High Stimulus-Related Information in Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons
Publication Date
June 22, 2015
Journal
PLOS Computational Biology
Authors
Vicente Reyes Puerta, Suam Kim, Jyh Jang Sun, Barbara Imbrosci, et al
Volume
11
Issue
6
Pages
e1004121
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1004121
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26098109
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4476555
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26098109
Web of Science
000357340100002
Scopus
84953340457
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/high-stimulusrelated-information-barrel-cortex-inhibitory-interneurons
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"High Stimulus-Related Information in Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vicente", "last_name"=>"Reyes-Puerta", "scopus_author_id"=>"26640714600"}, {"first_name"=>"Suam", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"56763162800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jyh Jang", "last_name"=>"Sun", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410372190"}, {"first_name"=>"Barbara", "last_name"=>"Imbrosci", "scopus_author_id"=>"37099894600"}, {"first_name"=>"Werner", "last_name"=>"Kilb", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602080636"}, {"first_name"=>"Heiko J.", "last_name"=>"Luhmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643466000"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26098109", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121", "sgr"=>"84953340457", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84953340457", "issn"=>"15537358", "pui"=>"607497642"}, "id"=>"ba4bcd72-63fc-315b-a722-e47be10eb12d", "abstract"=>"The manner in which populations of inhibitory (INH) and excitatory (EXC) neocortical neurons collectively encode stimulus-related information is a fundamental, yet still unresolved question. Here we address this question by simultaneously recording with large-scale multi-electrode arrays (of up to 128 channels) the activity of cell ensembles (of up to 74 neurons) distributed along all layers of 3-4 neighboring cortical columns in the anesthetized adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex in vivo. Using two different whisker stimulus modalities (location and frequency) we show that individual INH neurons - classified as such according to their distinct extracellular spike waveforms - discriminate better between restricted sets of stimuli (≤6 stimulus classes) than EXC neurons in granular and infra-granular layers. We also demonstrate that ensembles of INH cells jointly provide as much information about such stimuli as comparable ensembles containing the ~20% most informative EXC neurons, however presenting less information redundancy - a result which was consistent when applying both theoretical information measurements and linear discriminant analysis classifiers. These results suggest that a consortium of INH neurons dominates the information conveyed to the neocortical network, thereby efficiently processing incoming sensory activity. This conclusion extends our view on the role of the inhibitory system to orchestrate cortical activity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/high-stimulusrelated-information-barrel-cortex-inhibitory-interneurons", "reader_count"=>41, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>11, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>11}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Iran"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128685"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Scheme proposed for encoding stimulus location at lower stimulation frequencies (≤2 Hz). Symbols illustrate the INH (blue circles) and EXC (red triangles) neurons inside the principal column of the stimulated whisker. Size of the symbols indicates the amount of stimulus location information carried by the corresponding neuronal groups (i.e. their capability in discriminating principal vs. neighboring whisker stimulation), distributed across the cortical layers. Lines connecting the neurons mark the level of the stimulus-independent noise correlations, where lighter tones of gray relate to lower values. Noise correlations between INH and EXC cells are not represented. Other properties as the proportion of cell types per layer, the level of spontaneous firing rate or the number of synaptic connections between neurons are not taken into consideration. See text for further details. <b>(B)</b> Encoding regime of stimulus location at behaviorally relevant stimulation frequencies (4–10 Hz). Otherwise same as in A. <b>(C)</b> Scheme proposed for encoding stimulus frequency in the principal column of the stimulated whisker.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456461, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_diagram_of_the_encoding_schemes_for_the_different_stimulus_modalities_/1456461", "title"=>"Summary diagram of the encoding schemes for the different stimulus modalities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128681"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Impact of trial-shuffling on performance of the LDA classifiers at low frequency stimulation. From left to right, performance reached by networks containing the total amount of neurons in the recording (black), only INH neurons (blue), only the best EXC neurons (red), or all EXC neurons (grey). Circles and error bars denote mean±SD. Dashed line marks mean chance level averaged across all experiments (44.4%, n = 9). *<i>P</i><0.05. <b>(B)</b> Decoding performance at higher stimulation frequencies using all neurons (black), only the INH ones (blue) or the best EXC ones (red). Continuous lines represent the mean decoding performance averaged across experiments. Thick dashed