New Zealand"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Belarus"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>10, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84887274296"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84887274296?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84887274296&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84887274296&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84887274296", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84887274296", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84887274296", "dc:title"=>"A Simple Rule for Dendritic Spine and Axonal Bouton Formation Can Account for Cortical Reorganization after Focal Retinal Lesions", "dc:creator"=>"Butz M.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "prism:issn"=>"1553734X", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537358", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"10", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-10-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"October 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259", "citedby-count"=>"40", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ)", "affiliation-city"=>"Jülich", "affiliation-country"=>"Germany"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24130472", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1003259", "source-id"=>"4000151810", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fploscompbiol%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pcbi.1003259", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"387", "xml_views"=>"20", "html_views"=>"1914"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"1220"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"224"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"291"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"209"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"255"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"310"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"251"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"204"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"165"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"143"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"212"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"144"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"106", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"208"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"129"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"67", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"148"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"143"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"148"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"87", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"64", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"67", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232818"], "description"=>"<p>The model is organized as a two-dimensional recurrent network resembling the canonical cortical microcircuit. A) The cortical network consists of (excitatory) pyramidal cells (red) and inhibitory interneurons (blue). Neurons receive input from other neurons in the cortex and external input from the eye via the thalamus. A circumscribed loss of external input defines the lesion projection zone, which can be further subdivided into the center and the border. The peri-LPZ consists of neurons that surround the LPZ. Neurons are interconnected by directed synapses that have a fixed strength. The linewidth indicates the number of connections between pairs of neurons. B) Synapses consist of re-combinable axonal (‘plugs’) and dendritic elements (‘sockets’), enabling synapse formation, deletion and rewiring. Synaptic elements are either excitatory (red) or inhibitory (blue). Complementary axonal and dendritic elements merge to form synapses. The probability that a synapse is formed between two neurons depends on the number of elements that each neuron has and on the Euclidean distance between the neurons. That is, synapse formation from neuron 3 to 2 with distance is more likely than from neuron 1 to 2 with distance , given that and neurons 1 and 3 have equal numbers of vacant axonal elements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasticity"], "article_id"=>819908, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_our_structural_plasticity_model_/819908", "title"=>"Schematic representation of our <i>structural plasticity model</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232819"], "description"=>"<p>Parameter is the center and is the width of the Gaussian curve. Parameters and are the intersections with the x-axis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["graph", "depicts", "giving", "synaptic", "elements", "calcium"], "article_id"=>819909, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_graph_depicts_the_principal_shape_of_the_growth_curve_giving_the_change_in_each_type_of_synaptic_elements_as_a_function_of_the_calcium_concentration_/819909", "title"=>"The graph depicts the principal shape of the growth curve, giving the change in each type of synaptic elements as a function of the calcium concentration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232820"], "description"=>"<p>A) Color-labeled are those synaptic connections that are newly formed after the lesion and impinge on neurons anywhere in the LPZ. Pre-existing and other connections are in gray, covering almost the entire background. Connections originating from neurons in the peri-LPZ are labeled green, from the border of the LPZ yellow and from the center blue. In the early phase, new connections are mainly formed from the peri-LPZ to the border of the LPZ. Due to fluctuations in activity, transient connections may also occur in the border or the center but usually disappear again later. In the middle phase, connections are formed from the border to the center, and finally in the late phase connections are added that originate from the center. B) In the early phase, new connections raise the activity in the border of the LPZ and subsequently in the center. Depending on the size of the LPZ, neurons in the center may fail to recover. Activities of individual neurons are interpolated to show the spatial distribution of activity in the LPZ and peri-LPZ. A) and B) are close-ups of the combined area of the LPZ and peri-LPZ. The relative size of the LPZ (border: orange; center: blue) and the peri-LPZ (green) to the entire network (gray) is indicated by the vertical and horizontal bars next to the upper right panel. Total number of neurons (excitatory and