Inferring Clonal Composition from Multiple Sections of a Breast Cancer
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{"title"=>"Inferring Clonal Composition from Multiple Sections of a Breast Cancer", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Habil", "last_name"=>"Zare", "scopus_author_id"=>"36605642300"}, {"first_name"=>"Junfeng", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55966724500"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56311393000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kris", "last_name"=>"Weber", "scopus_author_id"=>"56310249800"}, {"first_name"=>"Josh", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"56538933200"}, {"first_name"=>"Debbie", "last_name"=>"Nickerson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005755969"}, {"first_name"=>"Chao Zhong", "last_name"=>"Song", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403252685"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniela", "last_name"=>"Witten", "scopus_author_id"=>"24339773500"}, {"first_name"=>"C. Anthony", "last_name"=>"Blau", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005220751"}, {"first_name"=>"William Stafford", "last_name"=>"Noble", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102482003"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537358", "isbn"=>"1553-7358", "pmid"=>"25010360", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905474730", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703", "sgr"=>"84905474730", "pui"=>"373701163"}, "id"=>"851e8cad-fb8a-3b07-921b-ac33f65456a2", "abstract"=>"Cancers arise from successive rounds of mutation and selection, generating clonal populations that vary in size, mutational content and drug responsiveness. Ascertaining the clonal composition of a tumor is therefore important both for prognosis and therapy. Mutation counts and frequencies resulting from next-generation sequencing (NGS) potentially reflect a tumor's clonal composition; however, deconvolving NGS data to infer a tumor's clonal structure presents a major challenge. We propose a generative model for NGS data derived from multiple subsections of a single tumor, and we describe an expectation-maximization procedure for estimating the clonal genotypes and relative frequencies using this model. We demonstrate, via simulation, the validity of the approach, and then use our algorithm to assess the clonal composition of a primary breast cancer and associated metastatic lymph node. After dividing the tumor into subsections, we perform exome sequencing for each subsection to assess mutational content, followed by deep sequencing to precisely count normal and variant alleles within each subsection. By quantifying the frequencies of 17 somatic variants, we demonstrate that our algorithm predicts clonal relationships that are both phylogenetically and spatially plausible. Applying this method to larger numbers of tumors should cast light on the clonal evolution of cancers in space and time.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/inferring-clonal-composition-multiple-sections-breast-cancer", "reader_count"=>97, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Mathematics"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>8, "Norway"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587297", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587298", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587299", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587300"], "description"=>"<div><p>Cancers arise from successive rounds of mutation and selection, generating clonal populations that vary in size, mutational content and drug responsiveness. Ascertaining the clonal composition of a tumor is therefore important both for prognosis and therapy. Mutation counts and frequencies resulting from next-generation sequencing (NGS) potentially reflect a tumor's clonal composition; however, deconvolving NGS data to infer a tumor's clonal structure presents a major challenge. We propose a generative model for NGS data derived from multiple subsections of a single tumor, and we describe an expectation-maximization procedure for estimating the clonal genotypes and relative frequencies using this model. We demonstrate, via simulation, the validity of the approach, and then use our algorithm to assess the clonal composition of a primary breast cancer and associated metastatic lymph node. After dividing the tumor into subsections, we perform exome sequencing for each subsection to assess mutational content, followed by deep sequencing to precisely count normal and variant alleles within each subsection. By quantifying the frequencies of 17 somatic variants, we demonstrate that our algorithm predicts clonal relationships that are both phylogenetically and spatially plausible. Applying this method to larger numbers of tumors should cast light on the clonal evolution of cancers in space and time.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "genomics", "Genomic medicine", "Cancer genetics", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "clonal", "sections"], "article_id"=>1099168, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Habil Zare", "Junfeng Wang", "Alex Hu", "Kris Weber", "Josh Smith", "Debbie Nickerson", "ChaoZhong Song", "Daniela Witten", "C. Anthony Blau", "William Stafford Noble"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inferring_Clonal_Composition_from_Multiple_Sections_of_a_Breast_Cancer_/1099168", "title"=>"Inferring Clonal Composition from Multiple Sections of a Breast Cancer", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 02:54:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587276"], "description"=>"<p>A collection of subsections of a tumor are subjected to next-generation sequencing to measure, across a common set of genomic loci, counts of two alleles—the <i>normal</i> allele that was observed in a matched normal sample at that locus, and a <i>variant allele</i>. The resulting counts matrices are provided as input to an inference procedure that estimates the clonal genotypes and frequencies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "genomics", "Genomic medicine", "Cancer genetics", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "clonal"], "article_id"=>1099148, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Habil Zare", "Junfeng Wang", "Alex Hu", "Kris Weber", "Josh Smith", "Debbie Nickerson", "ChaoZhong Song", "Daniela Witten", "C. Anthony Blau", "William Stafford Noble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inference_of_tumor_clonal_content_/1099148", "title"=>"Inference of tumor clonal content.