Genetic Tests for Ecological and Allopatric Speciation in Anoles on an Island Archipelago
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{"title"=>"Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an Island archipelago", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roger S.", "last_name"=>"Thorpe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101838834"}, {"first_name"=>"Yann", "last_name"=>"Surget-Groba", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602263397"}, {"first_name"=>"Helena", "last_name"=>"Johansson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56647573200"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20442860", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929", "sgr"=>"77952388817", "isbn"=>"1553-7390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77952388817", "issn"=>"15537390", "pui"=>"358837574"}, "id"=>"2e5a8862-ba99-3781-b4ab-60bf8a945502", "abstract"=>"From Darwin's study of the Galapagos and Wallace's study of Indonesia, islands have played an important role in evolutionary investigations, and radiations within archipelagos are readily interpreted as supporting the conventional view of allopatric speciation. Even during the ongoing paradigm shift towards other modes of speciation, island radiations, such as the Lesser Antillean anoles, are thought to exemplify this process. Geological and molecular phylogenetic evidence show that, in this archipelago, Martinique anoles provide several examples of secondary contact of island species. Four precursor island species, with up to 8 mybp divergence, met when their islands coalesced to form the current island of Martinique. Moreover, adjacent anole populations also show marked adaptation to distinct habitat zonation, allowing both allopatric and ecological speciation to be tested in this system. We take advantage of this opportunity of replicated island coalescence and independent ecological adaptation to carry out an extensive population genetic study of hypervariable neutral nuclear markers to show that even after these very substantial periods of spatial isolation these putative allospecies show less reproductive isolation than conspecific populations in adjacent habitats in all three cases of subsequent island coalescence. The degree of genetic interchange shows that while there is always a significant genetic signature of past allopatry, and this may be quite strong if the selection regime allows, there is no case of complete allopatric speciation, in spite of the strong primae facie case for it. Importantly there is greater genetic isolation across the xeric/rainforest ecotone than is associated with any secondary contact. This rejects the development of reproductive isolation in allopatric divergence, but supports the potential for ecological speciation, even though full speciation has not been achieved in this case. It also explains the paucity of anole species in the Lesser Antilles compared to the Greater Antilles.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetic-tests-ecological-allopatric-speciation-anoles-island-archipelago", "reader_count"=>226, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Researcher"=>63, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>63, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>19}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Researcher"=>63, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>63, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>19}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>22, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>185, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>185}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>22}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Reunion"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>18, "Sri Lanka"=>1, "Japan"=>3, "Philippines"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Spain"=>4, "India"=>2, "Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Brazil"=>7, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>2, "Peru"=>2, "Germany"=>4}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/852340"], "description"=>"a<p>Magnitude of variation (site maximum-site minimum) along transect for climate in principal component scores.</p>b<p>Magnitude of variation along transect for quantitative traits (QTs) in canonical variate scores normalized to unit within-group standard deviation.</p>c<p>Correlations between site mean CV scores for QTs and climate scores (n = number of sites).</p>1<p>There is an altitudinal gradient along transect V.</p>2<p>There is a transition to a more mesic habitat in the north of this transect.</p>3<p>See the text for a caveat to this prediction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "evolutionary biology/animal genetics", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "genetics and genomics/population genetics"], "article_id"=>522797, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transect_attributes_climate_habitat_and_traits_/522797", "title"=>"Transect attributes: climate, habitat, and traits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:46:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851674"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Summmarized cladogram based on Cytochrome <i>b</i> Bayesian gene tree <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#pgen.1000929-Thorpe1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>. The five main lineages are Barbados and the four precursor island lineages, south, central, northwest and southwest (underlined upper case), the suggested locality and time of origin (to the nearest million years before present) are in bold italics with the times based on geological calibration <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#pgen.1000929-Thorpe1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>, which gives values close to those based on a general lizard clock. Terminal nodes (light font) are representative minor lineages of <i>Anolis roquet</i> from Martinique, and <i>A. extremus</i> from Barbados. Nodes with a posterior probability of 1.00 are marked with an asterisk. (B) Summarized historical scenario (dates as above) for the Martinique and Barbados regions and their <i>Anolis roquet/extremus</i> lineages. The first phylogenetic division at circa 8 mybp (at, or just before the origin of the recent island arc) saw the establishment of Ducos (southwest) and the St Anne peninsular (south) as separate populations (B i), then the central region was colonized from St Anne at circa 6 mybp and the northwest precursor island from the recent arc was colonized from Ducos (southwest) at circa 5 mybp (B ii). Barbados (<i>Anolis extremus</i>) was colonized from the central region soon after (circa 4 mybp) (B ii). Finally, with the uplift of the central region (B iii, iv) the northwest, southwest and southern precursor islands were joined into the single island of Martinique at circa 1 mybp (B iv).