inhibitory): LPZ: 62 neurons; peri-LPZ: 71 neurons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rewiring", "leads", "sequential"], "article_id"=>819910, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_rewiring_in_the_model_leads_to_a_sequential_increase_in_electrical_activity_from_the_border_to_the_center_of_the_LPZ_/819910", "title"=>"Network rewiring in the model leads to a sequential increase in electrical activity from the border to the center of the LPZ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232821"], "description"=>"<p>Net changes are measured as loss or gain in A) axonal and B) dendritic elements on excitatory neurons between two time steps divided by the initial number of synaptic elements before the lesion. Also shown are the average number of synaptic elements per excitatory neuron. C) Total number of excitatory synapses impinging on excitatory neurons in the peri-LPZ, in the border and in the center of the LPZ. D) Increase in average electrical activity (represented by calcium concentration) over time of all neurons in the peri-LPZ, in the border and in the center of the LPZ. All measurements for the peri-LPZ are labeled green, for the border orange, for the center blue and for controls brown. All measurements are averaged over runs; error bars: SD. Bars in (A) indicate the early, middle and late phase after lesion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rules", "axonal", "dendritic"], "article_id"=>819911, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Local_growth_rules_give_rise_to_a_change_in_the_number_of_axonal_and_dendritic_elements_which_is_crucial_for_network_repair_/819911", "title"=>"Local growth rules give rise to a change in the number of axonal and dendritic elements, which is crucial for network repair.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232822"], "description"=>"<p>For growth rules with low and high (here and ), cooperative effects emerge between the peri-LPZ and LPZ that lead to a significant increase in activity in the center and the border of the LPZ. During the early phase (A), activities and calcium concentrations in the LPZ are higher than but lower than , leading to dendritic element formation and reduction of axonal elements. In the middle phase (B), activities in the border region of the LPZ now exceed and cells in the border form axonal elements, too. In the late phase (C), all activities have returned close to the set-point . Growth curves for axonal elements are drawn in red and for dendritic elements in black. The cyan spot on the x-axis indicates the set-point . The colored bars schematically indicate the range of calcium concentration in the peri-LPZ (green), the border of the LPZ (orange), and the center of the LPZ (blue). Colored bars have transparent fillings to show overlaps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lpz", "peri-lpz"], "article_id"=>819912, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_electrical_activity_in_the_LPZ_and_peri_LPZ_account_for_network_repair_/819912", "title"=>"Differences in electrical activity in the LPZ and peri-LPZ account for network repair.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232825"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows the survival fraction rates, accumulative addition rates and turnover rates of dendritic elements and dendritic spines on excitatory neurons A) in the model and B) in the experiment (experimental data in B reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature Neuroscience: Keck T et al. (2008) Massive restructuring of neuronal circuits during functional reorganization of adult visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 11:1162–1167, copyright 2008). Error bars in A) SD and in B) (experimental data:) SEM with center of LPZ: cells; border of LPZ: cells; control: cells. Color code: center of the LPZ: blue; border of the LPZ: orange; control: brown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dendritic", "elements", "plasticity", "similarities", "cortex", "mice", "focal", "retinal"], "article_id"=>819915, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_dynamic_changes_in_dendritic_elements_in_the_structural_plasticity_model_show_remarkable_similarities_to_the_spine_dynamics_in_the_visual_cortex_of_mice_after_focal_retinal_lesions_/819915", "title"=>"The dynamic changes in dendritic elements in the <i>structural plasticity model</i> show remarkable similarities to the spine dynamics in the visual cortex of mice after focal retinal lesions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232827"], "description"=>"<p>A) The overshoot in the model is caused by axonal elements from neurons in the peri-LPZ (green line; brown: control). All measurements are averaged over runs; error bars: SD. B) Although the available experimental data is very limited, there are two examples from an anterograde tracer study (labeling neurons in the peri-LPZ and measuring windows in the LPZ) in monkeys after focal retinal lesions that show a clear overshoot in axonal bouton densities of excitatory neurons. Green squares indicate points of measurement. Modified from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi.1003259-Yamahachi1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shows", "overshoot", "axonal", "elements", "excitatory", "neurons", "compared"], "article_id"=>819917, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_model_shows_a_significant_overshoot_in_axonal_elements_on_excitatory_neurons_over_time_following_a_lesion_as_compared_with_the_control_situation_without_a_lesion_/819917", "title"=>"The model shows a significant overshoot in axonal elements on excitatory neurons over time following a lesion, as compared with the control situation without a lesion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232831"], "description"=>"<p>A) In the model, the color code represents the spatial location of the input that the so-colored neuron was strongest responding to before the lesion (left column). The LPZ appears black early after the lesion (middle column), since neurons in the LPZ are deprived of any external input and horizontal connections are not strong enough to cause supra-threshold activation. Late after the lesion (right column), increased horizontal input to the LPZ contributed to an enlargement of representations from the peri-LPZ into the LPZ and thereby to a ‘filling’ of the LPZ with adjacent representations. Note the color gradients from top to bottom for all six columns in each of the three panels in A. Also compare <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi.1003259.