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 02:54:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587291"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel shows the inferred clonal phylogeny assuming (A) , (B) , (C) and (D) clones, where C0 corresponds to the normal clone. Nodes correspond to inferred clonal populations, and edges are annotated with mutations that occur between the parent and child clones. Two mutations are grouped into a colored box if they both occur on the same branch in all four phylogenies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "genomics", "Genomic medicine", "Cancer genetics", "oncology", "Basic cancer research"], "article_id"=>1099162, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Habil Zare", "Junfeng Wang", "Alex Hu", "Kris Weber", "Josh Smith", "Debbie Nickerson", "ChaoZhong Song", "Daniela Witten", "C. Anthony Blau", "William Stafford Noble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cancer_phylogenies_/1099162", "title"=>"Cancer phylogenies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 02:54:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587281"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows (top) the anatomic locations of the three primary and one metastatic sections and (bottom) the corresponding alternative allele frequencies for each subsection. The full coordinates for each of the 17 loci are provided in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703#pcbi.1003703.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Dataset S2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "genomics", "Genomic medicine", "Cancer genetics", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "locations", "corresponding", "allele"], "article_id"=>1099153, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Habil Zare", "Junfeng Wang", "Alex Hu", "Kris Weber", "Josh Smith", "Debbie Nickerson", "ChaoZhong Song", "Daniela Witten", "C. Anthony Blau", "William Stafford Noble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatomic_locations_of_the_sections_and_corresponding_allele_frequencies_/1099153", "title"=>"Anatomic locations of the sections, and corresponding allele frequencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 02:54:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587279"], "description"=>"<p>The figure plots the mean (A) genotype error and (B) clone frequency error as a function of the number of subsections. Each mean is computed over 100 simulated data sets. For each data set, the EM optimization is repeated from 10 different random initializations, and the results corresponding to the largest log likelihood are reported.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "genomics", "Genomic medicine", "Cancer genetics", "oncology", "Basic cancer research"], "article_id"=>1099151, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Habil Zare", "Junfeng Wang", "Alex Hu", "Kris Weber", "Josh Smith", "Debbie Nickerson", "ChaoZhong Song", "Daniela Witten", "C. Anthony Blau", "William Stafford Noble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulation_results_/1099151", "title"=>"Simulation results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 02:54:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587289"], "description"=>"<p>The panels display the pattern of inferred clone frequencies across subsections (A) P1, (B) P2, (C) P3 and (D) M1. Each bar plot shows the relative frequencies of tumor clones in the corresponding subsection after accounting for normal contamination. Clones are numbered as in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703#pcbi-1003703-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>, and the normal clone, C0, is not shown. This figure shows the solution; Figure S1 in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703#pcbi.1003703.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a> shows the and solutions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "genomics", "Genomic medicine", "Cancer genetics", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "frequencies", "smoothly", "adjacent"], "article_id"=>1099160, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Habil Zare", "Junfeng Wang", "Alex Hu", "Kris Weber", "Josh Smith", "Debbie Nickerson", "ChaoZhong Song", "Daniela Witten", "C. Anthony Blau", "William Stafford Noble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clone_frequencies_vary_smoothly_across_adjacent_subsections_/1099160", "title"=>"Clone frequencies vary smoothly across adjacent subsections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 02:54:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1587286"], "description"=>"<p>The top table lists, for each of the 17 loci, the inferred clonal genotypes using the EM procedure, assuming C = 3, 4, 5 and 6. In each case, the normal clone (C0) is omitted from the inferred matrix , because its genotype consists entirely of zeroes by construction. For reference, each distinct genotype pattern per locus is assigned a unique color according to the scheme from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703#pcbi-1003703-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>. In the table, bits with asterisks were flipped based on the phylogenetic analysis. The corresponding inferred clonal frequencies are listed in the bottom table, where each block shows a matrix for a value of , and C0 denotes the normal clone.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "genomics", "Genomic medicine", "Cancer genetics", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "clonal", "genotypes"], "article_id"=>1099158, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Habil Zare", "Junfeng Wang", "Alex Hu", "Kris Weber", "Josh Smith", "Debbie Nickerson", "ChaoZhong Song", "Daniela Witten", "C. Anthony Blau", "William Stafford Noble"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003703.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inferred_clonal_genotypes_and_frequencies_/1099158", "title"=>"Inferred clonal genotypes and frequencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 02:54:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[292, 461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Taxonomy", "average_usage"=>[338, 519]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Data management", "average_usage"=>[365, 545]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Oncology", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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