Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin
Publication Date
July 20, 2016
Journal
PLOS Computational Biology
Authors
Takahiro Ezaki, Yutaka Horita, Masanori Takezawa & Naoki Masuda
Volume
12
Issue
7
Pages
e1005034
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005034
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1005034
Web of Science
000383351400036
Scopus
84980047671
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/reinforcement-learning-explains-conditional-cooperation-moody-cousin
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Takahiro", "last_name"=>"Ezaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"49663327600"}, {"first_name"=>"Yutaka", "last_name"=>"Horita", "scopus_author_id"=>"23473077100"}, {"first_name"=>"Masanori", "last_name"=>"Takezawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"23482486000"}, {"first_name"=>"Naoki", "last_name"=>"Masuda", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194389455"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005034", "pui"=>"611525992", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84980047671", "pmid"=>"27438888", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005034", "sgr"=>"84980047671", "issn"=>"15537358"}, "id"=>"276ca0c7-d8ae-348c-9ea1-87417862649e", "abstract"=>"Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employ- ing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learn- ing, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They rein- force actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody con- ditional cooperation, prisoner’s dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody) conditional coopera- tion obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reinforcement-learning-explains-conditional-cooperation-moody-cousin", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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