lines represent decoding performance after trial-shuffling. <b>(C1)</b> Upper part, progression of the ensemble activity during 100 trials of stimulation at low frequency in a representative experiment. Dots represent the number of spikes elicited per neuron (y-axis) in a specific trial (x-axis). Circle and bar at the right side represent mean±SD averaged across all trials. Lower part, surrogate data generated by trial-shuffling from the original activity presented in the upper part. <b>(C2)</b> Upper part, progression of the ensemble activity at 10 Hz whisker stimulation. Note that the first 20 trials (i.e. non-adapted) are omitted. Lower part, surrogate data generated by trial-shuffling. Note the more homogeneous distribution of the activity across trials. <b>(D)</b> Comparison of the relative increase in decoding performance obtained after trial-shuffling to the decrease in the variability of the ensemble activity level averaged across trials. Data are scattered across stimulation frequencies and neuronal groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456457, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_of_linear_discriminant_analysis_LDA_classifiers_for_decoding_stimulus_location_at_different_frequencies_/1456457", "title"=>"Performance of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers for decoding stimulus location at different frequencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128679"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Comparison of information redundancy present in groups of INH neurons to that in equally informative groups of best EXC neurons at low (<1 Hz) stimulation frequency. Each line represents the corresponding values of an individual experiment (n = 9). Circles and error bars denote mean±SD. *<i>P</i><0.05. <b>(B1)</b> Information redundancy computed similarly as in panel A at different stimulation frequencies. Data represent the mean±SEM averaged across experiments (low frequency, n = 9; higher frequencies, n = 6). *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01. <b>(B2)</b> Number of neurons constituting the groups of INH and best EXC cells. In this case, data represent the median, 40th and 60th percentiles. <b>(B3)</b> Level of stimulus-independent noise correlations computed between pairs of cells within the INH and best EXC groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456455, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Less_redundant_yet_independent_encoding_of_stimulus_location_by_INH_neuronal_ensembles_at_different_frequencies_/1456455", "title"=>"Less redundant (yet independent) encoding of stimulus location by INH neuronal ensembles at different frequencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128678"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A1)</b> Effect of network size on decoding performance when neurons were chosen in ascending order, i.e. firstly selecting those neurons carrying a lower amount of information (up to n = 74 neurons recorded in this experiment). Three different traces are presented for networks containing only excitatory (red triangles), only inhibitory (blue circles), or both classes of neurons (grey line). Dashed horizontal line represents the chance level (50% since two whiskers were stimulated in this illustrative experiment). <b>(A2)</b> Effect of network size on performance when neurons were selected in descending order, i.e. firstly those neurons carrying a higher amount of information. Due to the asymptotic form of the resulting curves, only the values for network sizes of up to 15 neurons are presented in this case. Otherwise same as in A1. <b>(B1)</b> Ensemble-based mutual information when neurons are selected in ascending order. The maximum value for the resulting information is 1 bit, i.e. the quantity necessary to distinguish unequivocally between two whiskers. <b>(B2)</b> Mutual information when neurons are selected in descending order. Only the values for network sizes of up to 15 neurons are plotted in this case. Green dashed squares represent the highest sized group of INH neurons, and the lowest sized group of EXC neurons carrying at least the same amount of total information than the ensemble of INH cells (0.87 bits, see panel C2). <b>(C1)</b> Information redundancy (equivalent to negative values of synergy) in networks selected in ascending order. <b>(C2)</b> Information redundancy when neurons are selected in descending order. Note the shorter scale of the y-axis as compared to C1. The redundancy values found in the two equally informative groups (n = 8 INH vs. n = 9 EXC neurons) were directly compared in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 6A</a>, along with analogous data from the remaining experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456454, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_network_size_on_decoding_performance_and_ensemble_based_stimulus_location_information_for_a_representative_experiment_/1456454", "title"=>"Influence of network size on decoding performance and ensemble-based stimulus location information for a representative experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128672"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Time course of stimulus location information carried by the spikes counted in increasingly longer time windows for low frequency stimulation (<1 Hz). Data represent the mean values averaged across the specific neuronal subsets (symbols depicted at the legend, subset sizes displayed in panel B). <b>(B)</b> Stimulus location information using spike pattern parameters for optimal stimulus discrimination (see <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S5</a> Figs). Each bar represents mean±SEM values. Numbers inside bars represent amount of neurons in each subset. Otherwise same as in