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S1</a>. B) Retinotopic remapping in mice before lesion (left panel), at day 7 (middle panel) and at day 17 (right panel). (Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature Neuroscience: Keck T et al. (2008) Massive restructuring of neuronal circuits during functional reorganization of adult visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 11:1162–1167, copyright 2008). In V1 of the mouse cortex, colors visualize the spatial position of the retinal input. Areas are colored according to which input they respond most strongly to. White dashed lines indicate the LPZ. Scale bar represents .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["remapping", "spatial"], "article_id"=>819921, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_recovery_is_associated_with_a_remapping_of_the_initial_spatial_input_representation_/819921", "title"=>"Network recovery is associated with a remapping of the initial spatial input representation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232833"], "description"=>"<p>New horizontal connections form between neurons in the peri-LPZ and the border of the LPZ as well as between the border and the center of the LPZ. In the model, these new synapses are the source for functional reorganization comparable to cortical retinotopic remapping. A) Network before lesion. Colors indicate spatial locations in an input layer like the retina (not explicitly modelled) and the strongest neuronal response in the model network or the primary visual cortex. Vertical input from the eye is in black, horizontal recurrent connections are in gray. Linewidth indicates the number of synapses. B) Black bar indicates loss of input. Vertical input to this area is permanently removed (dashed arrow lines). Silent neurons in the LPZ early after the lesion are labeled black. C) Additional synapses are formed at the rim of the LPZ (bold black arrows) in the middle phase after the lesion. Due to additional horizontal synapses, neurons in the border become active in response to adjacent input representation (blue and red). D) Late after the lesion, additional synapses from the border to the center contribute to the activation of center neurons, which now also become sensitive to adjacent representations (blue and red).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plasticity", "gives"], "article_id"=>819923, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_figure_showing_how_structural_plasticity_in_the_model_gives_rise_to_functional_network_reorganization_/819923", "title"=>"Schematic figure showing how structural plasticity in the model gives rise to functional network reorganization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232839"], "description"=>"<p>A) In this scenario with , new synaptic connections impinging on neurons in the LPZ are formed only transiently in the early phase after the lesion when the activity of some neurons momentarily exceeds . New connections are removed over time and even old connections are pruned. B) Activity in the LPZ decreases to a minimum level over time. Cf. <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi-1003259-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a> for color code.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dendritic", "elements", "higher", "lpz"], "article_id"=>819926, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_repair_is_not_obtained_if_the_minimum_activity_required_for_the_formation_of_dendritic_elements_is_higher_than_the_activity_inside_the_LPZ_after_the_lesion_/819926", "title"=>"Network repair is not obtained if the minimum activity required for the formation of dendritic elements is higher than the activity inside the LPZ after the lesion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232843"], "description"=>"<p>A) Network repair is mainly due to the massive formation of new recurrent connections in the border and the center of the LPZ, while ingrowing connections from the peri-LPZ into the LPZ are rare. Recurrent connections in the border are established first followed by recurrent connections from and within the center. The timing depends only on the initial activity levels rather than on cooperative effects between different areas. B) Initially, the activity is slightly higher in the border than in the center due to normal (non-deprived) activity spreading from the peri-LPZ into the border. Cf. <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi-1003259-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a> for color code.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>819930, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_course_of_network_repair_for_low_and_/819930", "title"=>"Different course of network repair for low and .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232844"], "description"=>"<p>A) Physiological case of network reorganization, with and . B) Aberrant case of network reorganization with and . Before the lesion, the networks show irregular activity (left column). In the early phase after the lesion (middle column), the number of firing neurons is strongly reduced. In the late phase after the lesion (right column), the network either returns to a state of irregular activity (A), or turns into a state of more synchronized activity, with strong oscillations in electrical activity (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["firing", "neurons", "bins", "peri-lpz", "lpz"], "article_id"=>819931, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electrical_activity_in_terms_of_total_number_of_firing_neurons_excitatory_and_inhibitory_in_time_bins_of_measured_in_the_peri_LPZ_and_LPZ_before_and_after_the_lesion_/819931", "title"=>"Electrical activity in terms of total number of firing neurons (excitatory and inhibitory) in time bins of measured in the peri-LPZ and LPZ before and after the lesion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232845"], "description"=>"<p>A) Network repair of large LPZs does not occur for low and high , although some network reorganization takes place in the peri-LPZ and the border of the LPZ. B) Even in large LPZs neurons can completely recover if both and are low and the remaining activity in the LPZ allows axonal and dendritic elements to increase in number. Bars next to the top right panel indicate the size and position of the LPZ (orange and blue) and the peri-LPZ (green) relative to the entire network. Total number of neurons (excitatory and inhibitory): LPZ: 328 neurons; peri-LPZ: 72 neurons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurons", "lpzs", "depends"], "article_id"=>819932, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whether_neurons_in_large_LPZs_recover_depends_on_the_growth_parameters_and_/819932", "title"=>"Whether neurons in large LPZs recover depends on the growth parameters and .