Genome-Wide Association Study SNPs in the Human Genome Diversity Project Populations: Does Selection Affect Unlinked SNPs with Shared Trait Associations?
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{"title"=>"Genome-wide association study SNPS in the human genome diversity project populations: Does selection affect unlinked SNPS with shared trait associations?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Amanda M.", "last_name"=>"Casto", "scopus_author_id"=>"23666509200"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcus W.", "last_name"=>"Feldman", "scopus_author_id"=>"35429106600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79851478724", "pui"=>"361245379", "sgr"=>"79851478724", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "issn"=>"15537390", "pmid"=>"21253569", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266"}, "id"=>"66f11157-d0e5-3080-a4a4-132cb35754b5", "abstract"=>"Author Summary \\nNatural selection exerts its influence by changing allele frequencies at genomic polymorphisms. Alleles associated with harmful traits decrease in frequency while those associated with beneficial traits become more common. In a simple case, selection acts on a trait controlled by a single polymorphism; a large change in allele frequency at this polymorphism can eliminate a deleterious phenotype from a population or fix a beneficial one. However, many phenotypes, including diseases like Type 2 Diabetes, Crohn's disease, and prostate cancer, and physiological traits like height, weight, and hair color, are controlled by multiple genomic loci. Selection may act on such traits by influencing allele frequencies at a single associated polymorphism or by altering allele frequencies at many associated polymorphisms. To search for cases of the latter, we assembled groups of genomic polymorphisms sharing a common trait association and examined their allele frequencies across 53 globally distributed populations looking for commonalities in allelic behavior across geographical space. We find that variants associated with blood pressure tend to correlate with latitude, while those associated with HIV/AIDS progression correlate well with longitude. We also find evidence that selection may be acting worldwide to increase the frequencies of alleles that elevate autoimmune disease risk.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genomewide-association-study-snps-human-genome-diversity-project-populations-selection-affect-unlink", "reader_count"=>137, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>40, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>40, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>101, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>101}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>10, "Uruguay"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403201/Figure_S1.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403261/Figure_S2.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403298/Figure_S3.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403336/Figure_S4.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403378/Figure_S5.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403419/Figure_S6.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403442/Figure_S7.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403465/Figure_S8.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403490/Figure_S9.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403511/Table_S1.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403536/Text_S1.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403563/Text_S2.doc", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/403617/Text_S3.doc"], "description"=>"<div><p>Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 2,000 trait-SNP associations, and the number continues to increase. GWAS have focused on traits with potential consequences for human fitness, including many immunological, metabolic, cardiovascular, and behavioral phenotypes. Given the polygenic nature of complex traits, selection may exert its influence on them by altering allele frequencies at many associated loci, a possibility which has yet to be explored empirically. Here we use 38 different measures of allele frequency variation and 8 iHS scores to characterize over 1,300 GWAS SNPs in 53 globally distributed human populations. We apply these same techniques to evaluate SNPs grouped by trait association. We find that groups of SNPs associated with pigmentation, blood pressure, infectious disease, and autoimmune disease traits exhibit unusual allele frequency patterns and elevated iHS scores in certain geographical locations. We also find that GWAS SNPs have generally elevated scores for measures of allele frequency variation and for iHS in Eurasia and East Asia. Overall, we believe that our results provide evidence for selection on several complex traits that has caused changes in allele frequencies and/or elevated iHS scores at a number of associated loci. Since GWAS SNPs collectively exhibit elevated allele frequency measures and iHS scores, selection on complex traits may be quite widespread. Our findings are most consistent with this selection being either positive or negative, although the relative contributions of the two are difficult to discern. Our results also suggest that trait-SNP associations identified in Eurasian samples may not be present in Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, possibly due to differences in linkage disequilibrium patterns. This observation suggests that non-Eurasian and non-East Asian sample populations should be included in future GWAS.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome-wide", "snps", "genome", "unlinked"], "article_id"=>139661, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/Genome_Wide_Association_Study_SNPs_in_the_Human_Genome_Diversity_Project_Populations_Does_Selection_Affect_Unlinked_SNPs_with_Shared_Trait_Associations_/139661", "title"=>"Genome-Wide Association Study SNPs in the Human Genome Diversity Project Populations: Does Selection Affect Unlinked SNPs with Shared Trait Associations?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:41:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807577/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>A) The blue bars represent the proportion of the 640,698 autosomal SNPs in the Li et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266#pgen.1001266-Li1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a> dataset that have a European MAF in each MAF bin (see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>). The red bars represent the proportion of the 1,336 GWAS SNPs that have a European MAF in each MAF bin. B) The blue bars represent the proportion of the 640,698 autosomal SNPs that have an LD score in each LD score bin (see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>). The red bars represent the proportion of the 1,336 GWAS SNPs that have an LD score in each LD score bin. The bin referred to as “NA” contains all SNPs that are fixed in Europe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["snp", "maf", "ld"], "article_id"=>477950, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Histograms_of_SNP_MAF_and_LD_score_in_Europe_/477950", "title"=>"Histograms of SNP MAF and LD score in Europe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:12:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807642/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>A) The blue bars represent the proportion of individual GWAS SNPs in the analysis of all 1,336 GWAS SNPs that had a p-value of 0.05 or less for each iHS score. The red bars represent the proportion of study groups in the unsigned group analysis with a p-value of 0.05 or less for each iHS score. The green bars