Genomic Relationships and Speciation Times of Human, Chimpanzee, and Gorilla Inferred from a Coalescent Hidden Markov Model
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{"title"=>"Genomic relationships and speciation times of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla inferred from a coalescent hidden Markov model", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Asger", "last_name"=>"Hobolth", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602567701"}, {"first_name"=>"Ole F.", "last_name"=>"Christensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102068906"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Mailund", "scopus_author_id"=>"14619483800"}, {"first_name"=>"Mikkel H.", "last_name"=>"Schierup", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603704923"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-33847253862", "sgr"=>"33847253862", "pui"=>"46318408", "isbn"=>"1553-7390", "pmid"=>"17319744", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007"}, "id"=>"629392dc-5cb0-3296-8aa9-7ab074a2876c", "abstract"=>"Author Summary Primate evolution is a central topic in biology and much information can be obtained from DNA sequence data. A key parameter is the time “when we became human,” i.e., the time in the past when descendents of the human–chimp ancestor split into human and chimpanzee. Other important parameters are the time in the past when descendents of the human–chimp–gorilla ancestor split into descendents of the human–chimp ancestor and the gorilla ancestor, and population sizes of the human–chimp and human–chimp–gorilla ancestors. To estimate speciation times and ancestral population sizes we have developed a new methodology that explicitly utilizes the spatial information in contiguous genome alignments. Furthermore, we have applied this methodology to four long autosomal human–chimp–gorilla–orangutan alignments and estimated a very recent speciation time of human and chimp (around 4 million years) and ancestral population sizes much larger than the present-day human effective population size. We also analyzed X-chromosome sequence data and found that the X chromosome has experienced a different history from that of autosomes, possibly because of selection.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genomic-relationships-speciation-times-human-chimpanzee-gorilla-inferred-coalescent-hidden-markov-mo", "reader_count"=>308, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>32, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Researcher"=>95, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>87, "Student > Postgraduate"=>14, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>32, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Researcher"=>95, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>87, "Student > Postgraduate"=>14, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>220, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>14, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>26, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>220}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>26}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>23, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>9, "Switzerland"=>3, "Portugal"=>2, "New Caledonia"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>2, "Sweden"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Korea (South)"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "Denmark"=>2, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>2, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>4}, "group_count"=>10}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952852"], "description"=>"<div><p>(Bottom) Site information without outgroup: sites shared by HC in red, by HG in blue, and by CG in green (see first, third, and last columns in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007#pgen-0030007-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p><p>(Second from bottom) True genealogical state in simulations: state HC1 in red, HC2 in dark red, HG in blue, and CG in green.</p><p>(Third from bottom) Site information with outgroup: sites supporting state HC1 or HC2 in red, HG in blue, and CG in green (see second, third, and last columns in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007#pgen-0030007-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p><p>(Top) Posterior probabilities for the four states. Coloring as in second from bottom.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genealogies", "simulated"], "article_id"=>623169, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inferred_Genealogies_from_Simulated_Data_/623169", "title"=>"Inferred Genealogies from Simulated Data", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:48:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952694"], "description"=>"<p>Left: Coal-HMM and coalescent parameters in state HC1. Right: Coal-HMM and coalescent parameters in state HC2. In both states we assume a molecular clock.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coal-hmm", "coalescent-with-recombination"], "article_id"=>623010, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relation_between_Parameters_in_the_Coal_HMM_and_Coalescent_with_Recombination_Parameters_/623010", "title"=>"Relation between Parameters in the Coal-HMM and Coalescent-with-Recombination Parameters", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:47:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/469111", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/469202", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/469243", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/469285", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/469329", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/469361", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/469398"], "description"=>"<div><p>The genealogical relationship of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla varies along the genome. We develop a hidden Markov model (HMM) that incorporates this variation and relate the model parameters to population genetics quantities such as speciation times and ancestral population sizes. Our HMM is an analytically tractable approximation to the coalescent process with recombination, and in simulations we see no apparent bias in the HMM estimates. We apply the HMM to four autosomal contiguous human–chimp–gorilla–orangutan alignments comprising a total of 1.9 million base pairs. We find a very recent speciation time of human–chimp (4.1 ± 0.4 million years), and fairly large ancestral effective population sizes (65,000 ± 30,000 for the human–chimp ancestor and 45,000 ± 10,000 for the human–chimp–gorilla ancestor). Furthermore, around 50% of the human genome coalesces with chimpanzee after speciation with gorilla. We also consider 250,000 base pairs of X-chromosome alignments and find an effective population size much smaller than 75% of the autosomal effective population sizes. Finally, we find that the rate of transitions between different genealogies correlates well with the region-wide present-day human recombination rate, but does not correlate with the fine-scale recombination rates and recombination hot spots, suggesting that the latter are evolutionarily transient.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genomic", "relationships", "speciation", "times", "gorilla", "inferred", "coalescent", "markov"], "article_id"=>152489, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.sg001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.sg002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.sg003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.sg004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.sg005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.sd001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.sd002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genomic_Relationships_and_Speciation_Times_of_Human_Chimpanzee_and_Gorilla_Inferred_from_a_Coalescent_Hidden_Markov_Model/152489", "title"=>"Genomic Relationships and Speciation Times of Human, Chimpanzee, and Gorilla Inferred from a Coalescent Hidden Markov Model", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-02-23 00:41:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952514"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates with associated standard errors of the HMM and population genetics parameters for the five targets. Top left plot shows the HMM transition rates, top right plot the genetic divergence times in million years (assuming orangutan divergence 18 Myr ago), bottom left plot the speciation times in million years, and bottom right plot the ancestral effective population sizes, again assuming orangutan divergence of 18 Myr and a generation time of 25 y for all species throughout the HCGO divergence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "coal-hmm"], "article_id"=>622826, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameter_Estimates_from_Coal_HMM_Analysis_of_Five_Targets_/622826", "title"=>"Parameter Estimates from Coal-HMM Analysis of Five Targets", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952419"], "description"=>"<p>The coal-HMM divides a multiple alignment into four types of segments corresponding to the four phylogenetic states HC1, HC2, HG, and CG. The probability of making a transition from state HC1 to any of the other states is <i>s,</i> and the probability of a transition from any of the HC2, HG, or CG states to state HC1 is <i>u</i>. Transitions between the HC2, HG, and CG states have probability <i>v</i>. The indicated branch lengths of the phylogenetic trees from state HC1 and state CG are divergence times estimated from Target 1. The branch lengths of the phylogenetic trees corresponding to state HC2 and HG are the same as the branch lengths of state CG.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics"], "article_id"=>622734, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphical_Representation_of_Coal_HMM_/622734", "title"=>"Graphical Representation of Coal-HMM", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:45:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952454"], "description"=>"<div><p>(From bottom to top) Analysis of the first 100 kb from Target 1.</p><p>(Bottom) Site information without outgroup: sites shared by HC in red, by HG in blue, and by CG in green (compare first, third, and last columns in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007#pgen-0030007-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p><p>(Second from bottom) Site information with outgroup: sites strongly supporting states HC1 or HC2 in red, HG in blue, and CG in green (compare second, third, and last columns in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007#pgen-0030007-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p><p>(Third from bottom) Posterior probabilities: Coloring as in second from bottom, except that state HC2 is dark red.</p><p>(Top) Fine-scale recombination rate estimates (log scale). The vertical lines mark subdivisions of the multiple alignment due to more than 50-base-pair deletions in one species (see “Data” in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genealogies"], "article_id"=>622768, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inferred_Genealogies_from_Real_Data_/622768", "title"=>"Inferred Genealogies from Real Data", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:45:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952595"], "description"=>"<p>We observe several adjacent sites that support alternative state HG (blue lines), corresponding to coalescence of human and gorilla before coalescence with chimpanzee.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genealogies", "6-kb"], "article_id"=>622907, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inferred_Genealogies_along_a_6_kb_Region_of_the_X_Chromosome_/622907", "title"=>"Inferred Genealogies along a 6-kb Region of the X Chromosome", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:46:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952340"], "description"=>"<div><p>Top: Genealogical relationship of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. Speciation times are denoted <i>τ</i><sub>1, </sub><i>τ</i><sub>1</sub> + <i>τ</i><sub>2</sub>, and <i>τ</i><sub>1</sub> + <i>τ</i><sub>2</sub> + <i>τ</i><sub>3</sub>. Population sizes of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla are denoted <i>N</i><sub>H</sub>, <i>N</i><sub>C</sub>, and <i>N</i><sub>G</sub>, while the HC and HCG ancestral population sizes are denoted <i>N</i><sub>HC</sub> and <i>N</i><sub>HCG</sub>.</p><p>Bottom: Each of the four hidden states in the coal-HMM corresponds to a particular phylogenetic tree. In state HC1, human and chimpanzee coalesce before speciation of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla, i.e., before <i>τ</i><sub>1</sub> + <i>τ</i><sub>2</sub>. In states HC2, HG, and CG, human, chimpanzee, and gorilla coalesce after speciation of the three species, i.e., after <i>τ</i><sub>1</sub> + <i>τ</i><sub>2</sub>. In HC2, the human and chimpanzee lineages coalesce first, and then the HC lineage coalesces with gorilla. In state HG, human and gorilla coalesce first, and in state CG, chimpanzee and gorilla coalesce first. The hidden phylogenetic states cannot be observed from present-day sequence data, but they can be decoded using the coal-HMM methodology.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>622654, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_and_Species_Relationships_May_Differ_/622654", "title"=>"Genetic and Species Relationships May Differ", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:45:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/952750"], "description"=>"<p>The distribution of fragment lengths is reasonably well approximated by the geometric distribution (blue line). This property is a basic assumption of the coal-HMM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lengths"], "article_id"=>623071, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Asger Hobolth", "Ole F Christensen", "Thomas Mailund", "Mikkel H Schierup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030007.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histogram_of_Fragment_Lengths_for_the_Four_Different_Genealogies_/623071", "title"=>"Histogram of Fragment Lengths for the Four Different Genealogies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:47:40"}

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Relative Metric

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