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "evolutionary biology/animal genetics", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "genetics and genomics/population genetics"], "article_id"=>522135, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeny_and_geohistory_/522135", "title"=>"Phylogeny and geohistory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:35:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/852203"], "description"=>"<p>Transects (VII,VIII) across the secondary contact between the putative allospecies from the south and central precursor island. See <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#pgen-1000929-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> for control transect (IX) and legend.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["precursor", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>522662, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_South_central_precursor_islands_lineages_quantitative_traits_and_genetic_structure_along_transects_/522662", "title"=>"South-central precursor islands: lineages, quantitative traits, and genetic structure along transects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:44:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851847"], "description"=>"<p>Geological boundaries between precursor islands are indicated by red lines. They are occupied by lineages labelled in red (NW = northwest, C = central, SW = southwest, S = south). The ecotone between xeric coastal and montane rainforest is indicated by a green, broken line, and the section of Transect III devastated by the 1902 pyroclastic surges that destroyed St Pierre <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#pgen.1000929-Sigurdsson1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a> is indicated by grey shading. Transects and their sites are in blue and numbered with blue Roman numerals I to IX. The control transect (IX) within the central mesic zone, is without an ecotone or secondary contact. The photographs are of adult male anoles (locality on Martinique indicated by boxed numbers), 1 northeastern coastal, 2 littoral coastal form, 3 montane rainforest form, 4 widespread mesic/transitional form, and 5 xeric form occurring in the western rainshadow, St Anne Peninsular in the south and the eastern tip of the Caravelle peninsular in east where annual rainfall is circa 1500mm a year or less <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#pgen.1000929-Lassere1\" target=\"_blank\">[50]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecotone"], "article_id"=>522307, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Precursor_island_regions_lineages_transects_and_ecotone_on_Martinique_/522307", "title"=>"Precursor island regions, lineages, transects, and ecotone on Martinique.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:38:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851984"], "description"=>"<p>Transects (I–IV) across the secondary contact between the putative allospecies from the northwest and central precursor island and ecotones (III, IV), together with control transect (IX). Sites 1-n are along the horizontal axes. (A) Lineage and geology. Mitochondrial DNA lineage frequencies are indicated as mauve triangles, n≈48 per site), with the red arrow indicating the geological boundary between precursor islands. (B) Climate and Quantitative Traits. Mean canonical variate scores for quantitative traits are indicated by blue upright triangles (left axes in units of within-group standard deviations) for sites based on combined morphology (e.g., scalation, proportions, pattern) and dewlap hue characters. Principal component score of climate data (green triangles) scaled from zero (right axis, max and min values). The green arrow indicates the position of an ecotone. In transect III dewlap hue CV scores are represented by blue triangles and heteroscedastic morphological traits by black horizontal bars. (C) Genetic structure. Frequency of individuals assigned by Bayesian cluster analysis based on variation in nine hypervariable, neutral nuclear microsatellites where the number of clusters is set to two for comparative purposes (see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#pgen-1000929-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["precursor", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>522447, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Northwest_central_precursor_islands_lineages_quantitative_traits_and_genetic_structure_along_transects_/522447", "title"=>"Northwest-central precursor islands: lineages, quantitative traits, and genetic structure along transects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:40:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/852116"], "description"=>"<p>Transects (V,VI) across the secondary contact between the putative allospecies from the southwest and central precursor island. See <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#pgen-1000929-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> for control transect (IX) and legend.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["precursor", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>522576, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Southwest_central_precursor_islands_lineages_quantitative_traits_and_genetic_structure_along_transects_/522576", "title"=>"Southwest-central precursor islands: lineages, quantitative traits, and genetic structure along transects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:42:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/852274"], "description"=>"<p>AMOVA and F<sub>ST</sub>′.</p>a<p>AMOVA was used to test groups of localities along each transect divided by lineage, and where appropriate (transects III, IV) also by habitat.</p>b<p>Mean of pairwise standardized F<sub>ST</sub>′ values across the lineage contact zone (I–VIII) or ecotone (III,IV).</p>1<p>Values computed between lineages, within habitat (rainforest).</p>2<p>Values computed between habitats, within lineage (northwest lineage).</p>3<p>Values computed between each pair of localities in this control transect for comparison.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "evolutionary biology/animal genetics", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "genetics and genomics/population genetics"], "article_id"=>522734, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nuclear_genetic_structure_/522734", "title"=>"Nuclear genetic structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423658", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423669", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423677"], "description"=>"<div><p>From Darwin's study of the Galapagos and Wallace's study of Indonesia, islands have played an important role in evolutionary investigations, and radiations within archipelagos are readily interpreted as supporting the conventional view of allopatric speciation. Even during the ongoing paradigm shift towards other modes of speciation, island radiations, such as the Lesser Antillean anoles, are thought to exemplify this process. Geological and molecular phylogenetic evidence show that, in this archipelago, Martinique anoles provide several examples of secondary contact of island species. Four precursor island species, with up to 8 mybp divergence, met when their islands coalesced to form the current island of Martinique. Moreover, adjacent anole populations also show marked adaptation to distinct habitat zonation, allowing both allopatric and ecological speciation to be tested in this system. We take advantage of this opportunity of replicated island coalescence and independent ecological adaptation to carry out an extensive population genetic study of hypervariable neutral nuclear markers to show that even after these very substantial periods of spatial isolation these putative allospecies show less reproductive isolation than conspecific populations in adjacent habitats in all three cases of subsequent island coalescence. The degree of genetic interchange shows that while there is always a significant genetic signature of past allopatry, and this may be quite strong if the selection regime allows, there is no case of complete allopatric speciation, in spite of the strong <em>primae facie</em> case for it. Importantly there is greater genetic isolation across the xeric/rainforest ecotone than is associated with any secondary contact. This rejects the development of reproductive isolation in allopatric divergence, but supports the potential for ecological speciation, even though full speciation has not been achieved in this case. It also explains the paucity of anole species in the Lesser Antilles compared to the Greater Antilles.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tests", "allopatric", "speciation", "anoles", "archipelago"], "article_id"=>143639, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>35, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genetic_Tests_for_Ecological_and_Allopatric_Speciation_in_Anoles_on_an_Island_Archipelago/143639", "title"=>"Genetic Tests for Ecological and Allopatric Speciation in Anoles on an Island Archipelago", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 01:00:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/852367"], "description"=>"a<p>Goodness of fit (φ) between geological precursor island and mtDNA lineage frequency across all individuals from each site (n).</p>b<p>Correlations between site mean CV scores for QTs and lineage frequency (n = number of sites).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "evolutionary biology/animal genetics", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "genetics and genomics/population genetics"], "article_id"=>522821, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transect_attributes_geology_lineage_and_traits_/522821", "title"=>"Transect attributes: geology, lineage, and traits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:47:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/852315"], "description"=>"<p>Bayesian Assignment.</p>a<p>Recognised number of Bayesian clusters (K) in neutral hypervariable nuclear markers (microsatellites), see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929#s3\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>.</p>b<p>Goodness of fit (φ) between Bayesian assignment (K = 2, or assumed to be 2 for comparison) based on microsatellites and categories predicted by allopatric speciation across n individuals along transect.</p>c<p>Goodness of fit (φ) between Bayesian assignment (K = 2, or assumed to be 2 for comparison) based on microsatellites and categories predicted by ecological speciation across n individuals along transect.</p>1<p>See the text for a caveat to this prediction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "evolutionary biology/animal genetics", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "genetics and genomics/population genetics"], "article_id"=>522770, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Roger S. Thorpe", "Yann Surget-Groba", "Helena Johansson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000929.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nuclear_genetic_structure_/522770", "title"=>"Nuclear genetic structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-29 00:46:10"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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