A. *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01. <b>(C)</b> Distribution of information at higher stimulation frequencies in different excitatory (EXC) cell groups (symbols represent layers as in A). Data represent the mean values of stimulus location information averaged across the tested stimulation frequencies. <b>(D)</b> Distribution of information in inhibitory (INH) cells (same as in C). <b>(E)</b> Time course of stimulus frequency information in INH and EXC cells (same as in A). <b>(F)</b> Stimulus frequency information using parameters for optimal discrimination (same as in B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456451, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_stimulus_information_in_single_neurons_/1456451", "title"=>"Distribution of stimulus information in single neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128666"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Schematic illustration of experimental setup for selective mechanical stimulation of single whiskers and simultaneous VSD imaging or multi-electrode recordings in four barrel-related columns. <b>(B)</b> Illustration of the 8x16 channels probe showing shank and site spacing, position of the barrels C0 to D3, and the location of the cortical layers relative to the electrode sites. <b>(C)</b> Activity of an inhibitory neuron located at L4 of the barrel D1 in response to principal whisker (PW, upper part) and neighboring whisker (NW, lower part) deflections. Five illustrative trials are plotted for each condition. From the original raster plots (left side), spike counts in a 50 ms time window (middle) and spike pattern vectors of 5 ms bin size (right side) were computed to represent the activity in each single trial. <b>(D)</b> Discrimination capacity of the two selected response representations (spike counts and patterns). Left side, distribution of spike counts after PW vs. NW stimulation (200 trials each). Right side, distribution of spike patterns. Note that the overlap of the two distributions is lower for spike patterns than spike counts, thus accounting for higher values of mutual information (I<sub>m</sub>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456445, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representation_of_single_neural_responses_by_spike_counts_and_spike_patterns_/1456445", "title"=>"Representation of single neural responses by spike counts and spike patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128686"], "description"=>"<p>Neural ensemble responses were quantified using spike counts in a post-stimulus window of 50 ms. Two components of the information breakdown were computed and compared: the signal-similarity term (sig-sim) and the stimulus-independent correlational component (corr-ind). Data represent the mean±SEM averaged across experiments (low frequency, n = 9; higher frequencies, n = 6). The number of neurons included in each of the INH and best EXC neuronal groups are as reported in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 6B2</a>. The corresponding pairwise noise correlations are shown in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 6B3</a>. Significant differences are highlighted in cursive and marked with an asterisk.</p><p>Information breakdown methodology applied to groups of INH vs. best EXC (B-EXC) neurons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456462, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Information_breakdown_methodology_applied_to_groups_of_INH_vs_best_EXC_B_EXC_neurons_/1456462", "title"=>"Information breakdown methodology applied to groups of INH vs. best EXC (B-EXC) neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128683"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A1)</b> Comparison of information redundancy present in groups of INH neurons to that in equally informative groups of best EXC neurons. Each line represents the corresponding values of an individual dataset, including the stimulation blocks at all tested frequencies for a specific whisker and animal (n = 16 datasets from 8 animals). Circles and error bars denote mean±SD. *<i>P</i><0.05. <b>(A2)</b> Number of neurons constituting the groups of INH and best EXC cells. Bars and error bars denote mean±SEM. <b>(A3)</b> Level of stimulus-independent noise correlations averaged across datasets. <b>(B)</b> Impact of trial-shuffling on decoding performance of the liner discriminant analysis decoders (same as in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 7A</a>). ***<i>P</i><0.001. <b>(C)</b> For each neuronal group, comparison of the relative increase obtained in decoding performance after trial-shuffling to the decrease in the variability of the ensemble activity level averaged across trials. Crosses represent mean±SD of the computed values for each neuronal group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456459, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_More_efficient_encoding_of_stimulus_frequency_by_INH_neuronal_ensembles_/1456459", "title"=>"More efficient encoding of stimulus frequency by INH neuronal ensembles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128677"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A1)</b> Neuronal ensemble activity in response to three trials of whisker D1 stimulation at low frequency. Blue and red dots mark the spike times of INH and EXC neurons, respectively. Cells were ordered along the y-axis according to their position on the shanks, i.e. belonging to the barrel-related columns C0 to D3 (see right side). The numbers at the left side (1 to 44) represent the ordering of the recorded neurons according to their horizontal location. Blue horizontal arrow (together with the black circle around its spike times) marks the INH neuron already presented in Figs <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.g001\" target=\"_blank\">1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.g002\" target=\"_blank\">2A</a>. <b>(A2)</b> Neuronal ensemble activity in response to three trials of whisker D2 stimulation (same as in A1). <b>(B)</b> Illustration of the method to quantify neural ensemble activity by spike count vectors and spike pattern arrays. Illustrative data are from trial #3 presented in panel A. In general, each trial is represented by a <i>N</i><sub><i>neurons</i></sub> spike count vector, or a <i>N</i><sub><i>neurons</i></sub> ⋅ <i>N</i><sub><i>bins</i></sub> spike pattern array. Afterwards the spike count vectors and spike pattern arrays are used to compute (1) the ensemble-based mutual information, and (2) the decoding performance obtained using linear discriminant analysis classifiers (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456453, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representation_of_neural_ensemble_responses_by_spike_count_vectors_and_spike_pattern_arrays_/1456453", "title"=>"Representation of neural ensemble responses by spike count vectors and spike pattern arrays.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128694", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128695", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128696", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128697", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128698", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128699", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128700", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128701", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128702"], "description"=>"<div><p>The manner in which populations of inhibitory (INH) and excitatory (EXC) neocortical neurons collectively encode stimulus-related information is a fundamental, yet still unresolved question. Here we address this question by simultaneously recording with large-scale multi-electrode arrays (of up to 128 channels) the activity of cell ensembles (of up to 74 neurons) distributed along all layers of 3–4 neighboring cortical columns in the anesthetized adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex in vivo. Using two different whisker stimulus modalities (location and frequency) we show that individual INH neurons – classified as such according to their distinct extracellular spike waveforms – discriminate better between restricted sets of stimuli (≤6 stimulus classes) than EXC neurons in granular and infra-granular layers. We also demonstrate that ensembles of INH cells jointly provide as much information about such stimuli as comparable ensembles containing the ~20% most informative EXC neurons, however presenting less information redundancy – a result which was consistent when applying both theoretical information measurements and linear discriminant analysis classifiers. These results suggest that a consortium of INH neurons dominates the information conveyed to the neocortical network, thereby efficiently processing incoming sensory activity. This conclusion extends our view on the role of the inhibitory system to orchestrate cortical activity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456470, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_Stimulus_Related_Information_in_Barrel_Cortex_Inhibitory_Interneurons_/1456470", "title"=>"High Stimulus-Related Information in Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2128668"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A1)</b> Responses of the INH neuron to principal whisker (PW) stimulation at different frequencies (same cell as in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121#pcbi.1004121.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1C</a>). Each horizontal subplot represents the activity in response to whisker stimulation at a specific frequency (as indicated in panel A3), containing the raster plot aligned to stimulation and the peri-stimulus time histogram (PSTH). Trials in the raster plot are presented in the same sequential order as recorded. Note that at frequencies ≥4 Hz the first 20 trials (i.e. non-adapted) are omitted. <b>(A2)</b> Responses of this INH neuron to neighboring whisker (NW) stimulation, otherwise same as in A1. <b>(A3)</b> Values of stimulus location related information for each stimulation frequency, computed using both spike counts (50 ms window length, grey) and spike patterns (5 ms bin size, green). The amount of stimulus frequency related information conveyed by this representative neuron was 0.309 bits for spike counts, and 0.614 for spike patterns. <b>(B)</b> Responses of the representative EXC neuron to PW and NW stimulation at different frequencies (same as in A). Regarding frequency related information, this neuron conveyed 0.188 bits when quantified using spike counts, and 0.254 bits when using spike patterns.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult rat somatosensory barrel cortex", "EXC neurons", "whisker stimulus modalities", "inh", "Barrel Cortex Inhibitory Interneurons", "information", "ensemble", "discriminant analysis classifiers"], "article_id"=>1456447, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vicente Reyes-Puerta", "Suam Kim", "Jyh-Jang Sun", "Barbara Imbrosci", "Werner Kilb", "Heiko J. Luhmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004121.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_responses_of_a_L4_inhibitory_INH_and_excitatory_EXC_neuron_located_in_the_same_barrel_and_recorded_simultaneously_/1456447", "title"=>"Representative responses of a L4 inhibitory (INH) and excitatory (EXC) neuron located in the same barrel and recorded simultaneously.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-22 02:47:29"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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