represent the proportion of study groups in the signed group analysis with a p-value of 0.05 or less for each iHS score. B) The same as in A) except that the blue, red, and green bars represent the II individual SNP, group unsigned, and group signed analyses, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["snps", "groups", "p-values", "ihs"], "article_id"=>478010, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_SNPs_and_study_groups_with_P_values_8804_0_05_for_iHS_scores_/478010", "title"=>"Proportion of SNPs and study groups with P-values ≤0.05 for iHS scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:13:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807704/Figure_3.tif"], "description"=>"<p>The figure displays p-values for specific Eurasian and East Asian delta, LLC, and iHS measures for HIV/AIDS Progression SNPs. P-values for these measures are also shown for the Fellay et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266#pgen.1001266-Fellay1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a> study group in the unsigned group analysis. The blue bars represent rs17324272 at position 131,964,822 on chromosome X. The red bars represent rs12012519 at position 87,077,005 on chromosome X. The green bars represent rs5968255 at position 83,141,348 on chromosome X. The purple bars represent the Fellay et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266#pgen.1001266-Fellay1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a> study group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ihs", "p-values", "progression", "snps", "eurasia"], "article_id"=>478077, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Delta_LLC_and_iHS_P_values_for_HIV_AIDS_progression_SNPs_in_Eurasia_and_East_Asia_/478077", "title"=>"Delta, LLC, and iHS P-values for HIV/AIDS progression SNPs in Eurasia and East Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:14:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807756/Figure_4.tif"], "description"=>"<p>iHS scores are positive when selection favors the risk allele for psoriasis. The dark blue bars represent rs2201841 at position 67,466,790 on chromosome 1. The red bars represent rs4085613 at position 150,816,642 on chromosome 1. The green bars represent rs20541 at position 132,023,863 on chromosome 5. The purple bars represent rs3213094 at position 158,683,347 on chromosome 5. The teal bars represent rs10484554 at position 31,382,534 on chromosome 6. The orange bars represent rs2395029 at position 31,539,759 on chromosome 6. The light blue bars represent rs610604 at position 138,241,110 on chromosome 6. The pink bars represent rs2066808 at position 55,024,240 on chromosome 12. It should be noted that both rs10484554 and rs2395029 are in the HLA region and are less than 1MB apart.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores", "psoriasis"], "article_id"=>478129, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_iHS_scores_for_psoriasis_SNPs_/478129", "title"=>"iHS scores for psoriasis SNPs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:15:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807805/Figure_5.tif"], "description"=>"<p>A) The proportion of autoimmune disease (AI) GWAS SNPs with iHS scores in the 95<sup>th</sup> percentile or above for each continent. The cutoff value for the 95<sup>th</sup> percentile was determined separately for each continental iHS measure. This cutoff was 2.04 for iBantu, 1.97 for iME, 2.09 for iEurope, 1.98 for iCA, 2.05 for iEA, 1.99 for iOceania, and 1.98 for iAmerica. B) The proportion of AI GWAS SNPs with iHS scores in the 95<sup>th</sup> percentile or above for each continent where the risk allele is associated with a longer haplotype than the protective allele.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores", "autoimmune"], "article_id"=>478176, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_iHS_scores_for_autoimmune_disease_8211_associated_SNPs_/478176", "title"=>"iHS scores for autoimmune disease–associated SNPs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807867/Table_2.xls"], "description"=>"<p>*The p-value cut-off was determined using the Bonferroni method to correct for the fact that we were testing multiple hypotheses (SNPs or study groups). The number of tests in each analysis is the number of SNPs or study groups included in that analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["groups", "tested"], "article_id"=>478234, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_SNPs_study_groups_tested_in_each_analysis_/478234", "title"=>"Number of SNPs/study groups tested in each analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:17:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807890/Table_3.xls"], "description"=>"<p>*First author of GWAS study identifying SNPs included in the study group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["snps", "groups", "ihs", "signed", "GWAS"], "article_id"=>478254, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_SNPs_and_study_groups_that_were_significant_for_at_least_one_Delta_F_st_LLC_or_iHS_measure_in_the_individual_SNP_group_unsigned_or_group_signed_analysis_of_all_1_336_GWAS_SNPs_/478254", "title"=>"Individual SNPs and study groups that were significant for at least one Delta, F<sub>st</sub>, LLC, or iHS measure in the individual SNP, group unsigned, or group signed analysis of all 1,336 GWAS SNPs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:17:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807936/Table_1.xls"], "description"=>"<p>*Correlation was calculated between allele frequency and the absolute value of the latitude.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["45", "ihs", "scores", "calculated", "ceph-hgdp"], "article_id"=>478305, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_all_45_Delta_F_st_LLC_and_iHS_scores_calculated_for_the_CEPH_HGDP_populations_/478305", "title"=>"List of all 45 Delta, F<sub>st</sub>, LLC, and iHS scores calculated for the CEPH-HGDP populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:18:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/807973/Table_4.xls"], "description"=>"<p>*First author of GWAS study identifying SNPs included in the study group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["snps", "groups", "ihs", "ii", "signed"], "article_id"=>478340, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_SNPs_and_study_groups_that_were_significant_for_at_least_one_Delta_F_st_LLC_or_iHS_measure_in_the_II_individual_SNP_group_unsigned_or_group_signed_analysis_/478340", "title"=>"Individual SNPs and study groups that were significant for at least one Delta, F<sub>st</sub>, LLC, or iHS measure in the II individual SNP, group unsigned, or group signed analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:19:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/808001/Table_5.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Individual SNPs that were significant for at least one delta, F<sub>st</sub>, LLC, or iHS measure in the X chromosome analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["snps", "ihs", "chromosome"], "article_id"=>478374, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Amanda M. Casto", "Marcus W. Feldman"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001266.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_SNPs_that_were_significant_for_at_least_one_delta_F_st_LLC_or_iHS_measure_in_the_X_chromosome_analysis_/478374", "title"=>"Individual SNPs that were significant for at least one delta, F<sub>st</sub>, LLC, or iHS measure in the X chromosome analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-06 02:19:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"21", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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