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232850"], "description"=>"<p>While the first case (A) is trivial because the neurons do not recover at all, the second case (B) is in so far remarkable that rewiring brings the activity back to the high set-point but does not give rise to functional remapping. Even in the late phase, the neurons in the LPZ, apart from a few neurons at the rim, do not become responsive to adjacent input. Cf. <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi-1003259-g008\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 8</a> for color code. Note the color gradients from top to the bottom for all six columns of the three panels in A and B.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reorganization", "remapping", "representations", "occurs"], "article_id"=>819937, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_No_functional_network_reorganization_in_terms_of_remapping_of_input_representations_occurs_for_the_case_with_and_the_case_with_/819937", "title"=>"No functional network reorganization in terms of remapping of input representations occurs for the case with , and the case with , .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232852"], "description"=>"<p>During recovery without additional stimulation, the formation of dendritic elements in the border (orange) and center of the LPZ (blue) together with the activity-dependent formation of axonal elements in the peri-LPZ (green) contribute to an increase in connectivity between the peri-LPZ and LPZ and to the recovery of the network. This is revealed by the increasing numbers of synaptic elements on excitatory neurons (A, first panel) and by the change in calcium levels (B, first panel) in the border and center of the LPZ. A slight reduction in the external input to the peri-LPZ by 20% gives rise to an increase in the production of axonal elements on excitatory neurons (A, second panel) and an increase in the calcium concentration (B, second panel). A complete blockade of activity in the peri-LPZ, however, prevents recovery (B, third panel), because it suppresses the formation of axonal elements in the early phase of the recovery while dendritic elements in the LPZ start degenerating (A, third panel). Error bars: SD.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influenced"], "article_id"=>819939, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_We_predict_that_network_repair_is_influenced_by_external_electrical_stimulation_/819939", "title"=>"We predict that network repair is influenced by external electrical stimulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232854"], "description"=>"<p>The parametes and indicate the minimum average electrical activity individual neurons need to form axonal and dendritic elements, respectively. Experimental data is based on <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi.1003259-Keck1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>, . Kohonen model according to <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi.1003259-Kohonen1\" target=\"_blank\">[89]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259#pcbi.1003259-Kohonen2\" target=\"_blank\">[90]</a>. Only for high, low, the model matches experimental data (cf. third and fourth row).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reorganization", "depends", "morphological"], "article_id"=>819941, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_outcome_of_network_reorganization_depends_on_the_morphological_response_properties_of_individual_neurons_/819941", "title"=>"The outcome of network reorganization depends on the morphological response properties of individual neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232858"], "description"=>"<div><p>Lasting alterations in sensory input trigger massive structural and functional adaptations in cortical networks. The principles governing these experience-dependent changes are, however, poorly understood. Here, we examine whether a simple rule based on the neurons' need for homeostasis in electrical activity may serve as driving force for cortical reorganization. According to this rule, a neuron creates new spines and boutons when its level of electrical activity is below a homeostatic set-point and decreases the number of spines and boutons when its activity exceeds this set-point. In addition, neurons need a minimum level of activity to form spines and boutons. Spine and bouton formation depends solely on the neuron's own activity level, and synapses are formed by merging spines and boutons independently of activity. Using a novel computational model, we show that this simple growth rule produces neuron and network changes as observed in the visual cortex after focal retinal lesions. In the model, as in the cortex, the turnover of dendritic spines was increased strongest in the center of the lesion projection zone, while axonal boutons displayed a marked overshoot followed by pruning. Moreover, the decrease in external input was compensated for by the formation of new horizontal connections, which caused a retinotopic remapping. Homeostatic regulation may provide a unifying framework for understanding cortical reorganization, including network repair in degenerative diseases or following focal stroke.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dendritic", "axonal", "bouton", "cortical", "reorganization", "focal", "retinal"], "article_id"=>819945, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Markus Butz", "Arjen van Ooyen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003259", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Simple_Rule_for_Dendritic_Spine_and_Axonal_Bouton_Formation_Can_Account_for_Cortical_Reorganization_after_Focal_Retinal_Lesions_/819945", "title"=>"A Simple Rule for Dendritic Spine and Axonal Bouton Formation Can Account for Cortical Reorganization after Focal Retinal Lesions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:46:13"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"25", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[272, 472, 600, 713, 815, 911, 1004, 1094, 1185, 1273, 1358, 1441]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[261, 444, 554, 655, 748, 834, 923, 1004, 1089, 1170, 1244, 1315, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[297, 488, 616, 724, 828, 939, 1038, 1127, 1223, 1311, 1393, 1479, 1556]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Neural networks", "average_usage"=>[284, 481, 590, 705, 782, 880, 969, 1051, 1141, 1227, 1337, 1399, 1463]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts